Young Stars (young + star)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Photometric monitoring of the young star Par 1724 in Orion,

R. Neuhäuser
Abstract We report new photometric observations of the ,200 000 year old naked weak-line run-away T Tauri star Par 1724, located north of the Trapezium cluster in Orion. We observed in the broad band filters B, V, R, and I using the 90 cm Dutch telescope on La Silla, the 80 cm Wendelstein telescope, and a 25 cm telescope of the University Observatory Jena in Großschwabhausen near Jena. The photometric data in V and R are consistent with a ,5.7 day rotation period due to spots, as observed before between 1960ies and 2000. Also, for the first time, we present evidence for a long-term 9 or 17.5 year cycle in photometric data (V band) of such a young star, a cycle similar to that to of the Sun and other active stars (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

An unbiased pilot survey for Galactic water masers

J. L. Caswell
ABSTRACT The Australia Telescope Compact Array has been used in a fast surveying mode to study the 22-GHz transition of water in two small sample regions of the southern Galactic plane. The observations allow an unbiased search for water masers, including any that may have no association with masers from other molecules (or indeed, no association with any other detectable celestial object). Positions with arcsecond accuracy were obtained from the original survey data for detected sources, and these were re-observed at an epoch more than two years later. Variability of the spectra between the epochs was considerable: our total of 32 masers comprises 24 detected at both epochs, two detected at only the first epoch and six detected at only the follow-up epoch. The success of our surveying mode shows it to be a practical strategy for the difficult task of extending unbiased water maser surveys to a large portion of the Galactic plane. Our results show quantitatively the effect of variability on the completeness of surveys conducted at a single epoch. Most of our maser detections are new discoveries. Only four had previously been detected (in searches towards interesting targets in the survey area). The high density of water masers from our unbiased survey supports earlier suggestions that they are the most populous maser species, and one of the most sensitive and reliable tracers of massive young stellar objects , newly forming massive young stars. The spectra of nine masers show high-velocity emission, and they show a striking preponderance of blueshifted high-velocity features. This is compatible with such blueshifts being a characteristic of populations dominated by masers at the earliest evolutionary stage of star formation, in some cases prior to the onset of methanol masers. Amongst the high-velocity emission sources there are two new examples where blueshifted high-velocity outflows dominate the total emission; these substantially increase the previously known meagre population of five such objects and suggest that they may be surprisingly abundant. [source]

Matching the frequency spectrum of pre-main sequence stars by means of standard and rotating models

M. Di Criscienzo
ABSTRACT We applied the aton evolutionary code to the computation of detailed grids of standard (non-rotating) and rotating pre-main sequence (PMS) models and computed their adiabatic oscillation spectra, with the aim of exploring the seismic properties of young stars. As, until now, only a few frequencies have been determined for ,40 PMS stars, the way of approaching the interpretation of the oscillations is not unique. We adopt a method similar to the matching mode method by Guenther and Brown making use, when necessary, also of our rotating evolutionary code to compute the models for PMS stars. The method is described by a preliminary application to the frequency spectrum of two PMS stars (85 and 278) in the young open cluster NGC 6530. For the Star 85, we confirm with self-consistent rotating models, previous interpretation of the data, attributing three close frequencies to the mode n= 4, l= 1 and m= 0, +1 and ,1. For the Star 278, we find a different fit for the frequencies, corresponding to a model within the original error box of the star, and dispute the possibility that this star has a Teff much cooler that the red boundary of the radial instability strip. [source]

Demographics of transition objects

Joan R. Najita
ABSTRACT The unusual properties of transition objects (young stars with an optically thin inner disc surrounded by an optically thick outer disc) suggest that significant disc evolution has occurred in these systems. We explore the nature of these systems by examining their demographics, specifically their stellar accretion rates and disc masses Mdisc compared to those of accreting T Tauri stars of comparable age. We find that the transition objects in Taurus occupy a restricted region of the versus Mdisc plane. Compared to non-transition single stars in Taurus, they have stellar accretion rates that are typically ,10 times lower at the same disc mass and median disc masses approximately four times larger. These properties are anticipated by several proposed planet formation theories and suggest that the formation of Jovian mass planets may play a significant role in explaining the origin of at least some transition objects. Considering transition objects as a distinct demographic group among accreting T Tauri stars leads to a tighter relationship between disc masses and stellar accretion rates, with a slope between the two quantities that is close to the value of unity expected in simple theories of disc accretion. [source]

