Young Population (young + population)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Myocardial Perfusion Profile in a Young Population With and Without Known Coronary Artery Disease: Comparison by Gender

Nili Zafrir MD
Background More and more young people are being referred for evaluation or screening for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the value of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in this population is unclear, especially in the absence of symptoms. Methods The study sample included 1765 consecutive patients less than 51 years old who were referred to a major medical center for stress/rest MPI study. Clinical and MPI variables were compared between patients with and without known CAD, by gender. Results There were 1346 (76%) men and 419 (24%) women of mean age 44 ± 6 years; 461 (26%) had known CAD. Stress-induced ischemia was detected in 321 patients (18.2%) and significant ischemia in 131 (7.4%); there was no difference in the rate or severity of ischemia by presence of symptoms. Among those without known CAD, the rate of stress-induced ischemia by MPI was significantly lower in women than men. On logistic regression analysis, the independent predictors of ischemia in men were high cholesterol, diabetes, angina during stress testing, ST depression, and smoking (P<.0001); and in women, the independent predictors were diabetes and high cholesterol. Conclusion Known CAD and stress-induced ischemia are significantly more prevalent in young men than in young women, irrespective of risk factors. The independent predictors of ischemia differ between men and women. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Change in supporting tissue following loss of a permanent maxillary incisor in children

Helen D. Rodd
Abstract,,, Alveolar bone resorption is an inevitable consequence of tooth loss and may be detrimental to long-term dental aesthetics and function. The aim of the present study was to quantify the degree of tissue resorption following the loss of a permanent incisor in a young population. The study group comprised 11 boys and five girls who all required the extraction of a permanent maxillary central incisor due to trauma-related sequelae. Mean age at tooth loss was 10.8 years. Upper alginate impressions were taken at regular intervals following tooth loss and were cast in yellow dental stone. Study models were sectioned longitudinally through the mid-point of both the maxillary incisor socket and the contra-lateral incisor to provide a thin plaster section. Digital photographs were acquired of the edentulous (A1) and dentate (A2) surfaces of this section and image analysis software was employed to quantify the surface area of both A1 and A2. At 3 months postextraction, mean A1 was 15.7% less than mean A2. By 6 months mean A1 had further reduced and was 25.3% less than that of the corresponding dentate alveolus. However, at subsequent time intervals following tooth extraction (>6 months), tissue loss appeared to stabilise with an overall reduction in tissue area remaining at 22%. This reduction in supporting tissue area was found to be highly statistically significant (P = 0.002, anova). Furthermore, girls appeared to have an overall greater degree of tissue loss than boys (P = 0.015). Further research is indicated to explore factors influencing the degree of tissue loss following incisor extraction and the benefit of therapeutic interventions in limiting this resorption. [source]

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue in young adults: A case series

Erich M. Sturgis MD
Abstract Background. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue (SCCOT) in the young population has emerged as a growing worldwide health problem. Standard therapies, consisting primarily of surgery with possible adjuvant radiotherapy, have resulted in only modest improvements in survival in recent decades, whereas the treatments for SCCOT continue to impair oral function. With the increased use and improved functional results of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of other upper aerodigestive tract sites, we have reviewed our experience with neoadjuvant chemotherapy in young patients with SCCOT. Methods. A retrospective review was conducted of all patients younger than 45 years (N = 49) with previously untreated SCCOT evaluated at a comprehensive cancer center from July 1995 to August 2001. Charts were reviewed to obtain demographic data, comorbidities, nutritional status, tumor status, treatment and response information, and follow-up data. Results. Fifteen patients were identified who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy with taxane-based regimens before undergoing glossectomy and neck dissection. Thirteen of these patients (87%) exhibited stage III or IV disease at presentation, and all exhibited at least a partial response at the primary site. Pathologically positive nodes were identified in only six patients (40%), although 13 (87%) had clinically or radiographically suspicious nodes at presentation. Adjuvant radiation therapy was administered to seven patients (47%). With a median follow-up of 39 months, no patient has had local or regional recurrence, although three patients (20%) have had distant metastases develop; one patient with an isolated distant metastasis was successfully salvaged with radiation. By comparison during the same period, 34 young adult patients with SCCOT were treated with surgery with or without postoperative radiotherapy but without the use of chemotherapy. Although these patients had lower T classifications (18% vs 67% T3/T4; p = .0007), incidence of nodal metastases (15% vs 87% N+; p < .0001), and overall disease stage (24% vs 87% stage III/IV; p < .0001) than the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group, the overall survival (82%), disease-specific survival (88%), and recurrence-free survival (82%) of the surgery-first group was similar to that of the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group (87%, 87%, and 80%, respectively). Conclusions. This retrospective investigation demonstrates that neoadjuvant chemotherapy with taxane-based regimens may play a role in the successful treatment of SCCOT in young adult patients. Ultimately, this treatment plan may lead to improved functional outcomes in young patients with SCCOT by allowing function-sparing surgery and avoiding postoperative radiotherapy, without sacrificing disease control and survival, but a prospective trial is needed. We have initiated a prospective clinical trial to further investigate the impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients younger than 50 with SCCOT. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck27: XXX,XXX, 2005 [source]

