Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Zebrafish

  • adult zebrafish
  • developing zebrafish
  • larval zebrafish

  • Terms modified by Zebrafish

  • zebrafish brain
  • zebrafish danio rerio
  • zebrafish development
  • zebrafish embryo
  • zebrafish larva
  • zebrafish model
  • zebrafish mutant
  • zebrafish retina

  • Selected Abstracts

    Zebrafish as a model for long QT syndrome: the evidence and the means of manipulating zebrafish gene expression

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2010
    I. U. S. Leong
    Abstract Congenital long QT syndrome (LQT) is a group of cardiac disorders associated with the dysfunction of cardiac ion channels. It is characterized by prolongation of the QT-interval, episodes of syncope and even sudden death. Individuals may remain asymptomatic for most of their lives while others present with severe symptoms. This heterogeneity in phenotype makes diagnosis difficult with a greater emphasis on more targeted therapy. As a means of understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying LQT syndrome, evaluating the effect of modifier genes on disease severity as well as to test new therapies, the development of model systems remains an important research tool. Mice have predominantly been the animal model of choice for cardiac arrhythmia research, but there have been varying degrees of success in recapitulating the human symptoms; the mouse cardiac action potential (AP) and surface electrocardiograms exhibit major differences from those of the human heart. Against this background, the zebrafish is an emerging vertebrate disease modelling species that offers advantages in analysing LQT syndrome, not least because its cardiac AP much more closely resembles that of the human. This article highlights the use and potential of this species in LQT syndrome modelling, and as a platform for the in vivo assessment of putative disease-causing mutations in LQT genes, and of therapeutic interventions. [source]

    Neuron-specific expression of atp6v0c2 in zebrafish CNS

    Ah-Young Chung
    Abstract Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) is a multi-subunit enzyme that plays an important role in the acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments. ATP6V0C is subunit c of the V0 domain that forms the proteolipid pore of the enzyme. In the present study, we investigated the neuron-specific expression of atp6v0c2, a novel isoform of the V-ATPase c-subunit, during the development of the zebrafish CNS. Zebrafish atp6v0c2 was isolated from a genome-wide analysis of the zebrafish mibta52b mutant designed to identify genes differentially regulated by Notch signaling. Whole-mount in situ hybridization revealed that atp6v0c2 is expressed in a subset of CNS neurons beginning several hours after the emergence of post-mitotic neurons. The ATP6V0C2 protein is co-localized with the presynaptic vesicle marker, SV2, suggesting that it is involved in neurotransmitter storage and/or secretion in neurons. In addition, the loss-of-function experiment suggests that ATP6V0C2 is involved in the control of neuronal excitability. Developmental Dynamics 239:2501,2508, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Probing events with single molecule sensitivity in zebrafish and Drosophila embryos by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    Xianke Shi
    Abstract Zebrafish and Drosophila are animal models widely used in developmental biology. High-resolution microscopy and live imaging techniques have allowed the investigation of biological processes down to the cellular level in these models. Here, using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), we show that even processes on a molecular level can be studied in these embryos. The two animal models provide different advantages and challenges. We first characterize their autofluorescence pattern and determine usable penetration depth for FCS especially in the case of zebrafish, where tissue thickness is an issue. Next, the applicability of FCS to study molecular processes is shown by the determination of blood flow velocities with high spatial resolution and the determination of diffusion coefficients of cytosolic and membrane-bound enhanced green fluorescent protein,labeled proteins in different cell types. This work provides an approach to study molecular processes in vivo and opens up the possibility to relate these molecular processes to developmental biology questions. Developmental Dynamics 238:3156,3167, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Six cadm/synCAM genes are expressed in the nervous system of developing zebrafish

    Thomas Pietri
    Abstract The Cadm (cell adhesion molecule) family of cell adhesion molecules (also known as IGSF4, SynCAM, Necl and TSLC) has been implicated in a multitude of physiological and pathological processes, such as spermatogenesis, synapse formation and lung cancer. The precise mechanisms by which these adhesion molecules mediate these diverse functions remain unknown. To investigate mechanisms of action of these molecules during development, we have identified zebrafish orthologs of Cadm family members and have examined their expression patterns during development and in the adult. Zebrafish possess six cadm genes. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis suggest that four of the zebrafish cadm genes represent duplicates of two tetrapod Cadm genes, whereas the other two cadm genes are single orthologs of tetrapod Cadm genes. All six zebrafish cadms are expressed throughout the nervous system both during development and in the adult. The spatial and temporal patterns of expression suggest multiple roles for Cadms during nervous system development. Developmental Dynamics 237:233,246, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Specification of the enveloping layer and lack of autoneuralization in zebrafish embryonic explants

