Young Boy (young + boy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Trends in disposable income among teenage boys and girls in Finland from 1977 to 2003

Tomi P. Lintonen
Abstract This article explores changes in the money Finnish young people aged 12,18 years have at their disposal, over a 26-year period 1977,2003. Previous studies suggest that the amount of money young people have is not necessarily dependent on traditional socio-economic variables, but there are no systematic studies on the development of the disposable income of the teenagers. The analyses of this study are based on a series of 14 biannual nationally representative surveys of 12-, 14-, 16- and 18-year-olds in Finland from 1977 to 2003, with a total of 84 404 respondents. Time-trends are shown and analysed by gender, family structure, place of residence and socio-economic status of family using analysis of variance and linear regression modelling. The results show that teenagers' disposable money has increased little between 1977 and 2003 in comparison with the general income development. Economic booms and depressions can be seen in rising and falling amounts of disposal money, particularly among 16- to 18-year-old respondents. There were also significant differences between the genders. Young boys clearly had more money at their disposal than young girls. Children of single parents had more money than their peers from nuclear families. Urban youth had more money than those living in the countryside and the difference increased during the period under examination. The socio-economic position of the family had little impact. [source]

Different pathophysiological mechanisms of intramitochondrial iron accumulation in acquired and congenital sideroblastic anemia caused by mitochondrial DNA deletion

Thomas Matthes
Abstract:, Sideroblastic anemias (SA) are characterized by iron accumulation in the mitochondria of erythroblasts. Although we have evidence of mitochondrial gene alterations in sporadic congenital cases, the origin of acquired forms [refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS)], is still largely unknown. Here, we report the analysis of respiratory chain function in a patient with a large mitochondrial deletion and in patients with RARS. A young boy with SA showed symptoms typical of a mitochondrial disease with metabolic acidosis, muscle weakness and cerebral involvement. His bone marrow DNA was analyzed for the presence of mitochondrial deletions. We found a new mitochondrial (mt)DNA deletion spanning 3614 bp and including all the mt genes encoding complex IV, plus ATPase 6 and 8, and several transfer (t)RNAs. All tissues analyzed (liver, skeletal muscle, brain, pancreas) showed a heteroplasmic distribution of this mutant DNA. Bone marrow homogenates were obtained from five patients with RARS and from three patients with normal bone marrow and respiratory chain function assayed by spectrophotometric analysis. Cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) activity was greatly reduced in the patient's bone marrow. In contrast, CCO activity and global respiratory chain function were conserved in patients with RARS. We conclude that deficient CCO activity secondary to mtDNA deletions is related to intramitochondrial iron accumulation, as in our patient or in those with Pearson's syndrome, whereas other mechanisms, e.g. nuclear DNA mutations, have to be proposed to be involved in the acquired forms of SA. [source]

Fatal central venous catheter-related infection in haemophilia

HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 2 2006
Summary., Central venous catheters (CVC) are frequently used in children with haemophilia to deliver factor infusions for the treatment or prophylaxis of bleeding. Complications of CVCs in patients with haemophilia include thrombosis and infection. We report a young boy with severe haemophilia A and an inhibitor who developed disseminated Staphylococcus aureus infection most likely related to a CVC. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of fatal sepsis secondary to a CVC in a patient with haemophilia. [source]

Congenital rubella pneumonitis complicated by Pneumocystis jiroveci infection with positive long term respiratory outcome: A case report and literature review

M.O. Sanchez MD
Abstract Rubella remains to be a significant illness in the developing countries because of limited access to immunizations. In congenital rubella syndrome, lung involvement becomes evident within the few months of life, as a manifestation of the "late onset rubella syndrome." The lungs and other organs become involved secondary to immunopathologic mechanisms and immunodeficiency predisposes affected patients to opportunistic pathogens. We report the clinical, respiratory and immunologic data of a young boy who developed rubella pneumonitis and concomitant infection with Pneumocystis jiroveci. Despite the complicated clinical course, the child survived. At follow-up he has a normal pulmonary examination, mild hyperinflation only on his chest radiograph, normal immunology and normal respiratory reactance and resistance. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2009; 44:1235,1239. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Incidental liver lesion in a young boy

Jennifer Shoobridge BMedSci, MB BS (Hon)
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Use of a high-probability instructional sequence to increase compliance to feeding demands in the absence of escape extinction

Meeta Patel
We evaluated the effects of a high-probability (high-p) instructional sequence on the feeding-related compliance (food acceptance) of a young boy diagnosed with a feeding disorder. The high-p sequence consisted of three presentations of an empty spoon; the low-probability (low-p) instruction was the presentation of a spoon with food. Results showed that acceptance of food increased in the presence and not the absence of the high-p sequence. Data are discussed in terms of the role of high-p instructional sequences in the treatment of feeding problems. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Decreasing self-injurious behavior associated with awakening in a child with autism and developmental delays

Iser G. DeLeon
Direct observation data revealed that self-injurious behavior (SIB) emitted by a young boy with autism occurred primarily within one hour after waking versus all other times of the day. Experimentally manipulated scheduled awakenings supported the hypothesized relation between waking and SIB. A faded-bedtime procedure was then implemented to stabilize his sleep patterns, which reduced awakenings by 81% and post-waking SIB by 82%. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Toilet training for a young boy with pervasive developmental disorder

A. Randi Post
We employed a variation of the Azrin,Foxx (1971) procedure with a 3.5-year-old boy diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disability (PDD). Unique features of our design included tailoring to the in-home environment, training without systematically increasing fluid intake, introduction under circumstances that facilitated generalization and transfer without special procedures, the elimination of some specialized equipment, and use of social and activity reinforcers. Training was successful and was reported to have generalized to the inclusive school environment. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Cefuroxime-induced pemphigus erythematosus in a young boy