Review article: reproduction in the patient with inflammatory bowel disease

Summary Background, Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects mainly the young population. The effect of IBD and its treatment on fertility and pregnancy is therefore an important clinical consideration. Aim, To review the best management of IBD in the reproductive and pregnant population. Methods, A MEDLINE and an EMBASE search were performed using mainly the search phrases ,pregnancy AND IBD,',sulphasalazine AND male fertility,',abdominal surgery AND female fertility,',AZA AND placenta' and ,infliximab AND pregnancy.' No language or date restrictions were placed. References of review articles were examined. Results, Overall male and female fertility are not affected by IBD. Sulphasalzine reduces male fertility. No other drugs used in IBD affect significantly fertility in humans. The risk of pregnancy-related complications and the disease behaviour during pregnancy depends mainly on disease activity at time of conception. Proactive treatment for maintenance of disease remission during gestation is recommended. Except for methotrexate, drugs used in IBD appear safe in pregnancy. Breast feeding should be encouraged. Conclusion, The management of IBD in the young and pregnant population remains controversial because the literature comes mostly from retrospective studies. Further studies particularly large prospective trials are needed to guide clinicians in decision making. [source]

An analysis of the composite stellar population in M32,

P. Coelho
ABSTRACT We obtained long-slit spectra of high signal-to-noise ratio of the galaxy M32 with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph at the Gemini-North telescope. We analysed the integrated spectra by means of full spectral fitting in order to extract the mixture of stellar populations that best represents its composite nature. Three different galactic radii were analysed, from the nuclear region out to 2 arcmin from the centre. This allows us to compare, for the first time, the results of integrated light spectroscopy with those of resolved colour,magnitude diagrams from the literature. As a main result we propose that an ancient and an intermediate-age population co-exist in M32, and that the balance between these two populations change between the nucleus and outside one effective radius (1reff) in the sense that the contribution from the intermediate population is larger at the nuclear region. We retrieve a smaller signal of a young population at all radii whose origin is unclear and may be a contamination from horizontal branch stars, such as the ones identified by Brown et al. in the nuclear region. We compare our metallicity distribution function for a region 1 to 2 arcmin from the centre to the one obtained with photometric data by Grillmair et al. Both distributions are broad, but our spectroscopically derived distribution has a significant component with [Z/Z,],,1, which is not found by Grillmair et al. [source]

The stellar content of the isolated transition dwarf galaxy DDO210,

Alan W. McConnachie
ABSTRACT We use Subaru Suprime-Cam and VLT FORS1 photometry of the dwarf galaxy DDO210 to study the global stellar content and structural properties of a transition-type galaxy (with properties intermediate between dwarf irregular and dwarf spheroidal systems). This galaxy is sufficiently isolated that tidal interactions are not likely to have affected its evolution in any way. The colour,magnitude diagrams of DDO210 show a red giant branch (RGB) population (with an RGB bump), a bright asymptotic giant branch population, a red clump, young main-sequence stars and blue-loop stars. The youngest stars formed within the last 60 Myr and have a distinct radial distribution compared to the main population. Whereas the overall stellar spatial distribution and H i spatial distribution are concentric, the young stars are offset from the centre of DDO210 and are coincident with a ,dent' in the H i distribution. The implied recent star formation rate required to form the young population is significantly higher than the derived current star formation rate, by a factor of >10. Most of the stars in DDO210 are found in a red clump, and its mean I -band magnitude suggests that the majority of stars in DDO210 have an average age of 4+2,1 Gyr. Given this age, the colour of the RGB implies a mean metallicity of [Fe/H],,1.3. By comparing the shape of the red clump with models for a variety of star formation histories, we estimate that an old (>10 Gyr) stellar population can contribute ,20,30 per cent of the stars in DDO210 at most. The unusual star formation history of DDO210, its low-mass estimate and its isolated nature, provide insight into how star formation proceeds in the lowest mass, unperturbed, dwarf galaxy haloes. [source]

Cryoablation for Atrioventricular Nodal Reentrant Tachycardia in Young Patients: Predictors of Recurrence