    Charles G. Sagerström
    Abstract We have analyzed the roles of cell contact during determination of the outermost enveloping layer (EVL) and deeper neurectoderm in zebrafish embryos. Outer cells, but not deeper cells, are specified to express the EVL-specific marker, cyt1 by late blastula. EVL specification requires cell contact or close cell proximity, because cyt1 is not expressed after explant dissociation. The EVL may be homologous to the Xenopus epithelial layer, including the ventral larval epidermis. While Xenopus epidermal cytokeratin gene expression is activated by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, zebrafish cyt1 is not responsive to BMPs. Zebrafish early gastrula ectodermal explants are specified to express the neural markers opl (zic1) and otx2, and this expression is prevented by BMP4. Dissociation of zebrafish explants prevents otx2 and opl expression, suggesting that neural specification in zebrafish requires cell contact or close cell proximity. This finding is in contrast to the case in Xenopus, where ectodermal dissociation leads to activation of neural gene expression, or autoneuralization. Our data suggest that distinct mechanisms direct development of homologous lineages in different vertebrates. Developmental Dynamics 232:85,97, 2005. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Zebrafish smad7 is regulated by Smad3 and BMP signals

    Hans-Martin Pogoda
    Abstract Growth factors of the TGF-, superfamily such as BMPs and Nodals are important signaling factors during all stages of animal development. Smad proteins, the cytoplasmic mediators of most TGF-, signals in vertebrates, play central roles not only for transmission but also in controlling inductive TGF-, signals by feedback regulation. Here, we describe cloning, expression pattern, transcriptional regulation, and functional properties of two novel zebrafish Smad proteins: the TGF-, agonist Smad3b, and the anti-Smad Smad7. We show that zebrafish Smad3b, in contrast to the related zebrafish Smad2, can induce mesoderm independently of TGF-, signaling. Although mammalian Smad3 was shown to inhibit expression of the organizer-specific genes goosecoid, zebrafish smad3b activates organizer genes such as goosecoid. Furthermore, we show that Smad3 and BMP signals activate smad7. Because Smad7 blocks distinct TGF-, signals in early zebrafish development, our data provide hints for new roles of smad3 genes in the regulation and modulation of TGF-, signals. In summary, our analyses point out differences of Smad3b and Smad2 functions in zebrafish and provide the first link of smad3 and smad7 function in context of vertebrate development. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A Large-scale Mutagenesis Screen to Identify Seizure-resistant Zebrafish

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 6 2007
    Scott C. Baraban
    Summary:,Methods: Seizures were induced with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Zebrafish were analyzed between 3 and 7 days postfertilization (dpf). Genome mutations were induced in founders by using N- ethyl-nitrosourea (ENU). Seizure behavior was monitored by using a high-speed camera and quantified by locomotion-tracking software. Electrographic activity was monitored by using a field-recording electrode placed in the optic tectum of agar-immobilized zebrafish. Results: Short-term PTZ exposure elicited a burst-suppression seizure pattern in 3-dpf zebrafish and more complex activity consisting of interictal- and ictal-like discharges at 7 dpf. Prolonged exposure to PTZ induced status epilepticus,like seizure activity and fatality in wild-type zebrafish larvae. With a PTZ survival assay at 6,7 dpf, we identified six zebrafish mutants in a forward-genetic screen covering nearly 2,000 F2 families. One mutant (s334) also was shown to exhibit reduced behavioral activity on short-term PTZ exposure and an inability to generate long-duration ictal-like discharge. Conclusions: Zebrafish offers a powerful tool for the identification and study of a genetic basis for seizure resistance. [source]

    Identification and characterization of the transcription factors involved in T-cell development, t-bet, stat6 and foxp3, within the zebrafish, Danio rerio

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 1 2010
    Suman Mitra
    The discovery of cytokines expressed by T-helper 1 (Th1), Th2, Th17 and T-regulatory (Treg) cells has prompted speculation that these types of responses may exist in fish, arising early in vertebrate evolution. In this investigation, we cloned three zebrafish transcription factors, T-box expressed in T cells (t-bet), signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (stat6) and fork-head box p3 (foxp3), in which two transcripts are present, that are important in the development of a number of these cell types. They were found within the zebrafish genome, using a synteny approach in the case of t-bet and foxp3. Multiple alignments of zebrafish t-bet, stat6 and foxp3 amino acids with known vertebrate homologues revealed regions of high conservation, subsequently identified to be protein domains important in the functioning of these transcription factors. The gene organizations of zebrafish t-bet and foxp3 were identical to those of the human genes, with the second foxp3 transcript lacking exons 5, 6, 7 and 8. Zebrafish stat6 (21 exons and 20 introns) was slightly different from the human gene, which contained 22 exons and 21 introns. Immunostimulation of zebrafish head kidney and spleen cells with phytohaemagglutinin, lipopolysaccharide or Poly I:C, showed a correlation between the expression of t-bet, stat6 and foxp3 with other genes involved in Th and Treg responses using quantitative PCR. These transcription factors, together with many of the cytokines that are expressed by different T-cell subtypes, will aid future investigations into the Th and Treg cell types that exist in teleosts. [source]

