Young Children Worldwide (young + child_worldwide)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Prevention of pneumococcal disease in children.

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: their use globally could have a major impact on public health
Pneumococcal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and young children worldwide. New pneumococcal conjugate vaccines include 7 to 11 serotypes, which are the most common cause of paediatric disease in most parts of the world. The efficacy of a 7-valent conjugate vaccine was 97.4% (95% CI, 82.7,99.9) against invasive pneumococcal disease, and 57% (95% CI, 44,67) against otitis media, caused by vaccine serotypes. Evidence shows that the vaccine has the potential to prevent pneumonia. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccination has also been shown to reduce nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine serotypes (particularly serotypes associated with antibiotic resistance). Thus widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine could substantially reduce the burden of invasive disease and would have the potential to control the global spread of antibiotic resistance in pneumococci. Conclusion: It is important that these highly effective vaccines should be made available to children in the developing countries. [source]

Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines

IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
Dominic F. Kelly
Summary Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is one of the leading causes of invasive bacterial infection in young children worldwide. During childhood, acquisition of antibody directed against the polysaccharide capsule of the organism, presumably as a result of asymptomatic carriage, confers protection and disease is much less common after the age of 4 years. Like other polysaccharides, the polyribosyl ribitol phosphate (PRP) of the Hib capsule is a T-independent antigen and not immunogenic when administered as a vaccine in infancy. Because the highest rates of disease occur in the first 2 years of life, efficacious Hib vaccines have been designed by covalently linking the PRP capsule to a carrier protein that recruits T-cell help for the polysaccharide immune response and induces anti-PRP antibody production even in the first 6 months of life. Introduction of Hib protein,polysaccharide conjugate vaccines into many industrialized countries over the past 15 years has resulted in the virtual elimination of invasive Hib disease. However, despite the success of the vaccine programme several factors may interfere with the effectiveness of the vaccine in the routine programme, as observed in the UK recently. Such factors may include interference with other concomitant vaccines, waning immunity in the absence of booster doses of vaccine, and reduced natural boosting as a result of decreased transmission of the organism. However, the burden of disease remains highest in resource-poor countries and urgent efforts are needed to provide the benefits of this vaccine for children living in regions where it cannot be used for economic and logistical reasons. [source]

Discovery of rotavirus: Implications for Child health

Ruth Bishop
Abstract For centuries, acute diarrhea has been a major worldwide cause of death in young children, and until 1973, no infectious agents could be identified in about 80% of patients admitted to hospital with severe dehydrating diarrhea. In 1973 Ruth Bishop, Geoffrey Davidson, Ian Holmes, and Brian Ruck identified abundant particles of a ,new' virus (rotavirus) in the cytoplasm of mature epithelial cells lining duodenal villi and in feces, from such children admitted to the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne. Rotaviruses have now been shown to cause 40,50% of severe acute diarrhea in young children worldwide in both developing and developed countries, and > 600 000 young children die annually from rotavirus disease, predominantly in South-East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Longitudinal surveillance studies following primary infection in young children have shown that rotavirus reinfections are common. However the immune response that develops after primary infection is protective against severe symptoms on reinfection. This observation became the basis for development of live oral rotavirus vaccines. Two safe and effective vaccines are now licensed in 100 countries and in use in 17 countries (including Australia). Rotarix (GSK) is a single attenuated human rotavirus, representative of the most common serotype identified worldwide (G1P[8]). RotaTeq (Merck) is a pentavalent mixture of naturally attenuated bovine/human rotavirus reassortants representing G1, G2, G3, G4, and P(8) serotypes. Preliminary surveillance of the numbers of children requiring hospitalization for severe diarrhea, in USA, Brazil, and Australia, after introduction of these vaccines, encourages the hope that rotavirus infection need no longer be a threat to young children worldwide. [source]

Rotavirus impairs the biosynthesis of brush-border-associated dipeptidyl peptidase IV in human enterocyte-like Caco-2/TC7 cells

Isabelle Beau
Summary Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe dehydrating diarrhoea in infants and young children worldwide. This virus infects mature enterocytes in the small intestine, and induces structural and functional damage. In the present study, we have identified a new mechanism by which rotavirus impairs a brush border-associated intestinal protein. We show that infection of enterocyte-like Caco-2/TC7 cells by rhesus monkey rotavirus (RRV) impairs the biosynthesis of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV), an important hydrolase in the digestion of dietary proline-rich proteins. We show that the enzyme activity of DPP IV was reduced, and that rearrangements of the protein occurred at the apical domain of the RRV-infected cells. Using pulse-chase experiments and cell surface immunoprecipitation, we have demonstrated that RRV infection did not affect the stability or apical targeting of DPP IV, but did induce a dramatic decrease in its biosynthesis. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we showed that RRV had no effect on the level of expression of DPP IV mRNA, suggesting that the observed decrease in the biosynthesis of the protein is related to an effect of the virus at the translational level. [source]