Background: Recurrence rates of atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia (AVNRT) after cryoablation continue to remain high despite excellent initial success rates. Our objective was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of cryoablation for AVNRT with the 4-mm and 6-mm tip cryoablation catheters in a young population and to elicit predictors of arrhythmia recurrence. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent cryoablation for AVNRT at the UCSF/Stanford Pediatric Arrhythmia Center from January 2004 to February 2007. Results: One hundred fifty-four patients (age 13.7 years (3.2,24.4)) underwent cryoablation for AVNRT of which 144 patients had inducible AVNRT (123 sustained and 21 nonsustained) and 10 had presumed AVNRT. Initial success was achieved in 95% (146/154), with no difference between the 4-mm (93%) and 6-mm (98%) cryoablation catheter tips (P = 0.15). There was no permanent atrioventricular (AV) block. Transient third-degree AV block occurred in nine patients (6%), with no difference between the 4-mm (4%) and 6-mm (9%) tip (P = 0.13). AVNRT recurrence was documented in 14% in a median time of 2.5 months (0.25,20). Recurrences were lower with the 6-mm (9%) versus the 4-mm (18%) tip, but this did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.16). With univariate analysis, a longer fluoroscopy time was the only significant factor associated with recurrence. Multivariate analysis failed to identify any significant predictor of AVNRT recurrence. Conclusion: Outcomes of cryoablation for AVNRT continue to be good without the complication of AV block. We could not identify any specific parameter associated with AVNRT recurrence. Further improvements in cryoablation technique will be necessary to reduce recurrences. [source]

Lifetime sexual dimorphism in Juniperus communis var. communis

Abstract The sexes of dioecious Juniperus communis were differentially affected over their lifetime in response to ecological and physiological stress in populations of different ages studied over 23 years in southern England. In a young population, the female survival rate was less than the male rate, with more females dying during a severe attack by rabbits and later with fungus disease in the roots. The sex ratio (female : male) in marked individuals was predicted by age, changing from 1:1.13 in 1983 to 1:1.32 in 2005. In an old senescing population, where two-thirds of the individuals died, the sex ratio varied, but overall became more male biased (1:1.51,1:2.10). Males had a greater resistance to terminal disease, and were slightly older than females at death (110 years compared to 106). Young females grew less than males, presumably because of greater trade-offs with reproductive effort: the mean annual shoot growth was 6.7 cm compared to 8.1 cm in males. By approximately 30 years of age, heights of the sexes were significantly different. The annual growth of old females (4.8 cm) was greater than that in males (4.3 cm), possibly because males survived longer in poor health. Sexual differences in height in the old population were progressively lost. Cone abundance in females was less than that in males and cone production had greater periodicity; the young population outperformed the old. There were slightly longer time lags in inverse correlations between growth and reproductive indices in females. [source]

Body Mass Index But Not Pulse Pressure Is Associated with Lesser Penile,Vaginal Intercourse Frequency in Healthy Young Men

Stuart Brody PhD
ABSTRACT Introduction., A growing literature links aspects of sexual and cardiovascular function. Recent research revealed that pulse pressure (systolic minus diastolic) was associated with poorer erectile function (and hypogonadism) in male patients with erectile dysfunction. It is unclear to what degree pulse pressure (and body mass index) would be associated with aspects of sexual function in a younger, healthy sample (controlling for possible confounders). Aims., To examine the associations of frequency of specific sexual behaviors with both resting pulse pressure and body mass index. Methods., Sixty-five healthy young men (mean age 25.2 ± 4.6 years) had their resting blood pressure, weight, and height recorded, and reported the frequency of their various sexual activities. Main Outcome Measures., Correlations of pulse pressure with different sexual behaviors (univariate and adjusted for possible confounding variables including age, mean blood pressure, body mass index, social desirability responding score, and cohabitation status). Results., For these healthy young men, on univariate and adjusted analyses, pulse pressure was not significantly associated with frequencies of penile,vaginal intercourse, other partnered sexual activity, or masturbation. In contrast, body mass index was associated with lesser frequency of penile,vaginal intercourse but not other sexual behaviors. Conclusions., The association of pulse pressure with sexual function previously observed in older men was not observed in this younger healthy sample. Other measures of arterial stiffness might be indicated in a healthy young population. Even within the normal range and adjusted for possible confounders, increasing body mass index (a rough proxy for body fat) is associated with reduced frequency of specifically penile,vaginal intercourse, which might be a result of some combination of characterological and hormonal factors. Brody S. Body mass index but not pulse pressure is associated with lesser penile,vaginal intercourse frequency in healthy young men. J Sex Med 2010;7:1853,1857. [source]

3351: Influence of atmospheric pressureand temperature changes on the intraocular pressure.