    The fabp4 gene of zebrafish (Danio rerio) , genomic homology with the mammalian FABP4 and divergence from the zebrafish fabp3 in developmental expression

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 6 2007
    Rong-Zong Liu
    Teleost fishes differ from mammals in their fat deposition and distribution. The gene for adipocyte-type fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP or FABP4) has not been identified thus far in fishes. We have determined the cDNA sequence and defined the structure of a fatty acid-binding protein gene (designated fabp4) from the zebrafish genome. The polypeptide sequence encoded by zebrafish fabp4 showed highest identity to the Had -FABP or H6-FABP from Antarctic fishes and the putative orthologs from other teleost fishes (83,88%). Phylogenetic analysis clustered the zebrafish FABP4 with all Antarctic fish H6-FABPs and putative FABP4s from other fishes in a single clade, and then with the mammalian FABP4s in an extended clade. Zebrafish fabp4 was assigned to linkage group 19 at a distinct locus from fabp3. A number of closely linked syntenic genes surrounding the zebrafish fabp4 locus were found to be conserved with human FABP4. The zebrafish fabp4 transcripts showed sequential distribution in the developing eye, diencephalon and brain vascular system, from the middle somitogenesis stage to 48 h postfertilization, whereas fabp3 mRNA was located widely in the embryonic and/or larval central nervous system, retina, myotomes, pancreas and liver from middle somitogenesis to 5 days postfertilization. Differentiation in developmental regulation of zebrafish fabp4 and fabp3 gene transcription suggests distinct functions for these two paralogous genes in vertebrate development. [source]

    Zebrafish sp7:EGFP: A transgenic for studying otic vesicle formation, skeletogenesis, and bone regeneration

    April DeLaurier
    Adult transgenic zebrafish expressing eGFP under the control of the zinc finger transcription factor Sp7 gene, which is expressed in osteoblasts but not chondrocytes. In this line, eGFP expression recapitulates the endogenous gene pattern of expression in the otic placode, otic vesicle and developing skeletal structures. GFP-positive cells are also observed in adult skeletal structures and in regenerating fins. This transgenic line will be a very useful tool for studying otic development and the development and regeneration of the skeleton. See the article by DeLaurier et al. in this issue. [source]

    Images from the Woods Hole Summer of 2009 Embryology Course

    Article first published online: 24 SEP 200
    Shown are images of Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly), Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog), Schmidtea mediterranea (Planaria), Hydroides (Serpulid worm), Schistocerca americana (American bird grasshopper), Euprymna scolopes (Hawaiian bobtail squid), Ciona intestinalis (Vase tunicate), Phalangium opilio (Daddy longlegs), Artemia franciscana (Brine shrimp), Mustelus canis (Dogfish), Danio rerio (Zebrafish), Gallus gallus domesticus (Chicken), Mnemiopsis leidyi (Warty comb jelly), Oscarella carmela (Desmosponge), Chaetopterus variopedatus (Parchment worm), and the Marbled crayfish that were generated and taken by members of the Woods Hole Embryology Course in the summer of 2009. Photo credits: Neel Aluru, Otger Campas, Carlos Carmona-Fontaine, Sheng-hong Chen, Katrien De Mulder, April Dinwiddie, Adele M. Doyle, Antje Fischer, Claudiu Giurumescu, Lauretta Grasso, Alysha Heimberg, Francie Hyndman, Erin Kaltenbrun, Dov Lerman-Sinkoff, Dede Lyons, Chema Martin-Durán, Lara Marxreiter, Jeremy Mosher, Malea Murphy, Lee Niswander, Vincent Pasque, Nipam H. Patel, Alberto Roselló, Prashant Sharma, Ashley Siegel, Ajay Thomas, Frank Tulenko, Alex Vasilyev, and Naveen Wijesena. For more information on the Embryology Course, please visit http://www.mblembryology.org/. [source]

    Zebrafish pdx1 morphant displays defects in pancreas development and digestive organ chirality, and potentially identifies a multipotent pancreas progenitor cell

    Nelson S. Yee
    First page of article [source]