A. Baroni
Summary Pemphigus erythematosus (Senear,Usher syndrome) is a variant of superficial pemphigus with features of both lupus erythematosus and pemphigus. It affects mainly middle-aged adults, and is rarely observed before the age of 20 years. The case of a 14-year-old boy who showed cutaneous lesions suggestive for pemphigus erythematosus is described. Not all laboratory and histopathological investigations confirmed the hypothesis, so a diagnosis of clinical pemphigus erythematosus was made. Systemic steroid therapy was effective in controlling the disease. This case is interesting because of the rare occurrence of pemphigus erythematosus in adolescence and the possibility of another drug being added to the list of pemphigus inducers. [source]

Disruption of Friend of GATA 2 gene (FOG-2) by a de novo t(8;10) chromosomal translocation is associated with heart defects and gonadal dysgenesis

P Finelli
FOG-2 (Friend of GATA 2) is a transcriptional cofactor able to differentially regulate the expression of GATA-target genes in different promoter contexts. Mouse models evidenced that FOG-2 plays a role in congenital heart disease and normal testis development. In human, while FOG-2 mutations have been identified in sporadic cases of tetralogy of Fallot, no mutations are described to be associated with impaired gonadal function. We here describe a young boy with a balanced t(8;10)(q23.1;q21.1) translocation who was born with congenital secundum-type atrial septal defect and gonadal dysgenesis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization mapped the chromosome 8 translocation breakpoint (bkp) to within the IVS4 of the FOG-2 gene, whereas the chromosome 10 bkp was found to lie in a desert gene region. Quantitative analysis of FOG-2 expression revealed the presence of a truncated transcript but there was no detectable change in the expression of the genes flanking the 10q bkp, thus making it possible to assign the observed clinical phenotype to altered FOG-2 expression. Genetic and clinical analyses provide insights into the signaling pathways by which FOG-2 affects not only cardiac development but also gonadal function and its preservation. [source]

Child Labour in African Artisanal Mining Communities: Experiences from Northern Ghana

Gavin Hilson
ABSTRACT The issue of child labour in the artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) economy is attracting significant attention worldwide. This article critically examines this ,problem' in the context of sub-Saharan Africa, where a lack of formal sector employment opportunities and/or the need to provide financial support to their impoverished families has led tens of thousands of children to take up work in this industry. The article begins by engaging with the main debates on child labour in an attempt to explain why young boys and girls elect to pursue arduous work in ASM camps across the region. The remainder of the article uses the Ghana experience to further articulate the challenges associated with eradicating child labour at ASM camps, drawing upon recent fieldwork undertaken in Talensi-Nabdam District, Upper East Region. Overall, the issue of child labour in African ASM communities has been diagnosed far too superficially, and until donor agencies and host governments fully come to grips with the underlying causes of the poverty responsible for its existence, it will continue to burgeon. [source]

Combined exposure to anti-androgens causes markedly increased frequencies of hypospadias in the rat

S. Christiansen
Summary The incidence of hypospadias is increasing in young boys, but it remains unclear whether human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals plays a role. Risk assessment is based on estimation of no-observed-adverse-effect levels for single compounds, although humans are exposed to combinations of several anti-androgenic chemicals. In a mixture (MIX) study with three androgen receptor antagonists, vinclozolin, flutamide and procymidone, rats were gavaged during gestation and lactation with several doses of a MIX of the three chemicals or the chemicals alone. External malformations of the male reproductive organs were assessed on PND 47 using a score from 0 to 3 (normal to marked) for hypospadias. Markedly increased frequencies were observed after exposure to a MIX of the three chemicals compared to administration of the three chemicals alone. Anogenital distance at PND 1, nipple retention at PND 13, and dysgenesis score at PND 16 were highly correlated with the occurrence of hypospadias, and MIX effects were seen at doses where each of the individual chemicals caused no observable effects. Therefore, the results indicate that doses of anti-androgens, which appear to induce no hypospadias when judged on their own, may induce a very high frequency of hypospadias when they interact in concert with other anti-androgens. [source]

Longitudinal Study of Preadolescent Sport Self-Concept and Performance: Reciprocal Effects and Causal Ordering

Herbert W. Marsh
Do preadolescent sport self-concepts influence subsequent sport performance? Longitudinal data (Grades 3, 4, and 6) for young boys and girls (N= 1,135; mean age = 9.67) were used to test reciprocal effects model (REM) predictions that sport self-concept is both a cause and a consequence of sport accomplishments. Controlling prior sport performance (performance-based measures and teacher assessments), prior sport self-concept had positive effects on subsequent sport performance in both Grade 4 and Grade 6 and for both boys and girls. Coupled with previous REM studies of adolescents in the academic domain, this first test for preadolescents in the sport domain supports the generalizability of REM predictions over gender, self-concept domain, preadolescent ages, and the transition from primary to secondary school. [source]

Effects of Poverty and Maternal Depression on Early Child Development

Stephen M. Petterson
Researchers have renewed an interest in the harmful consequences of poverty on child development. This study builds on this work by focusing on one mechanism that links material hardship to child outcomes, namely the mediating effect of maternal depression. Using data from the National Maternal and Infant Health Survey, we found that maternal depression and poverty jeopardized the development of very young boys and girls, and to a certain extent, affluence buffered the deleterious consequences of depression. Results also showed that chronic maternal depression had severe implications for both boys and girls, whereas persistent poverty had a strong effect for the development of girls. The measures of poverty and maternal depression used in this study generally had a greater impact on measures of cognitive development than motor development. [source]