Purpose Some patients questioned us whether diving and mountaineering can have an effect on their intraocular pressure (IOP). Since the results in the literature concerning mountaineering are often contradictory and the data concerning diving are very limited; we investigated if an increase in atmospheric pressure influences the IOP in a normal population. Since we clinically experienced higher pressures in the summer, we checked the temperature influence on the IOP simultaneously. Methods Twenty-seven healthy volunteers (aged 18 to 44) were placed in a hyperbaric chamber. Their IOP was measured with a Perkins tonometer at baseline (normal atmospheric pressure of 1 Bar and 24°C), after increasing the atmospheric pressure to 2 Bar both at 14°C and 28°C, and finally at baseline again. A multivariate regression analysis was used to evaluate the results of both eyes. Results The IOP significantly decreased from 11.75mmHg to 10.50mmHg at 2 Bar. The IOP decrease remained constant during the atmospheric pressure rise (40 minutes) and was independent of the temperature change. The IOP returned back to the baseline value when exiting from the hyperbaric chamber. Conclusion A small increase of atmospheric pressure to 2 Bar (= equal effect to diving at 10m below sea level) is sufficient to lead to a significant reduction in IOP independent of temperature changes in a healthy young population. The IOP decrease sustains for the whole hyperbaric chamber period. [source]

High prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors among adolescents with intellectual disability

Eva Flygare Wallén
Abstract Adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have poor lifestyle-related health compared with the general population. Our aim was to study whether such differences are present already in adolescents. Aim: To compare the prevalence and severity of cardio-metabolic risk factors and cardio-vascular fitness in adolescents with and without IDs. Methods: Intellectual disability (ID) students (n = 66) and non-intellectual disability (non-ID) students from practical (non-ID-p) (n = 34) and theoretical (non-ID-t) (n = 56) programmes were recruited from three upper secondary schools. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, body composition, fasting-insulin, fasting-glucose, fasting-lipids and cardio-vascular fitness were measured. Results: Participants with and without ID differed significantly in the prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors with participants with ID having a higher percentage of total fat mass, wider waist circumferences (WCs), lower levels of fat-free mass (FFM), lower bone mineral density (BMD) and higher insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA) levels and poorer cardio-vascular fitness. The healthiest levels were found in the non-ID-t group compared to the group with ID and the group with non-ID-p in between. Conclusion: The prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors and poor cardio-vascular fitness was found to be high in this young population with intellectual disabilities. Measures should be taken to improve the health messages directed towards children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities. [source]

Antiphospholipid antibodies and lipoprotein(a) in obese children

Devis Pascut
Abstract Aim: Antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies, Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] and obesity are considered three independent risk factors for development of cardiovascular diseases. We investigate the presence of aPL antibodies and the Lp(a) concentration in 190 obese and 30 healthy children divided into prepubertal and pubertal, compared with healthy adults. Results: aPL antibodies were detected in 2.65% of prepubertal and in 2.59% of pubertal obese children. Considering results obtained by Lp(a) test, 4.4% of prepubertal and 5.2% of pubertal obese children and 17.5% of healthy adults were at risk for development of cardiovascular diseases. Conclusion: The presence of various prothrombotic risk factors increases the probability of developing thrombosis. Considering aPL antibodies there is no statistically significant difference among the different considered groups; therefore each category has the same risk factor. The Lp(a) distribution in adults is significantly different from the Lp(a) distribution in prepubertal (p = 0.012) and pubertal (p = 0.029) obese children. There is no significant difference among prepubertal subjects (p = 0.632) as well as pubertal subjects (p = 0.465), independently from the BMI. These results suggest the control of BMI in young population to avoid the presence of the obesity as another independent prothrombotic risk factor to be added to aPL and Lp(a) in the future adulthood. [source]

Electrocardiographic Abnormalities in Young Athletes with Mitral Valve Prolapse

oskot MD, yna Markiewicz-
Background Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is the most common primary valvular abnormality in a young population. In some individuals, MVP is silent or associated with palpitations, dizziness, chest pain, and abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) repolarization with or without ventricular arrhythmias. Hypothesis The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of the clinical and electrocardiographic abnormalities in young athletes with silent MVP. Methods A group of 10 children, who have been sport training intensively, with preparticipation silent MVP were examined for symptoms and/or ECG abnormalities. The diagnosis of MVP was made by echocardiography. Results Three athletes were asymptomatic at initial presentation. The other 7 athletes presented with symptoms. The QTc intervals > 440 msec were recorded in 2 athletes (1 with syncope). Abnormal ECG repolarization was found in 7 athletes (4 athletes were symptomatic and 3 were asymptomatic). A large variety of T-waves was registered in athletes who presented with symptoms. In asymptomatic athletes, the tall and flat T-waves were recorded. Conclusions Young athletes with MVP are often predisposed to electrocardiographic abnormalities of ventricular repolarization, which requires annual cardiologic evaluation. Copyright © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Glucocorticoid receptor gene variant is associated with increased body fatness in youngsters