    New school in liver development: Lessons from zebrafish,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
    Jaime Chu
    There is significant overlap in the genes and pathways that control liver development and those that regulate liver regeneration, hepatic progenitor cell expansion, response to injury, and cancer. Additionally, defects in liver development may underlie some congenital and perinatal liver diseases. Thus, studying hepatogenesis is important for understanding not only how the liver forms, but also how it functions. Elegant work in mice has uncovered a host of transcription factors and signaling molecules that govern the early steps of hepatic specification; however, the inherent difficulty of studying embryogenesis in utero has driven developmental biologists to seek new systems. The rapidly developing vertebrate zebrafish is a favorite model for embryology. The power of forward genetic screens combined with live real-time imaging of development in transparent zebrafish embryos has highlighted conserved processes essential for hepatogenesis and has uncovered some exciting new players. This review presents the advantages of zebrafish for studying liver development, underscoring how studies in zebrafish and mice complement each other. In addition to their value for studying development, zebrafish models of hepatic and biliary diseases are expanding, and using these small, inexpensive embryos for drug screening has become de rigueur. Zebrafish provide a shared platform for developmental biology and translational research, offering innovative methods for studying liver development and disease. The story of hepatogenesis has something for everyone. It involves transcriptional regulation, cell-cell interaction, signaling pathways, control of cell proliferation and apoptosis, plus morphogenic processes that sculpt vasculature, parenchymal cells, and mesenchyme to form the multifaceted liver. Decades of research on liver development in mice and other vertebrates offer valuable lessons in how the multipotent endoderm is programmed to form a functional liver. Of equal importance are insights that have illuminated the mechanisms by which hepatic progenitors are activated in a damaged liver, how the adult liver regenerates, and, possibly, the basis for engineering liver cells in vitro for cell transplantation to sustain patients with liver failure. Moreover, processes that are key to liver development are often co-opted during pathogenesis. Therefore, reviewing hepatogenesis is informative for both basic and translational researchers. In this review, we bring to light the many advantages offered by the tropical freshwater vertebrate zebrafish (Danio rerio) in studying hepatogenesis. By comparing zebrafish and mice, we highlight how work in each system complements the other and emphasize novel paradigms that have been uncovered using zebrafish. Finally, we highlight exciting efforts using zebrafish to model hepatobiliary diseases. (HEPATOLOGY 2009.) [source]

    Effects of the wood extractive betulinol and 17, -oestradiol on reproduction in zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton) , complications due to a bacterial infection

    I Christianson-Heiska
    Abstract Zebrafish were exposed to the wood extractive betulinol (5 ,g L,1) and to 17, -oestradiol (E2, 0.27 ,g L,1) for 8 weeks in an attempt to study the possible endocrine-disrupting activity of betulinol. Females exposed to betulinol showed increased spawning intensity, while males exposed to betulinol and E2 had increased incidences of structural alterations in the testes. However, histological examination of the fish revealed that they were infected by acid-fast bacteria suspected to be Mycobacterium sp. despite a careful examination of their health state prior to the onset of the experiment. Fish exposed to betulinol and E2 showed more serious consequences of the bacterial infection than control fish indicating that the test chemicals had weakened the immune defence of the fish. When the exposure was repeated with healthy fish, an increase in the proportion of spermatogonia was seen in the testes of betulinol-treated males. A similar alteration, although not statistically significant, was also seen in the first experiment. However, no increase in the incidences of structural alterations in the testes was seen in betulinol- and E2-treated fish in the second experiment. Our study indicates that betulinol might have an endocrine-disrupting effect in zebrafish, but the increase in incidences of structural alterations in the testes might have been caused by a synergistic action between the test compounds and the bacterial infection. Our study stresses the importance of carefully checking the health of experimental fish, not only prior to the onset of an experiment but also upon termination of the experiment, in order to avoid misinterpretation of the results. [source]

    Zebrafish Cx35: Cloning and characterization of a gap junction gene highly expressed in the retina

    Elizabeth McLachlan
    Abstract The vertebrate connexin gene family encodes protein subunits of gap junction channels, which provide a route for direct intercellular communication. Consequently, gap junctions play a vital role in many developmental and homeostatic processes. Aberrant functioning of gap junctions is implicated in many human diseases. Zebrafish are an ideal vertebrate model to study development of the visual system as they produce transparent embryos that develop rapidly, thereby facilitating morphological and behavioral testing. In this study, zebrafish connexin35 has been cloned from a P1 artificial chromosome (PAC) library. Sequence analysis shows a high degree of similarity to the Cx35/36 orthologous group, which are expressed primarily in nervous tissue, including the retina. The gene encodes a 304-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular weight of approximately 35 kDa. Injection of zebrafish Cx35 RNA into paired Xenopus oocytes elicited intercellular electrical coupling with weak voltage sensitivity. In development, Cx35 is first detectable by Northern analysis and RT-PCR, at 2 days post-fertilization (2 dpf), and in the adult it is expressed in the brain and retina. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the Cx35 protein is expressed in two sublaminae of the inner plexiform layer of the adult retina. A similar pattern was seen in the 4 and 5 dpf retina, but no labeling was detected in the retina of earlier embryos. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Long-Term Behavioral Changes in Response to Early Developmental Exposure to Ethanol in Zebrafish

