York City (york + city)

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    ABSTRACT. New York City community gardens have been the subject of political contestation over the course of their thirty-year existence. In 1999, 114 gardens were slated for public auction and redevelopment. This article examines the controversy over the garden auction as a politics of scale in which garden advocates successively raised the scope of the controversy beyond the scale of individual gardens, and ultimately beyond that of the city. Analysis of this land-use conflict highlights the significance of politics of scale for grassroots organizations within a market-centric, neoliberal economic framework. [source]


    First page of article [source]


    Pauline Boss
    A team of therapists from Minnesota and New York workied with labor union families of workers gone missing on September 11, 2001, after the attack on the World Trade Center, where they were employed. The clinical team shares what they did, what was learned, the questions raised, and preliminary evaulations about the multiple family meeting that were the major intervention. Because of the vast diversity, training of therapists and interventions for families aimed for cultural competence. The community-based approach, preferred by union families, plus family therapy using the lens of ambiguous loss are proposed as necessary additions to disaster work. [source]


    Research Summary: This paper examines the incidence of and interrelationships between shelter use and reincarceration among a cohort of 48,424 persons who were released from New York State prisons to New York City in 1995,1998. Results show that, within two years of release, 11.4% of the study group entered a New York City homeless shelter and 32.8% of this group was again imprisoned. Using survival analysis methods, time since prison release and history of residential instability were the most salient risk factors related to shelter use, and shelter use increased the risk of subsequent reincarceration. Policy Implications: These findings show both homelessness and reincarceration to be substantial problems among a population of released prisoners, problems that fall into the more general framework of community reintegration. They also suggest that enhanced housing and related services, when targeted to a relatively small at-risk group among this population, have the potential to substantially reduce the overall risk for homelessness in the group. [source]

    "Visible Signs of a City Out of Control": Community Policing in New York City

    Benjamin Chesluk
    ABSTRACT Institutions of police,community dialogue in New York City assume that communities possess an intuitive and legally sound sense of order and disorder, on which the police can rely for information and support. However, staged dialogues between police and community groups can produce complicated situations of conflict and tension. While the police work to interpellate a friendly, coherent, and controlled community subject, city residents use the police's ideological language of order to offer a critique of the police themselves and of the sweeping neoliberal economic restructuring of the city around them. [source]

    Disaster mental health training programmes in New York City following September 11, 2001

    DISASTERS, Issue 3 2010
    Kimberly B. Gill
    The need for mental health resources to provide care to the community following large-scale disasters is well documented. In the aftermath of the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster on September 11, 2001, many local agencies and organizations responded by providing informal mental health services, including disaster mental health training for practitioners. The quality of these programmes has not been assessed, however. The National Center for Disaster Preparedness at Columbia University's School of Public Health reviewed disaster mental health training programmes administered by community-based organizations, professional associations, hospitals, and government agencies after September 11. Results indicate that the quality and the effectiveness of programmes are difficult to assess. A wide range of curricula and a widespread lack of recordkeeping and credentialing of trainers were noted. Most of the training programmes provided are no longer available. Recommendations for improving the quality of disaster mental health training programmes are provided. [source]

    Elements of Resilience After the World Trade Center Disaster: Reconstituting New York City's Emergency Operations Centre

    DISASTERS, Issue 1 2003
    James M. Kendra
    In this paper we examine the reconstitution of the Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) after its destruction in the World Trade Center attack, using that event to highlight several features of resilience. The paper summarises basic EOC functions, and then presents conceptions of resilience as understood from several disciplinary perspectives, noting that work in these fields has sought to understand how a natural or social system that experiences disturbance sustains its functional processes. We observe that, although the physical EOC facility was destroyed, the organisation that had been established to manage crises in New York City continued, enabling a response that drew on the resources of New York City and neighbouring communities, states and the federal government. Availability of resources , which substituted for redundancy of personnel, equipment and space , pre-existing relationships that eased communication challenges as the emergency developed and the continuation of organisational patterns of response integration and role assignments were among the factors that contributed to resilience following the attack. [source]

