Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Youth

  • african american youth
  • african-american youth
  • american youth
  • and youth
  • at-risk youth
  • black youth
  • children and youth
  • delinquent youth
  • healthy youth
  • high school youth
  • high-risk youth
  • homeless youth
  • immigrant youth
  • indigenous youth
  • latino youth
  • male youth
  • many youth
  • middle school youth
  • minority youth
  • obese youth
  • rural youth
  • school youth
  • swedish youth
  • urban youth
  • white youth

  • Terms modified by Youth

  • youth age
  • youth culture
  • youth development
  • youth development program
  • youth development study
  • youth justice
  • youth justice system
  • youth mental health
  • youth offending
  • youth participation
  • youth physical activity
  • youth population
  • youth program
  • youth report
  • youth risk behavior survey
  • youth self-report
  • youth services
  • youth suicide
  • youth survey
  • youth tobacco use
  • youth transition
  • youth version
  • youth violence
  • youth worker

  • Selected Abstracts


    First page of article [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 12 2009
    Nicolas Perrin
    Nonrecombining Y chromosomes are expected to degenerate through the progressive accumulation of deleterious mutations. In lower vertebrates, however, most species display homomorphic sex chromosomes. To address this, paradox I propose a role for sex reversal, which occasionally occurs in ectotherms due to the general dependence of physiological processes on temperature. Because sex-specific recombination patterns depend on phenotypic, rather than genotypic sex, homomorphic X and Y chromosomes are expected to recombine in sex-reversed females. These rare events should generate bursts of new Y haplotypes, which will be quickly sorted out by natural or sexual selection. By counteracting Muller's ratchet, this regular purge should prevent the evolutionary decay of Y chromosomes. I review empirical data supporting this suggestion, and propose further investigations for testing it. [source]


    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 3 2010
    Hon. Joseph V. Kay
    Editor's note on the 5th World Congress on Family Law and Children's Rights held in Halifax Nova Scotia, August 23,26, 2009 [source]


    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 3 2007
    Karen J. Mathis
    During the 2006,2007 American Bar Association (ABA) year, a special ABA Presidential Youth at Risk Initiative has addressed several important topics: addressing the needs of juvenile status offenders and their families; foster children aging out of the foster care system; increases in girls, especially girls of color, in the juvenile justice system; the need to better hear the voices of youth in court proceedings affecting them; and improving how laws can better address youth crossing over between juvenile justice and child welfare systems. Lawyers are encouraged to use their skills to improve the systems addressing at-risk youth and their families and to help facilitate coordination of youth-related community efforts. Learning how to effectively communicate with youth is an important skill attorneys must learn. Through the Youth at Risk Initiative, the ABA has held continuing legal education programs, hosted community roundtables among youth-serving stakeholders, and developed projects on: juvenile status offenders; lawyer assistance to youth transitioning from foster care; educating young girls on violence prevention, conflict resolution, and careers in law and justice; and provision of useful information to youth awaiting juvenile court hearings. New ABA policy has addressed services and programs to at-risk youth, assuring licensing, regulation, and monitoring of residential facilities serving at-risk youth, enhanced support for sexual minority foster and homeless youth, juvenile status offenders, and improving laws and policies related to youth exiting the foster care system. [source]


    Katherine V. Gough
    ABSTRACT Claims have recently been made for a ,mobilities paradigm' which is challenging the relative ,a-mobile' focus of much of the social sciences. The agenda drawn up for this mobilities paradigm is clearly based on Northern trends with little consideration of the South. African populations have always been mobile but little is known about the mobility of urban populations and in particular of the youth, who constitute a large proportion of the population. This paper explores the daily and residential mobility of young people in Lusaka building upon interviews held with low- and middle-income youth. The aim is to contribute to discussions of: how mobility varies by gender and class; the links between spatial mobility and social and economic mobility; the nature of the relationship between patterns of mobility and residential structure; and how examining mobility can illuminate many other aspects of young people's lives. Overall the picture emerging from Lusaka is rather bleak. In a context of spiralling economic decline and rising HIV/AIDS rates, the social mobility of youth is predominantly downwards which is reflected in the residential and daily mobility patterns of the young people. There is a strong link between young people's mobility and their livelihoods, an aspect of mobility that is widespread in the South but largely overlooked by the emerging mobilities paradigm. [source]