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 4 2009
    Yohaan Fernandes
    Background:, Zebrafish is becoming an important research tool for the analysis of brain function and behavior. It has been proposed to model human alcoholism as well as fetal alcohol syndrome. Previous studies investigating the consequences of exposure to ethanol during early development of zebrafish employed robust dosing regimens (high ethanol concentration and long exposure) that may model a rare situation in the human clinic. These studies found major structural abnormalities developing in the exposed fish. Methods: Here we hope to avoid such gross changes and administer only low doses of ethanol (0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00 vol/vol %) at 24-hour postfertilization and for only a short period of time (for 2 hours). We analyze the behavior of exposed fish at adult stage using computerized stimulus presentation and automated videotracking response quantification. Results: Despite the short ethanol exposure period and the modest concentrations, significant behavioral alterations were found: fish exposed to higher doses of ethanol swam at an increased distance from a computer-animated zebrafish shoal while their activity levels did not change. Conclusions: Although the interpretation of and the mechanisms underlying this finding will require further investigation, the results suggest that zebrafish will be an appropriate model organism for the analysis of the effects of moderate to mild prenatal ethanol exposure. [source]

    Time-course Expression of DNA Repair-related Genes in Hepatocytes of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) After UV-B Exposure

    Juliana Z. Sandrini
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the time-course effects of UV-B exposure on expression of genes involved in the DNA repair system of zebrafish (Danio rerio) hepatocytes, a highly competent species in terms of damage repair induced by UV radiation. For gene expression analysis (RT-PCR), cells were exposed to 23.3 mJ cm,2 UV-B, which was the dose that affected viable cell number (reduction of 30% when compared with the control group) and produced no visual alteration on cell morphology. The early response observed (6 h) showed induction in the expression of the CDKI gene (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor) and genes related to DNA damage repair (mainly XPC and DDB2), while the late response observed (24 h) was more related to up-regulation of p53 and genes involved in cell cycle arrest (gadd45a, cyclinG1). In all times analyzed, the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 was down-regulated. Another interesting result observed was the up-regulation of the Apex- 1 gene after UV-B exposure, which could indicate the induction of oxidative lesions in the DNA molecule. In conclusion, these results demonstrate an activation of the DNA repair system in hepatocytes of zebrafish exposed to UV-B radiation, mainly involving the participation of p53. [source]

    Probing Pineal-specific Gene Expression with Transgenic Zebrafish,

    Daisuke Kojima
    The pineal gland of zebrafish (Danio rerio) contains light-sensitive photoreceptor cells and plays an important role in the neuroendocrine system. The zebrafish exorhodopsin gene encodes a pineal-specific photoreceptive protein, whose promoter region harbors a cis -acting element, pineal expression-promoting element (PIPE), directing pineal-specific gene expression. For in vivo genetic studies on PIPE-binding proteins and their regulatory mechanisms, we generated a transgenic zebrafish line, Tg(P20 -rh/P:gfp), that expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the zebrafish rhodopsin promoter fused with 20 PIPE repeats. In Tg(P20 -rh/P:gfp) fish, PIPE-dependent gene expression is visualized by GFP fluorescence in the pineal gland along with PIPE-independent GFP signals in the retinal rod photoreceptors. The transgenic fish exhibit detectable and reproducible GFP fluorescence in the larval pineal gland by 5 days postfertilization. Antisense morpholino-mediated knock-down of a pineal transcription factor gene, otx5, suppresses pineal GFP expression in the transgenic line. In a pilot screen of N -ethyl- N -nitrosourea-treated fish of the GFP transgenic line, we isolated potential dominant mutations that cause attenuation of pineal GFP fluorescence with a marginal effect on the retinal GFP signal. The results suggest that the Tg(P20 -rh/P:gfp) line will be useful for detecting deficits in PIPE-dependent gene expression in the pineal gland. [source]

    Conserved neurochemical pathways involved in hypothalamic control of energy homeostasis