Paul G. Voorhoeve
Summary Objective, Sensitivity to glucocorticoids is known to be highly variable between individuals and is partly determined by polymorphisms in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene. We investigated the relationship between four GR gene polymorphisms and body composition during puberty and at young adult age. Design, An observational study with repeated measurements. Patients, Two comparable young Dutch cohorts with a generational difference of about 20 years were investigated. The first cohort consisted of 284 subjects born between 1961 and 1965. Measurements were performed from 13 to 36 years of age. The second cohort consisted of 235 subjects born between 1981 and 1989. Measurements were performed from 8 to 14 years of age. Measurements, Associations between height, weight, BMI, fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass and four well-known functional polymorphisms were investigated. Results, In boys in the younger cohort, the G-allele of the BclI polymorphism (haplotype 2) was associated with a higher body weight, weight-SDS, BMI, BMI-SDS and FM. These associations were not observed in the older cohort. Irrespective of genotype, the younger cohort showed a significantly higher total FM, body weight and BMI compared with the older cohort. Conclusions, Because the associations between the G-allele of the BclI polymorphism in the GR gene and body FM in boys were only found in a healthy young population, but not in a comparable, generally leaner cohort from an older generation, it is suggested that carriers of this polymorphism are likely to be more vulnerable to fat accumulation in today's obesity promoting environment, than noncarriers. [source]

Parasites can cause selection against migrants following dispersal between environments

Andrew D. C. MacColl
Summary 1.,The potential for selection against migrants to promote population divergence and speciation is well established in theory, yet there has been relatively little empirical work that has explicitly considered selection against migrants as a form of reproductive barrier, and its importance in the accumulation of reproductive isolation between populations has been overlooked until recently. 2.,Parasites often differ between environments and can be an important source of selection on hosts, yet their contribution to population divergence in general, and selection against migrants in particular, is poorly understood. 3.,Selection against migrants might be reduced if organisms escape parasitism when they disperse (natural enemy release). Alternatively, parasites could increase selection against migrants if, when they disperse, organisms encounter parasites to which they are poorly adapted. 4.,Here we test experimentally the contribution that parasites could make to selection against migrants in the adaptive radiation of three-spined sticklebacks. These fish have repeatedly colonized freshwater environments from marine ones, and this has repeatedly lead to rapid speciation. 5.,We use transplant experiments of lab-raised fish to simulate dispersal, and antihelminthic treatment to show that ancestral-type marine sticklebacks contract higher burdens of novel parasites when introduced to freshwater, than in saltwater, and suffer a growth cost as a direct result. 6.,Susceptibility to parasites and their detrimental effect is less in derived, freshwater fish from evolutionarily young populations, possibly as a result of selection for resistance. 7.,Our results support a role for parasites in selection against migrants and population diversification. They do not support the hypothesis of ,natural enemy release'. [source]

Ionized gas in E/S0 galaxies with dust lanes

Ido Finkelman
ABSTRACT We report the results of multicolour observations of 30 E/S0 galaxies with dust lanes. For each galaxy we obtained broad-band images and narrow-band images using interference filters isolating the H,+[N ii] emission lines to derive the amount and morphology of dust and ionized gas. To improve the wavelength coverage we retrieved data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Two Micron All Sky Survey and combined these with our data. Ionized gas is detected in 25 galaxies and shows in most cases a smooth morphology, although knots and filamentary structure are also observed in some objects. The extended gas distribution closely follows the dust structure, with a clear correlation between the mass of both components. An extinction law by the extragalactic dust in the dark lanes is derived and is used to estimate the dust content of the galaxies. The derived extinction law is used to correct the measured colours for intrinsic dust extinction and the data are fitted with a stellar population synthesis model. We find that the H, emission and colours of most objects are consistent with the presence of an ,old' stellar population (,10 Gyr) and a small fraction of a ,young' population (, 10,100 Myr). To check this we closely examine NGC 5363, for which archival Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera and Galaxy Evolution Explorer data are available, as a representative dust-lane E/S0 galaxy of the sample. [source]