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    Why do delinquent youths complete less education than do their conventional peers? Theory and research in criminology and in the sociology of education suggest that two aspects of youths' commitment to education, their future goals and their behavioral investments in those goals, may explain the delinquency-education relationship, but only when considered jointly. Using panel data from the National Education Longitudinal Study, we find that educational expectations and school effort together explain delinquents' lower rates of college attendance and graduation, but of these two factors, effort provides the more powerful explanation. We also find that transcript grades explain more of the delinquency-education relationship than do self-reported grades, which indicates that delinquent youths may not know exactly how they are performing in school. Our findings suggest that the aspirational and behavioral components of commitment to education are only loosely coupled, and that delinquent youths may not understand how their behavior can jeopardize their goals. [source]


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2001
    Using time-series techniques with national data for 1967,98, we model the effects on changes in age-race-specific arrest rates of changes in indicators of economic deprivation. A measure of child poverty is positively related to juvenile arrest rates for both races, whereas changing unemployment (lagged) yields a surprising negative effect on youth offending. Measures of intraracial income inequality are also associated with changes in juvenile arrest rates, but the effects differ by race. Between-race inequality is unrelated to changes in arrest rates for both races. Our general conclusion is that fluctuations in juvenile homicide offending over recent decades can be understood, at least in part, with reference to the macro-economic environment confronting young people and their families. [source]

    The significance of protective factors in the assessment of risk

    Charlotte E. Rennie
    Background,Few studies have explored protective factors in the assessment of risk, despite acknowledgement that protective factors may play an important role. Aim,To examine the significance of protective factors in assessment of risk using the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY). Method,The SAVRY was completed on 135 male adolescents in custody in the UK. Data on previous offending and childhood psychopathology were collected. Participants were prospectively followed up at 12 months using data from the Home Office Police National Computer (HOPNC). Results,Participants with protective factors were older when first arrested, were less prolific offenders and had fewer psychopathological problems. The number of protective factors present was significantly higher for participants who did not re-offend during the follow-up. The total number of SAVRY protective factors significantly predicted desistance at follow-up and resilient personality traits constituted the only significant individual protective factor. Conclusions and implications,Protective factors might buffer the effects of risk factors and a resilient personality may be crucial. Recognition of protective factors should be an essential part of the risk management process and for interventions with high-risk adolescents to reduce re-offending. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
    In the last several decades, the American family has undergone considerable change, with less than half of all adolescents residing with two married biological parents. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we construct an elaborate measure of family structure and find considerable heterogeneity in the risk of antisocial and delinquent behavior among groups of youth who reside in what are traditionally dichotomized as intact and nonintact families. In particular, we find that youth in "intact" families differ in important ways depending on whether the two biological parents are married or cohabiting and on whether they have children from a previous relationship. In addition, we find that youth who reside with a single biological parent who cohabits with a nonbiological partner exhibit an unusually high rate of antisocial behavior, especially if the custodial parent is the biological father. [source]

    The impact of after-school programs on the routine activities of middle-school students: Results from a randomized, controlled trial,

    Amanda Brown Cross
    Research Summary Unsupervised after-school time for adolescents is a concern for parents and policymakers alike. Evidence linking unsupervised adolescent socializing to problem behavior outcomes heightens this concern among criminologists. Routine activities theory suggests that, when youth peer groups congregate away from adult authority, both opportunity for and motivation to engage in deviant acts increase. After-school programs are a possible solution to unsupervised teen socializing during afternoon hours and are much in demand. However, empirical research has yet to test the relationship between the availability of after-school programs and youth routine activities. This study presents evidence from a multisite, randomized, controlled trial of an after-school program for middle-school students in an urban school district. Policy Implications Youth in the treatment group engaged in less unsupervised socializing after school than youth in the control group but not as much less as would be expected if the after-school program was providing consistent supervision to youth who would otherwise be unsupervised. Additional analyses examined why the influence of the after-school program was not more pronounced. We found that, although program attendance was related to decreases in unsupervised socializing, the program did not attract many delinquency-prone youths who were unsupervised, which suggests that the students most in need of the program did not benefit. Furthermore, data obtained from a mid-year activity survey revealed that youth in the study were highly engaged in a variety of after-school activities. The addition of the after-school program into the mixture of available activities had little effect on the frequency with which students participated in organized activities after school. [source]