    Paul M. Forlano
    Abstract The melanocortin system, which includes ,-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (,-MSH) and its endogenous antagonist, agouti-related protein (AgRP), is fundamental for the central control of energy homeostasis in mammals. Recent studies have demonstrated that many neuropeptides involved in the control of ingestive behavior and energy expenditure, including melanocortins, are also expressed and functional in teleost fishes. To test the hypothesis that the underlying neural pathways involved in energy homeostasis are conserved throughout vertebrate evolution, the neuroanatomical distribution of ,-MSH in relation to AgRP was mapped in a teleost (zebrafish, Danio rerio) by double-label immunocytochemistry. Zebrafish ,-MSH- and AgRP-immunoreactive (ir) cells are found in discrete populations in the ventral periventricular hypothalamus, the proposed arcuate homologue in teleosts. Major ascending projections are similar for both peptides, and dense ir-fibers innervate preoptic and ventral telencephalic nuclei homologous to paraventricular, lateral septal, and amygdala nuclei in mammals. Furthermore, ,-MSH and AgRP-ir somata and fibers are pronounced at 5 days post fertilization when yolk reserves are depleted and larvae begin to feed actively, which supports the functional significance of these peptides for feeding behavior. The conservation of melanocortin peptide function and projection pathways further support zebrafish as an excellent genetic model system to investigate basic mechanisms involved in the central regulation of energy homeostasis. J. Comp. Neurol. 505:235,248, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Distribution of prospective glutamatergic, glycinergic, and GABAergic neurons in embryonic and larval zebrafish

    Shin-Ichi Higashijima
    Abstract Zebrafish are an excellent model for studies of the functional organization of neuronal circuits, but little is known regarding the transmitter phenotypes of the neurons in their nervous system. We examined the distribution in spinal cord and hindbrain of neurons expressing markers of transmitter phenotype, including the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) genes for glutamatergic neurons, the neuronal glycine transporter (GLYT2) for glycinergic neurons, and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65/67) for GABAergic neurons. All three markers were expressed in a large domain in the dorsal two-thirds of spinal cord, with additional, more ventral expression domains for VGLUT2 and GAD/GABA. In the large dorsal domain, dual in situ staining showed that GLYT2 -positive cells were intermingled with VGLUT2 cells, with no dual-stained neurons. Many of the neurons in the dorsal expression domain that were positive for GABA markers at embryonic stages were also positive for GLYT2, suggesting that the cells might use both GABA and glycine, at least early in their development. The intermingling of neurons expressing inhibitory and excitatory markers in spinal cord contrasted markedly with the organization in hindbrain, where neurons expressing a particular marker were clustered together to form stripes that were visible running from rostral to caudal in horizontal sections and from dorsomedial to ventrolateral in cross sections. Dual labeling showed that the stripes of neurons labeled with one transmitter marker alternated with stripes of cells labeled for the other transmitter phenotypes. The differences in the distribution of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in spinal cord versus hindbrain may be tied to differences in their patterns of development and functional organization. J. Comp. Neurol. 480:1,18, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Cardiosulfa, a Small Molecule that Induces Abnormal Heart Development in Zebrafish, and Its Biological Implications,

    ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE, Issue 42 2009
    Sung-Kyun Ko
    Verändertes Herz: Die Titelverbindung Cardiosulfa wurde mithilfe eines chemogenetischen Phänotyp-zu-Genotyp-Ansatzes identifiziert. Zebrafisch-Embryos, die ihr ausgesetzt sind, haben ein enges, elongiertes Herz innerhalb eines vergrößerten Herzbeutels (siehe Bild; Herz markiert mit grün fluoreszierendem Protein). [source]

    On the diabetic menu: Zebrafish as a model for pancreas development and function

    BIOESSAYS, Issue 2 2009
    Mary D. Kinkel
    Abstract Development of the vertebrate pancreas is a complex stepwise process comprising regionalization, cell differentiation, and morphogenesis. Studies in zebrafish are contributing to an emerging picture of pancreas development in which extrinsic signaling molecules influence intrinsic transcriptional programs to allow ultimate differentiation of specific pancreatic cell types. Zebrafish experiments have revealed roles for several signaling molecules in aspects of this process; for example our own work has shown that retinoic acid signals specify the pre-pancreatic endoderm. Time-lapse imaging of live zebrafish embryos has started to provide detailed information about early pancreas morphogenesis. In addition to modeling embryonic development, the zebrafish has recently been used as a model for pancreas regeneration studies. Here, we review the significant progress in these areas and consider the future potential of zebrafish as a diabetes research model. [source]

    The behaviour and ecology of the zebrafish, Danio rerio

    BIOLOGICAL REVIEWS, Issue 1 2008
    Rowena Spence
    Abstract The zebrafish Danio rerio, is an important model organism in developmental genetics, neurophysiology and biomedicine, but little is known about its natural ecology and behaviour. It is a small, shoaling cyprinid, native to the flood-plains of the Indian subcontinent, where it is found in shallow, slow-flowing waters. Zebrafish are group spawners and egg scatterers, although females are choosy with respect to sites for oviposition and males defend territories around such sites. Laboratory studies of zebrafish behaviour have encompassed shoaling, foraging, reproduction, sensory perception and learning. These studies are reviewed in relation to the suitability of the zebrafish as a model for studies on cognition and learning, development, behavioural and evolutionary ecology, and behavioural genetics. [source]