The stellar content of the isolated transition dwarf galaxy DDO210,

Alan W. McConnachie
ABSTRACT We use Subaru Suprime-Cam and VLT FORS1 photometry of the dwarf galaxy DDO210 to study the global stellar content and structural properties of a transition-type galaxy (with properties intermediate between dwarf irregular and dwarf spheroidal systems). This galaxy is sufficiently isolated that tidal interactions are not likely to have affected its evolution in any way. The colour,magnitude diagrams of DDO210 show a red giant branch (RGB) population (with an RGB bump), a bright asymptotic giant branch population, a red clump, young main-sequence stars and blue-loop stars. The youngest stars formed within the last 60 Myr and have a distinct radial distribution compared to the main population. Whereas the overall stellar spatial distribution and H i spatial distribution are concentric, the young stars are offset from the centre of DDO210 and are coincident with a ,dent' in the H i distribution. The implied recent star formation rate required to form the young population is significantly higher than the derived current star formation rate, by a factor of >10. Most of the stars in DDO210 are found in a red clump, and its mean I -band magnitude suggests that the majority of stars in DDO210 have an average age of 4+2,1 Gyr. Given this age, the colour of the RGB implies a mean metallicity of [Fe/H],,1.3. By comparing the shape of the red clump with models for a variety of star formation histories, we estimate that an old (>10 Gyr) stellar population can contribute ,20,30 per cent of the stars in DDO210 at most. The unusual star formation history of DDO210, its low-mass estimate and its isolated nature, provide insight into how star formation proceeds in the lowest mass, unperturbed, dwarf galaxy haloes. [source]

The ,,M relationship in pre-main sequence stars

C. J. Clarke
ABSTRACT We examine the recent data and analysis of Natta et al. concerning the accretion rate on to young stars as a function of stellar mass, and conclude that the apparently steep dependence of accretion rate on mass is strongly driven by selection/detection thresholds. We argue that a convincing demonstration of a physical relationship between accretion and stellar mass requires further studies which, as is the case for Natta et al., include information on upper limits, and which quantify the possible incompleteness of the sample, at both low and high accretion rates. We point out that the distribution of detections in the -plane can in principle be used to test conventional accretion disc evolutionary models, and that higher sensitivity observations might be able to test the hypothesis of accelerated disc clearing at late times. [source]

Finding the most variable stars in the Orion Belt with the All Sky Automated Survey

J.A. Caballero
Abstract We look for high-amplitude variable young stars in the open clusters and associations of the Orion Belt. We use public data from the ASAS-3 Photometric V -band Catalogue of the All Sky Automated Survey, infrared photometry from the 2MASS and IRAS catalogues, proper motions, and the Aladin sky atlas to obtain a list of the most variable stars in a survey area of side 5° centred on the bright star Alnilam (, Ori) in the centre of the Orion Belt. We identify 32 highly variable stars, of which 16 had not been reported to vary before. They are mostly variable young stars and candidates (16) and background giants (8), but there are also field cataclysmic variables, contact binaries, and eclipsing binary candidates. Of the young stars, which typically are active Herbig Ae/Be and T Tauri stars with H, emission and infrared flux excess, we discover four new variables and confirm the variability status of another two. Some of them belong to the well known , Orionis cluster. Besides, six of the eight giants are new variables, and three are new periodic variables (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

FIASCO: A new spectrograph at the University Observatory Jena,

M. Mugrauer
Abstract A new spectrograph (FIASCO) is in operation at the 0.9 m telescope of the University Observatory Jena. This article describes the characterization of the instrument and reports its first astronomical observations, among those lithium (6708 Å) detection in the atmosphere of young stars, and the simultaneous photometric and spectroscopic monitoring of variable stars (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Variability of young stars: Determination of rotational periods of weak-line T Tauri stars in the Cepheus-Cassiopeia star-forming region,

A. Koeltzsch
Abstract We report on observation and determination of rotational periods of ten weak-line T Tauri stars in the Cepheus-Cassiopeia star-forming region. Observations were carried out with the Cassegrain-Teleskop-Kamera (CTK) at University Observatory Jena between 2007 June and 2008 May. The periods obtained range between 0.49 d and 5.7 d, typical for weak-line and post T Tauri stars (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

A multi-wavelength view of the archetypical CSS radio galaxy 3C303.1: Evidence for shocks and induced star formation

C.P. O'Dea
Abstract I discuss multi-wavelength data on the archetypal CSS radio galaxy 3C303.1. The radio source is sub-galactic in scale where it can directly affect the ISM of the host galaxy. The emission line kinematics and ionization diagnostics are consistent with energy input from shocks driven by the radio source. The Spitzer IRS spectrum indicates that star formation is occurring in the host galaxy. The HST/ACS/HRC UV image shows UV light which is aligned with the radio source axis. I suggest that the UV light is from young stars which have been triggered by the radio lobes. XMM observations detect the ISM of the host galaxy with a temperature of 0.8 keV plus an additional component whose properties are not well defined. I suggest the second component is a hot shocked gas (T = 45 keV) consistent with a Mach number of 13 for the expanding bow shock. Thus, the multi-wavelength data give a consistent picture in which the radio source drives shocks into the ISM which ionize dense clouds, trigger star formation, and shock heat the hot component of the ISM to very high temperature. These observations demonstrate that radio sources can provide significant feedback to their host galaxy (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

First results from SPIFFI.

