Young Pigs (young + pig)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Energy metabolism in young pigs as affected by establishment of new groups prior to transport

Energy metabolism was studied in 9-week-old-pigs as affected by mixing just before transport. In each of three trials, two groups of 20 pigs (two litters of 10) were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: control and mixing. Each group was housed in one of two climatic chambers with each subgroup in one of two pens. In each trial, the two litters within the mixing treatment were mixed, just before transport, at the start of a 2-week experimental period. In the control treatment, the social structure of both litters in each trial was not altered. In both treatments, large alterations of energy partitioning from week 1 to week 2, are probably signs of recovering from transportation and/or adaptation to new feeding and housing conditions. Mixing just before transport did not change total energy metabolism but only increased nonactivity-related heat production by 3.1% for the total experimental period. Most likely, long-term performance is also not affected negatively by mixing. Animals seem to be able to change energy expenditure on activity when more energy is required for other physiological processes. This symptom of possible reallocation of energy between different vital live processes (e.g. behavior, protein turn-over) might be one of the first indications of an impaired well-being. [source]

Effect of quinolone treatment on selection and persistence of quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli in swine faecal flora

C. Belloc
Abstract Aims:, To study the effect of oral administration of a quinolone on emergence of resistance in an indicator bacterial species from faecal flora. Methods and Results:, Quinolone resistance was studied in Escherichia coli obtained from the faecal contents of pigs housed in nine commercial farrow-to-finish herds in France after administration of flumequine to sows. The percentage of quinolone-resistant E. coli increased in the faeces of sows after administration of flumequine (mean 2178% at day 7 vs 642% before treatment for nalidixic acid) and then decreased (mean 126 and 104 at days 30 and 60, respectively for nalidixic acid), being not significantly different from initial values 1 month post-treatment. In young pigs, the proportion of resistant strains was lower and decreased over rearing period. Moreover, changes over time of both total E. coli and the proportion of resistant bacteria exhibited great inter-individual variability. Conclusions:, Restoration of susceptible faecal flora occurred within 2 months after flumequine treatment. Significance and Impact of the Study:, Effect of flumequine treatment of sows on the quinolone resistance of faecal E. coli of both sows and their progeny is noticeable but transitory. [source]

Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of imidocarb dipropionate in swine

A two-way crossover study was performed in eight healthy young pigs to determine the pharmacokinetics of imidocarb dipropionate (IMDP) following intravenous (2 mg/kg b.w.) and intramuscular (2 mg/kg b.w.) administrations. Each animal received one intravenous and one intramuscular injection with a 30-day washout period between the two-treatments. Plasma concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay with UV detector at regular intervals for up to 24 h post-injection. Intravenous plasma concentration profiles best fit a three-compartmental model yielding a mean system clearance (Cl(s)) of 558 mL/kgh and a mean half-life of 13.91 h. Mean imidocarb AUC(0,,) (,gh/mL), Vc (L/kg), Vd(area)(L/kg) and MRT(0-t) (h) values were 3.58, 0.11, 14.36 and 1.46, respectively. Compartmental modeling of imidocarb, after intramuscular administration produced best fit for two-compartmental model yielding mean K, (h,1), Cmax (,g/mL), tmax (h), and bioavailability (%) of 3.89, 2.02, 0.54, and 86.57 for the 2 mg/kg dose level. The present studies showed that IMDP was rapidly absorbed, widely distributed, and slowly eliminated. No adverse effects were observed in any of the pigs after i.v. and i.m. administrations of IMDP. The favorable PK behavior, such as the long half-life, acceptable bioavailability indicated that it is likely to be effective in pigs. [source]

New Insights into the Neuromuscular Anatomy of the Ileocecal Valve

Tamas Cserni
Abstract The neuroanatomy of the ileocecal valve (ICV) is poorly understood. A better understanding of this important functional component of the gastrointestinal tract would enable surgeons to reconstruct an effective valve following surgical resection of the ICV. ICVs were examined in young pigs (N = 5) using frontal and transverse paraffin embedded and frozen sections. Hematoxylin+Eosin (H+E) staining, acetylcholinesterase (AchE), and NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and C-kit immunohistochemistry were performed. The H+E staining revealed that the ICV consists of three muscle layers: an external circular muscle layer continuous with that of the ileal circular muscle layer, an inner circular muscle layer continuous with that of the cecal circular muscle layer, and a single longitudinal muscle layer, which appears to be secondary to a fusion of the ileal and cecal longitudinal muscle layers. The AchE, NADPH-d, and PGP 9.5 staining revealed two distinct coaxial myenteric plexuses, together with superficial and deep submucosal plexuses. The C-kit immunostaining showed a continuous myenteric ICC network within the ICV. The structure of the neuromuscular components within the ICV suggests that the valve is a result of a simple intussusception of the terminal ileum into the cecum. This knowledge may help surgeons in their future attempts at reconstructing more anatomically and functionally suitable ICVs following surgical resection of native ICVs. Anat Rec 2009. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]