    Zebrafish as a model for developmental neurotoxicity testing,,

    Christopher Ton
    Abstract BACKGROUND: To establish zebrafish as a developmental toxicity model, we used 7 well-characterized compounds to examine several parameters of neurotoxicity during development. METHODS: Embryos were exposed by semistatic immersion from 6 hrs postfertilization (hpf). Teratogenicity was assessed using a modified method previously developed by Phylonix. Dying cells in the brain were assessed by acridine orange staining (these cells are likely to be apoptotic). Motor neurons were assessed by antiacetylated tubulin staining and catecholaminergic neurons were visualized by antityrosine hydroxylase staining. RESULTS: Atrazine, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin (TCDD) were primarily teratogenic and not specifically neurotoxic. 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), dieldrin, and nonylphenol showed specific neurotoxicity; dieldrin and nonylphenol were specifically toxic to catecholaminergic neurons. Malathion, although not teratogenic, showed some nonspecific toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: Teratogenicity measured in 96-hpf zebrafish is predictive of mammalian teratogenicity and is useful in determining whether a compound causes specific neurotoxicity or general developmental toxicity. Induction of apoptosis or necrosis is an indicator of neurotoxicity. An effect on motor neurons in the caudal third of the embryo correlates with expected defects in motility. Overall, our results showed a strong correlation with mammalian data and suggest that zebrafish is a predictive animal model for neurotoxicity screening. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 76:553,567, 2006. Published 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Haemostatic screening and identification of zebrafish mutants with coagulation pathway defects: an approach to identifying novel haemostatic genes in man

    Pudur Jagadeeswaran
    Zebrafish were used as a model to study haemostasis, a vertebrate function of paramount importance. A limitation of the zebrafish model is the difficulty in assaying small amounts of blood to detect coagulation mutants. We report the use of a rapid total coagulation activity (TCA) assay to screen for coagulation defects in individual adult zebrafish. We screened the TCA in 1000 gynogenetic half-tetrad diploids derived from 86 clutches. Each clutch was from a single F1 female offspring of males mutagenized with ethylnitrosourea (ENU). We found 30,50% defective zebrafish among six clutches, consistent with a heritable defect. The assay developed here provided a rapid screen to detect overall coagulation defects. However, because of the limited amounts of plasma, we could not detect defects in specific pathways. Therefore, a novel, ultra-sensitive kinetic method was developed to identify specific pathway defects. To test whether the kinetic assay could be used as a screening tool, 1500 Florida wild-type zebrafish pairs were analysed for naturally occurring coagulation defects. We detected 30 fish with extrinsic pathway defects, but with intact common and intrinsic pathways. We conclude that it is now possible to identify specific coagulation pathway defects in zebrafish. [source]

    Zebrafish as a model for long QT syndrome: the evidence and the means of manipulating zebrafish gene expression

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2010
    I. U. S. Leong
    Abstract Congenital long QT syndrome (LQT) is a group of cardiac disorders associated with the dysfunction of cardiac ion channels. It is characterized by prolongation of the QT-interval, episodes of syncope and even sudden death. Individuals may remain asymptomatic for most of their lives while others present with severe symptoms. This heterogeneity in phenotype makes diagnosis difficult with a greater emphasis on more targeted therapy. As a means of understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying LQT syndrome, evaluating the effect of modifier genes on disease severity as well as to test new therapies, the development of model systems remains an important research tool. Mice have predominantly been the animal model of choice for cardiac arrhythmia research, but there have been varying degrees of success in recapitulating the human symptoms; the mouse cardiac action potential (AP) and surface electrocardiograms exhibit major differences from those of the human heart. Against this background, the zebrafish is an emerging vertebrate disease modelling species that offers advantages in analysing LQT syndrome, not least because its cardiac AP much more closely resembles that of the human. This article highlights the use and potential of this species in LQT syndrome modelling, and as a platform for the in vivo assessment of putative disease-causing mutations in LQT genes, and of therapeutic interventions. [source]