I: The Galactic Center
Abstract In this and a companion paper (Eisenhauer et al. 2003b), we discuss some of the scientific results obtained during the SPIFFI guest instrument runs at the VLT in March and April 2003. This paper concentrates on results for the Galactic Center. Section 1 discusses the stellar population of the Galactic Center, in which we clearly detect, for the first time, an early, hot WN star, as well as a large number of WC stars. Analysis of the stellar population indicates that the young stars in the Galactic Center originated in a high metalicity starburst about 5 Myr ago. A surprising result is that essentially all young stars in the central 10, belong to one of two well defined, rotating stellar rings/disks. Section 2 outlines a new determination of the distance to the Galactic Center which is essentially free of systematic uncertainties in the astrophysical modelling, and gives Ro as 7.94 ± 0.42 kpc. (© 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Nearby stars of the Galactic disk and halo.


Abstract High-resolution spectroscopic observations of about 150 nearby stars or star systems are presented and discussed. The study of these and another 100 objects of the previous papers of this series implies that the Galaxy became reality 13 or 14 Gyr ago with the implementation of a massive, rotationally-supported population of thick-disk stars. The very high star formation rate in that phase gave rise to a rapid metal enrichment and an expulsion of gas in supernovae-driven Galactic winds, but was followed by a star formation gap for no less than three billion years at the Sun's galactocentric distance. In a second phase, then, the thin disk , our "familiar Milky Way" , came on stage. Nowadays it traces the bright side of the Galaxy, but it is also embedded in a huge coffin of dead thick-disk stars that account for a large amount of baryonic dark matter. As opposed to this, cold-dark-matter-dominated cosmologies that suggest a more gradual hierarchical buildup through mergers of minor structures, though popular, are a poor description for the Milky Way Galaxy , and by inference many other spirals as well , if, as the sample implies, the fossil records of its long-lived stars do not stick to this paradigm. Apart from this general picture that emerges with reference to the entire sample stars, a good deal of the present work is however also concerned with detailed discussions of many individual objects. Among the most interesting we mention the blue straggler or merger candidates HD 165401 and HD 137763/HD 137778, the likely accretion of a giant planet or brown dwarf on 59 Vir in its recent history, and HD 63433 that proves to be a young solar analog at , , 200 Myr. Likewise, the secondary to HR 4867, formerly suspected non-single from the Hipparcos astrometry, is directly detectable in the highresolution spectroscopic tracings, whereas the visual binary , Cet is instead at least triple, and presumably even quadruple. With respect to the nearby young stars a complete account of the UrsaMajor Association is presented, and we provide as well plain evidence for another, the "Hercules-Lyra Association", the likely existence of which was only realized in recent years. On account of its rotation, chemistry, and age we do confirm that the Sun is very typical among its G-type neighbors; as to its kinematics, it appears however not unlikely that the Sun's known low peculiar space velocity could indeed be the cause for the weak paleontological record of mass extinctions and major impact events on our parent planet during the most recent Galactic plane passage of the solar system. Although the significance of this correlation certainly remains a matter of debate for years to come, we point in this context to the principal importance of the thick disk for a complete census with respect to the local surface and volume densities. Other important effects that can be ascribed to this dark stellar population comprise (i) the observed plateau in the shape of the luminosity function of the local FGK stars, (ii) a small though systematic effect on the basic solar motion, (iii) a reassessment of the term "asymmetrical drift velocity" for the remainder (i.e. the thin disk) of the stellar objects, (iv) its ability to account for the bulk of the recently discovered high-velocity blue white dwarfs, (v) its major contribution to the Sun's ,220 km s,1 rotational velocity around the Galactic center, and (vi) the significant flattening that it imposes on the Milky Way's rotation curve. Finally we note a high multiplicity fraction in the small but volume-complete local sample of stars of this ancient population. This in turn is highly suggestive for a star formation scenario wherein the few existing single stellar objects might only arise from either late mergers or the dynamical ejection of former triple or higher level star systems. (© 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Flare stars in the TW Hydrae association: the HIP 57269 system,

B. König
Abstract We discuss a new member candidate of the TW Hydrae association (TWA) among the stars of the Gershberg et al. (1999) flare star catalog. TWA is one of the closest known associations of young stars at about 60 pc. Three supposedly young flare stars are located in the same region of the sky as TWA. One of them (HIP 57269) shows strong lithium absorption with spectral type K1/K2V and a high level of chromospheric and coronal activity. It is located at a distance of 48.7 ± 6.3 pc in common with the five TWA members observed with Hipparcos (46.7 to 103.9 pc). HIP 57268 A has a wide companion C which also shows lithium absorption at 6707 Å and which has common proper motion with HIP 57269, as well as a close companion resolved visually by Tycho. HIP 57269 A&C lie above the main sequence and are clearly pre-main-sequence stars. The UVW-space velocity is more consistent with the star system being a Pleiades super cluster member. The two other flare stars in the TWA sky region do not show lithium at all and are, hence, unrelated. (© 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Bright but obscured chemical powerhouses

Article first published online: 7 APR 200
Ultraluminous infrared galaxies emit immense amounts of energy thanks to their speedy transformation of interstellar gas into young stars, and to their supermassive black holes. But their dense gas and dust clouds have obscured the details , and the products , of this intense star formation, until now. [source]