    New York's nature: a review of the status and trends in species richness across the metropolitan region

    Linda M. Puth
    ABSTRACT Aim, The world's population is urbanizing, yet relatively little is known about the ecology of urban areas. As the largest metropolitan area in the USA, New York City is an ideal location to study the effects of urbanization. Here, we aim to produce a better understanding of the state of the research for species richness of flora and fauna across the New York metropolitan region. Location, New York metropolitan region, USA. Methods, We conducted a review of the published and grey literature, in which we targeted studies of species richness, and categorized each study by habitat, location and taxonomic group. Results, We found 79 studies reporting location-specific species richness data, resulting in 261 location-taxonomic group records. Of these, 26 records had data from multiple time periods; 17 showed decreases in species richness, six reported increases and three showed stable species richness. Of these 26 records, most declines were attributed to anthropogenic causes, such as habitat loss/degradation and invasive species, while most increases reflected recovery from major habitat loss or increases in exotic species. Overall, most records (84) were terrestrial, followed by those in freshwater (72) and mixed habitats (61). When parsed by taxonomic group, the most commonly studied groups were plants (76) and mammals (48). Main conclusions, In general, we discovered fewer studies than expected reporting species richness, especially studies reporting species richness for more than one point in time. Most studies that did contain data over time reported declines in species richness, while several studies reporting increasing or stable species richness reflected increases in exotic species. This survey provides a crucial first step in establishing baseline ecological knowledge for the New York metropolitan region that should help prioritize areas for protection, research and development. Furthermore, this research provides insights into the impacts of urbanization across the USA and beyond and should help establish similar frameworks for ecological understanding for other metropolitan regions throughout the world. [source]

    Communicating with Subjects: Special Challenges for Resuscitation Research

    Ilene Wilets PhD
    Abstract In May 2005, Academic Emergency Medicine sponsored a one-day consensus conference held in association with the 2005 Society for Academic Emergency Medicine meeting in New York City. The conference, entitled "Ethical Conduct of Resuscitation Research," addressed a variety of issues regarding the successful conduct of research in acute care settings. A number of important breakout sessions were convened based on challenges specific to resuscitation research. "Communicating with Subjects" was one such session, dedicated toward perfecting the conduct of informed consent for research. The breakout session was attended by 15 insightful emergency medicine investigators, administrators, and ethicists. Issues of research information disclosure, subject comprehension, and the voluntariness of research participation were addressed. Consensus statements were developed and are discussed within this report. [source]

    Health Status among Emergency Department Patients Approximately One Year after Consecutive Disasters in New York City

    William George Fernandez MD
    Abstract Objectives: Emergency department (ED) patients with disaster-related experiences may present with vague symptoms not clearly linked to the event. In 2001, two disasters in New York City, the World Trade Center disaster (WTCD) and the subsequent American Airlines Flight 587 crash, presented an opportunity to study long-term consequences of cumulative disaster exposure (CDE) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among ED patients. Methods: From July 15 to October 30, 2002, a systematic sample of stable, adult patients from two EDs in New York City were enrolled. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. The Short Form 36 (SF-36) was used to assess overall health status. Bivariate analyses were conducted to identify individual correlates of worsening health status. Multivariate regression was performed to identify the association between various factors and overall health status, while controlling for relevant sociodemographic variables. Results: Four hundred seventy-one patients (54.6% female) participated. The participation rate was 73.4%. One hundred sixty-one participants (36%) reported direct, indirect, or occupational exposure to the WTCD; 55 (13.3%) had direct, indirect, or occupational exposure to the plane crash; 33 (8.1%) had both exposures. In separate multivariate models, CDE predicted lower SF-36 scores for general health (p < 0.0096), mental health (p < 0.0033), and bodily pain (p < 0.0046). Conclusions: In the year following mass traumatic events, persons with CDE had lower overall health status than those with one or no disaster exposure. Clinicians should consider the impact that traumatic events have on the overall health status of ED patients in the wake of consecutive disasters. [source]