    Hypocretin/orexin in fish physiology with emphasis on zebrafish

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2010
    P. Panula
    Abstract One hypocretin/orexin (hcrt) gene has been identified in several fish species. The first pufferfish gene was identified in 2002 and the zebrafish gene was cloned in 2004. Its structure is very similar to that of mammals, and it encodes for two active peptides with C-termini similar to those of mammals. The gene is expressed in the brain in only one hypothalamic nucleus, which sends projections to the telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombencephalon. The terminal fibres are found in close contact with many aminergic cell groups, including those of raphe serotonergic, locus coeruleus noradrenergic, several dopaminergic cell groups and the sole histaminergic hypothalamic cluster. One receptor corresponding to mammalian hcrt 2 receptor has been identified in fish. Overexpression of hcrt in zebrafish has been reported to consolidate wakefulness and inhibit rest. On the other hand, fish lacking the hcrt receptor show short and fragmented sleep instead of sleepiness and cataplexy. Food deprivation increases hcrt mRNA expression in zebrafish brain, and intracerebroventricular hcrt peptides stimulate food consumption and feeding behaviour in goldfish. Hcrt peptides thus have important roles in fish physiology. Many genetic and functional methods available render fish, especially zebrafish, a suitable organism to study new aspects of hcrt physiology in vertebrates. [source]

    Protein kinase A modulates A-type potassium currents of larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) white muscle fibres

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 2 2009
    C. A. Coutts
    Abstract Aims:, Potassium (K+) channels are involved in regulating cell excitability and action potential shape. To our knowledge, very little is known about the modulation of A-type K+ currents in skeletal muscle fibres. Therefore, we sought to determine whether K+ currents of zebrafish white skeletal muscle were modulated by protein kinase A (PKA). Methods:, Pharmacology and whole-cell patch clamp were used to examine A-type K+ currents and action potentials associated with zebrafish white skeletal muscle fibres. Results:, Activation of PKA by a combination of forskolin + 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (Fsk + IBMX) decreased the peak current density by ,60% and altered the inactivation kinetics of A-type K+ currents. The specific PKA inhibitor H-89 partially blocked the Fsk + IBMX-induced reduction in peak current density, but had no effect on the change in decay kinetics. Fsk + IBMX treatment did not shift the activation curve, but it significantly reduced the slope factor of activation. Activation of PKA by Fsk + IBMX resulted in a negative shift in the V50 of inactivation. H-89 prevented all Fsk + IBMX-induced changes in the steady-state properties of K+ currents. Application of Fsk + IBMX increased action potential amplitude, but had no significant effect on action potential threshold, half width or recovery rate, when fibres were depolarized with single pulses, paired pulses or with high-frequency stimuli. Conclusion:, PKA modulates the A-type K+ current in zebrafish skeletal muscle and affects action potential properties. Our results provide new insights into the role of A-type K+ channels in muscle physiology. [source]

    Two different unique cardiac isoforms of protein 4.1R in zebrafish, Danio rerio, and insights into their cardiac functions as related to their unique structures

    Kenji Murata
    Protein 4.1R (4.1R) has been identified as the major component of the human erythrocyte membrane skeleton. The members of the protein 4.1 gene family are expressed in a tissue-specific alternative splicing manner that increases their functions in each tissue; however, the exact roles of cardiac 4.1R in the developing myocardium are poorly understood. In zebrafish (ZF), we identified two heart-specific 4.1R isoforms, ZF4.1RH2 and ZF4.1RH3, encoding N-terminal 30 kDa (FERM) domain and spectrin-actin binding domain (SABD) and C-terminal domain (CTD), separately. Applying immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies for 30 kDa domain and CTD separately, the gene product of ZF4.1RH2 and ZF4.1RH3 appeared only in the ventricle and in the atrium, respectively, in mature hearts. During embryogenesis, both gene expressions are expressed starting 24 h post-fertilization (hpf). Following whole-mount in situ hybridization, ZF4.1RH3 gene expression was detected in the atrium of 37 hpf embryos. These results indicate that the gene product of ZF4.1RH3 is essential for normal morphological shape of the developing heart and to support the repetitive cycles of its muscle contraction and relaxation. [source]

    Targeted gene expression by the Gal4-UAS system in zebrafish

    Kazuhide Asakawa
    Targeted gene expression by the Gal4-UAS system is a powerful methodology for analyzing function of genes and cells in vivo and has been extensively used in genetic studies in Drosophila. On the other hand, the Gal4-UAS system had not been applied effectively to vertebrate systems for a long time mainly due to the lack of an efficient transgenesis method. Recently, a highly efficient transgenesis method using the medaka fish Tol2 transposable element was developed in zebrafish. Taking advantage of the Tol2 transposon system, we and other groups developed the Gal4 gene trap and enhancer trap methods and established various transgenic fish expressing Gal4 in specific cells. By crossing such Gal4 lines with transgenic fish lines harboring various reporter genes and effector genes downstream of UAS (upstream activating sequence), specific cells can be visualized and manipulated in vivo by targeted gene expression. Thus, the Gal4 gene trap and enhancer trap approaches together with various UAS lines should be important tools for investigating roles of genes and cells in vertebrates. [source]