    Making a Difference in the Lives of Youth: Mapping Success with the "Six Cs"

    Jessica J. Luke
    Many museums offer specialized programs for young people during out-of-school time, yet the consequences of such programs are not well documented. This article explores the potential utility of borrowing a conceptual framework from the youth development literature as a tool for assessment. The authors map findings from three studies of museum youth programs onto the youth development framework as an exercise in understanding the extent to which this model may be useful in developing museum youth programs. Results from this preliminary analysis demonstrate that the framework could serve as a viable tool for program design, and could offer a clear, grounded framework with common language for articulating program impacts often known intuitively and/or anecdotally but not formalized. [source]

    Discipleship Training Of Children and Youth

    DIALOG, Issue 3 2002
    Dean M. Hunneshagen
    Today, we all face an infinite number of faith choices, especially youth. This makes confirmation ministry as discipleship training most important in our churches. This article explores the confirmation ministry of Lord of Life Lutheran Church in Depew, NY, and critically analyzes the methodology,4 turnings, 6 disciplines, and 19 assets,behind the ministry. This methodology has been developed from researchers such as Jean Piaget, James Fowler, Duffy Robins, and researchers at the Search Institute. [source]

    The added risk of opioid problem use among treatment-seeking youth with marijuana and/or alcohol problem use

    ADDICTION, Issue 4 2010
    Geetha A. Subramaniam
    Abstract Objectives To determine the added risk of opioid problem use (OPU) in youth with marijuana/alcohol problem use (MAPU). Methods A total of 475 youth (ages 14,21 years) with OPU + MAPU were compared to a weighted sample of 475 youth with MAPU only (i.e. no OPU) before and after propensity score matching on gender, age, race, level of care and weekly use of marijuana/alcohol. Youth were recruited from 88 drug treatment sites participating in eight Center for Substance Abuse Treatment-funded grants. At treatment intake, participants were administered the Global Appraisal of Individual Need to elicit information on demographic, social, substance, mental health, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), physical and legal characteristics. Odds ratios with confidence intervals were calculated. Results The added risk of OPU among MAPU youth was associated with greater comorbidity; higher rates of psychiatric symptoms and trauma/victimization; greater needle use and sex-related HIV risk behaviours; and greater physical distress. The OPU + MAPU group was less likely to be African American or other race and more likely to be aged 15,17 years, Caucasian; report weekly drug use at home and among peers; engage in illegal behaviors and be confined longer; have greater substance abuse severity and polydrug use; and use mental health and substance abuse treatment services. Conclusions These findings expand upon the existing literature and highlight the substantial incremental risk of OPU on multiple comorbid areas among treatment-seeking youth. Further evaluation is needed to assess their outcomes following standard drug treatment and to evaluate specialized interventions for this subgroup of severely impaired youth. [source]

    Progression through early drinking milestones in an adolescent treatment sample

    ADDICTION, Issue 3 2010
    Kristina M. Jackson
    ABSTRACT Aims Research using nationally representative and community samples demonstrates a robust association between early onset of drinking and increased likelihood of numerous adverse outcomes. However, little is known about the subsequent drinking that occurs early in the drinking career. The present study dissects the transition from any alcohol use to treatment entry by taking a fine-grained approach to examining the attainment and progression of drinking events in a sample of adolescents in substance use treatment. Design/Setting Data were taken from the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study for Adolescents (DATOS-A), a multi-site, community-based study of adolescents entering treatment. Participants Respondents included 3331 youth aged 12,18 years (mean = 15.75) admitted to treatment in 1993,95 (74% male, 52% white, 24% African American, 20% Hispanic). Measurements Age of attainment was obtained for five drinking-related milestones, including first drink of alcohol, first time drunk, first monthly drinking, first drank five or more drinks/day on a weekly basis and first drank five or more drinks/day on a daily basis. Findings Most milestones were attained at a very early age, and average progression through adjacent drinking events was relatively swift, Movement through early drinking milestones was accelerated in girls and white youth. Youth who reported their first drink at an early age (age 10 or younger) showed slower progression, suggesting the existence of distinct processes underlying early use and drinking transitions within an individual. Conclusions This study provides data relevant to understanding drinking progression/natural history in a large clinical sample, especially for differences by gender and ethnicity. The findings have implications for the identification of intermediate stages that might benefit from selected intervention programs. [source]


    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 3 2010
    Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we replicate previous estimates of the marital wage differential for white men, extend the analysis to African American men, then explain the within and between race differentials. We first control for formal job training, then for cognitive skills, parental background, and self-esteem with little effect. By contrast, the white differential but not the black differential disappears in fixed-effects estimation. We reconcile the cross-section/panel differentials by focusing on the distinct identification conditions employed by each technique. Men who never change marital status play a significant role in white cross-sectional estimates. (JEL J31, J12) [source]


    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 1 2007
    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth,1979 cohort (NLSY79), this paper shows the importance of postschool human capital investment in describing both gender and racial wage gaps. The empirical results suggest that male-female wage gaps, regardless of race, are mainly caused by gender differences in the human capital production process; generally, men gain more work experience and therefore have lower marginal costs of human capital production. Black-white lifetime wage differentials could partly result from higher implicit interest rates for blacks, while the deterioration of black males' relative economic status as they age can be attributed to higher depreciation rates of their human capital stock. (JEL J24, J30, C61) [source]

    Community alcohol outlet density and underage drinking

    ADDICTION, Issue 2 2010
    Meng-Jinn Chen
    ABSTRACT Aim This study examined how community alcohol outlet density may be associated with drinking among youths. Methods Longitudinal data were collected from 1091 adolescents (aged 14,16 at baseline) recruited from 50 zip codes in California with varying levels of alcohol outlet density and median household income. Hierarchical linear models were used to examine the associations between zip code alcohol outlet density and frequency rates of general alcohol use and excessive drinking, taking into account zip code median household income and individual-level variables (age, gender, race/ethnicity, personal income, mobility and perceived drinking by parents and peers). Findings When all other factors were controlled, higher initial levels of drinking and excessive drinking were observed among youths residing in zip codes with higher alcohol outlet densities. Growth in drinking and excessive drinking was, on average, more rapid in zip codes with lower alcohol outlet densities. The relation of zip code alcohol outlet density with drinking appeared to be mitigated by having friends with access to a car. Conclusion Alcohol outlet density may play a significant role in initiation of underage drinking during early teenage, especially when youths have limited mobility. Youth who reside in areas with low alcohol outlet density may overcome geographic constraints through social networks that increase their mobility and the ability to seek alcohol and drinking opportunities beyond the local community. [source]

    Adolescent inhalant use, abuse and dependence

    ADDICTION, Issue 7 2009
    Brian E. Perron
    ABSTRACT Aims To compare adolescent inhalant users without DSM-IV inhalant use disorders (IUDs) to youth with IUDs (i.e. abuse or dependence) across demographic, psychosocial and clinical measures. Design Cross-sectional survey with structured psychiatric interviews. Setting Facilities (n = 32) comprising the Missouri Division of Youth Services (MDYS) residential treatment system for juvenile offenders. Participants Current MDYS residents (n = 723); 97.7% of residents participated. Most youth were male (87%) and in mid-adolescence (mean = 15.5 years, standard deviation = 1.2, range = 11,20); more than one-third (38.6%, n = 279) reported life-time inhalant use. Measurements Antisocial behavior, temperament, trauma-exposure, suicidality, psychiatric symptoms and substance-related problems. Findings Among life-time inhalant users, 46.9% met criteria for a life-time DSM-IV IUD (inhalant abuse = 18.6%, inhalant dependence = 28.3%). Bivariate analyses showed that, in comparison to non-users, inhalant users with and without an IUD were more likely to be Caucasian, live in rural or small towns, have higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms, evidence more impulsive and fearless temperaments and report more past-year antisocial behavior and life-time suicidality, traumatic experiences and global substance use problems. A monotonic relationship between inhalant use, abuse and dependence and adverse outcomes was observed, with comparatively high rates of dysfunction observed among inhalant-dependent youth. Multivariate regression analyses showed that inhalant users with and without an IUD had greater levels of suicidal ideation and substance use problems than non-users. Conclusions Youth with IUDs have personal histories characterized by high levels of trauma, suicidality, psychiatric distress, antisocial behavior and substance-related problems. A monotonic relationship between inhalant use, abuse and dependence and serious adverse outcomes was observed. [source]

    Cannabis withdrawal predicts severity of cannabis involvement at 1-year follow-up among treated adolescents

    ADDICTION, Issue 5 2008
    Tammy Chung
    ABSTRACT Aims Controversy exists regarding the inclusion of cannabis withdrawal as an indicator of dependence in the next revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and International Classification of Diseases (ICD). This study contrasted the concurrent and predictive validity of three operational definitions of cannabis withdrawal in a sample of treated adolescents. Design Prospective study of treated adolescents with 1-year follow-up. Setting and participants Adolescents (n = 214) were recruited from intensive out-patient treatment programs for substance abuse, and followed at 1 year (92% retention). Youth who were included in the analyses reported regular cannabis use. Measurements The number of DSM-IV cannabis abuse and dependence symptoms at baseline and 1-year follow-up, past year frequency of cannabis use at baseline and follow-up, and periods of abstinence at 1-year follow-up. Cannabis withdrawal was defined based on (i) the presence of two or more cannabis withdrawal symptoms; (ii) a definition proposed by Budney and colleagues (2006) that requires four or more withdrawal symptoms (four-symptom definition); and (iii) the use of latent class analysis to identify subgroups with similar cannabis withdrawal symptom profiles. Findings and conclusions All three definitions of cannabis withdrawal demonstrated some concurrent validity. Only the four-symptom and latent class-derived definitions of withdrawal predicted severity of cannabis-related problems at 1-year follow-up. No cannabis withdrawal definition predicted frequency of use at follow-up. Further research is needed to determine the clinical utility and validity of the four-symptom definition, as well as alternative definitions of cannabis withdrawal, to inform revisions leading to DSM-V and ICD-11. [source]

    Marijuana use and depression among adults: testing for causal associations

    ADDICTION, Issue 10 2006
    Valerie S. Harder
    ABSTRACT Aim To determine whether marijuana use predicts later development of depression after accounting for differences between users and non-users of marijuana. Design An ongoing longitudinal survey of 12 686 men and women beginning in 1979. Setting The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth of 1979, a nationally representative sample from the United States. Participants A total of 8759 adults (age range 29,37 years) interviewed in 1994 had complete data on past-year marijuana use and current depression. Measurements Self-reported past-year marijuana use was tested as an independent predictor of later adult depression using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies,Depression questionnaire. Individual's propensity to use marijuana was calculated using over 50 baseline covariates. Findings Before adjusting for group differences, the odds of current depression among past-year marijuana users is 1.4 times higher (95% CI: 1.1, 1.9) than the odds of depression among the non-using comparison group. After adjustment, the odds of current depression among past-year marijuana users is only 1.1 times higher than the comparison group (95% CI: 0.8, 1.7). Similarly, adjustment eliminates significant associations between marijuana use and depression in four additional analyses: heavy marijuana use as the risk factor, stratifying by either gender or age, and using a 4-year lag-time between marijuana use and depression. Conclusions After adjusting for differences in baseline risk factors of marijuana use and depression, past-year marijuana use does not significantly predict later development of depression. These findings are discussed in terms of their relevance for understanding possible causal effects of marijuana use on depression. [source]

    Violent victimization and drug involvement among Mexican middle school students

    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2006
    Luciana Ramos-Lira
    ABSTRACT Aims To answer the following research questions: (a) is there an association between violent victimization and exposure to opportunities to use marijuana, inhalants and cocaine and (b) is there an association between violent victimization and actual drug use among youth with drug-using opportunities? Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Two middle schools located in the Historic Downtown area of Mexico City. Participants The entire body of students (n = 767; mean age 13.8 years, 52% males). Measurements Qualitative research was used to develop questions on drug exposure opportunities and violent victimization. Standardized questions on life-time alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, inhalant drugs and cocaine use were also included, as well as questions on violent victimization and other covariates. Findings One-quarter (25%) of students had an opportunity to try marijuana, inhalant drugs or cocaine; 35% who had an opportunity actually used at least one drug. In this sample, 59% had been victimized violently. Youth who had been victimized had greater odds of opportunities to use drugs compared to those who had not been victimized [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 3.8; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.4, 6.1]. Once exposure opportunity is taken into consideration, no association was evident between violent victimization and actual drug use (adjusted OR = 0.9; 95% CI, 0.4, 2.1). Conclusions It is possible to trace back the association between violent victimization and drug use to differences in exposure to opportunities. Limitations considered, this study suggests interventions to improve micro and macro contexts, such as families, schools and communities, so young people can have better places to live and develop. [source]

    Drinking patterns, drinking contexts and alcohol-related aggression among late adolescent and young adult drinkers

    ADDICTION, Issue 7 2005
    Samantha Wells
    ABSTRACT Aims The main objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the relative roles of heavy episodic drinking (HED), drinking frequency and drinking volume in explaining alcohol-related aggression and (2) whether drinking context variables (i.e. usual drinking locations, typical drinking companions and extent of peer drinking) confound or modify the relationship between HED and alcohol-related aggression or whether they predict alcohol-related aggression independently. Design A secondary analysis of the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth was conducted. Alcohol-related aggression (denoted fights after drinking) was measured based on self-reports of arguments or fights that occurred during or after drinking in the previous 12 months. Participants A composite sample of drinkers, ages 17,21, from the 1994, 1996 and 1998 Young Adult surveys (n = 738) was used. Findings Frequency of drinking and drinking volume largely confounded the association between HED and fights after drinking. Usually drinking in public locations away from home versus private locations was found to be significantly associated with a greater likelihood of fights after drinking among females. Among males, usual drinking location modified the relationship between drinking frequency and alcohol-related aggression, with the greatest risk of aggression for males who drank frequently and usually drank in public locations away from home. Conclusions Programs designed to reduce drinking frequency in this population and to increase the safety of drinking locations in public places away from home may prove to be beneficial in reducing alcohol-related aggression. [source]


    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 4 2007
    Miriam Aroni Krinsky
    There are more than half a million children in our nation's foster care system. While foster care is intended to provide a temporary safe harbor for abused and neglected children, too many of these youth spend years in foster care limbo,experiencing a turbulent life in motion as they move from placement to placement, community to community, and school to school. Youth in foster care commonly fail to receive basic health and psychological care, and nearly 20,000 youth age out of foster care every year to an adult path of homelessness, unemployment, and despair. Our entire community must work together to more responsibly parent these youth. This article will address how lawyers and child advocates can advocate for new approaches and enhanced support on behalf of the voiceless and most vulnerable members of our community. It will address existing hurdles and systemic challenges that have helped to create the current disheartening status quo. The article will then discuss strategies that advocates can employ to turn the corner on behalf of these youth at risk. [source]


    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 3 2007
    Karen J. Mathis
    During the 2006,2007 American Bar Association (ABA) year, a special ABA Presidential Youth at Risk Initiative has addressed several important topics: addressing the needs of juvenile status offenders and their families; foster children aging out of the foster care system; increases in girls, especially girls of color, in the juvenile justice system; the need to better hear the voices of youth in court proceedings affecting them; and improving how laws can better address youth crossing over between juvenile justice and child welfare systems. Lawyers are encouraged to use their skills to improve the systems addressing at-risk youth and their families and to help facilitate coordination of youth-related community efforts. Learning how to effectively communicate with youth is an important skill attorneys must learn. Through the Youth at Risk Initiative, the ABA has held continuing legal education programs, hosted community roundtables among youth-serving stakeholders, and developed projects on: juvenile status offenders; lawyer assistance to youth transitioning from foster care; educating young girls on violence prevention, conflict resolution, and careers in law and justice; and provision of useful information to youth awaiting juvenile court hearings. New ABA policy has addressed services and programs to at-risk youth, assuring licensing, regulation, and monitoring of residential facilities serving at-risk youth, enhanced support for sexual minority foster and homeless youth, juvenile status offenders, and improving laws and policies related to youth exiting the foster care system. [source]

    Does Change in Young Men's Employment Influence Fathering?

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 4 2010
    Sandra L. Hofferth
    This study examined the association between paternal and maternal employment changes and changes in the frequency of fathers praising, showing affection, disciplining, and reading to children. Data were drawn from the Young Adult supplement to the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979). Supporting economic theory, fathers were more involved when they and their partner were employed full time and were less involved when their employment exceeded that of their partner. Although fathers tended to be less involved when they worked less, fathers who held traditional gender role attitudes were more involved than those who held nontraditional gender role attitudes. The results suggest the important part fathers' attitudes and values have in influencing their involvement with children under differing employment conditions. [source]

    Parental Deployment and Youth in Military Families: Exploring Uncertainty and Ambiguous Loss,

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 2 2007
    Angela J. Huebner
    Abstract: Parental deployment has substantial effects on the family system, among them ambiguity and uncertainty. Youth in military families are especially affected by parental deployment because their coping repertoire is only just developing; the requirements of deployment become additive to normal adolescent developmental demands. Focus groups were used to inquire about uncertainty, loss, resilience, and adjustment among youth aged 12,18 that had a parent deployed, most often to a war zone. The nature of uncertainty and ambiguous loss was explored. Response themes included overall perceptions of uncertainty and loss, boundary ambiguity, changes in mental health, and relationship conflict. These accounts suggest that ambiguous loss is a useful concept for understanding the experiences of these youth and for structuring prevention and intervention efforts. [source]

    A Culturally Informed Model of Academic Well-Being for Latino Youth: The Importance of Discriminatory Experiences and Social Support,

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 3 2006
    David S. DeGarmo
    Abstract: This study tested a culturally informed model of academic well-being for 278 Latino youth. We examined detrimental effects of discriminatory experiences and protective effects of social support on self-reported academic outcomes. Models specified main and buffering effects of social support and compared contributions of support provided by parents, school, and peers. Data indicated that discrimination was associated with lower academic well-being, social support buffered effects of discrimination on academic well-being, and parental support was most predictive of greater academic well-being. Combined sources of social support were more important than any one source alone. Implications for culturally specified research, preventive interventions, and practitioners are discussed. [source]

    Pain, Normality, and the Struggle for Congruence: Reinterpreting Residential Care for Children and Youth

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 4 2004
    Anne M. Prouty Lyness
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Examining Risk Factors Associated With Family Reunification for Runaway Youth: Does Ethnicity Matter?

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 3 2003
    Sanna J. Thompson
    This study investigated the likelihood of family reunification across ethnic groups of 14,419 youth using runaway shelter services nationwide. Among White, African American, Hispanic, Native American, and Asian ethnic groups, youths who reported abuse or neglect by their parental figures or had parent(s) who were unemployed were less likely to reunify following a runaway episode. However, completing youth shelter services markedly increased the likelihood of reunification. Implications for cultural sensitivity in service delivery, particularly regarding family issues, are discussed. [source]

    Youth, AIDS and Rural Livelihoods in Southern Africa

    Lorraine Van Blerk
    AIDS, in interaction with other factors, is impacting on the livelihood activities, opportunities and choices of young people in southern Africa. This article explores these linkages firstly by reviewing what is known about the impacts of AIDS on young people, before looking more specifically at how this impinges on their future ability to secure livelihoods. Within the home and family, AIDS often results in youth taking on a heavy burden of responsibilities. This can include caring for sick relatives, helping with chores and taking on paid employment. This burden of care and work can have further impacts on young people's future livelihoods as they find they have reduced access to schooling, potential loss of inheritance and a breakdown in the intergenerational transfer of knowledge, which is especially important for sustained agricultural production. The article ends by suggesting that the sustainable livelihoods approach can be useful for understanding the complexity of the issues surrounding the impacts of AIDS on young people's livelihoods and calls for further research to explore how their access to future sustainable livelihoods in rural southern Africa might be supported. [source]