    Ambient temperature and risk of death from accidental drug overdose in New York City, 1990,2006

    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2010
    Amy S. B. Bohnert
    ABSTRACT Background Mortality increases as ambient temperature increases. Because cocaine affects core body temperature, ambient temperature may play a role in cocaine-related mortality in particular. The present study examined the association between ambient temperature and fatal overdoses over time in New York City. Methods Mortality data were obtained from the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner for 1990 to 2006, and temperature data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association. We used generalized additive models to test the relationship between weekly average temperatures and counts of accidental overdose deaths in New York City, controlling for year and average length of daylight hours. Results We found a significant relation between ambient temperature and accidental overdose fatality for all models where the overdoses were due in whole or in part to cocaine (all P < 0.05), but not for non-cocaine overdoses. Risk of accidental overdose deaths increased for weeks when the average temperature was above 24°Celsius. Conclusions These results suggest a strong relation between temperature and accidental overdose mortality that is driven by cocaine-related overdoses rising at temperatures above 24°Celsius; this is a substantially lower temperature than prior estimates. To put this into perspective, approximately 7 weeks a year between 1990 and 2006 had an average weekly temperature of 24 or above in New York City. Heat-related mortality presents a considerable public health concern, and cocaine users constitute a high-risk group. [source]

    The Competitive Foundations of Localized Learning and Innovation: The Case of Women's Garment Production in New York City,

    ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2002
    Norma M. Rantisi
    Abstract: This article considers the relevance of the "local" for firm learning in New York City's Garment District. By documenting the design innovation process in the district's women's wear industry and the ways in which designers draw on the district's specialized services and institutions to assist in the process, the article examines how a localized agglomeration or "cluster" facilitates the development of shared conventions and practices. It also shows how the district confers benefits on firms in indirect ways. Since apparel manufacturers operate in a U.S. regulatory framework that inhibits cooperation, the Garment District's support institutions serve as production intermediaries, providing firms with a means to monitor and observe rival firms' performances and solutions. As such, the case of the Garment District poses interesting challenges to the prevailing conceptions of the "local" as a site for cooperation and suggests the need to rethink the relevance of competition for learning and innovation. [source]

    Syringe exchange, injecting and intranasal drug use

    ADDICTION, Issue 1 2010
    Don C. Des Jarlais
    ABSTRACT Objective To assess trends in injecting and non-injecting drug use after implementation of large-scale syringe exchange in New York City. The belief that implementation of syringe exchange will lead to increased drug injecting has been a persistent argument against syringe exchange. Methods Administrative data on route of administration for primary drug of abuse among patients entering the Beth Israel methadone maintenance program from 1995 to 2007. Approximately 2000 patients enter the program each year. Results During and after the period of large-scale implementation of syringe exchange, the numbers of methadone program entrants reporting injecting drug use decreased while the numbers of entrants reporting intranasal drug use increased (P < 0.001). Conclusion While assessing the possible effects of syringe exchange on trends in injecting drug use is inherently difficult, these may be the strongest data collected to date showing a lack of increase in drug injecting following implementation of syringe exchange. [source]

    Alcohol use trajectories among adults in an urban area after a disaster: evidence from a population-based cohort study

    ADDICTION, Issue 8 2008
    Magdalena Cerda
    ABSTRACT Alcohol use increased in the New York City (NYC) metropolitan area in the first months after the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks. Aims To investigate alcohol use trajectories in the NYC metropolitan area in the 3 years after 11 September and examine the relative contributions of acute exposure to the attacks and ongoing stressors to these trajectories. Design We used a population-based cohort of adults recruited through a random-digit-dial telephone survey in 2002; participants completed three follow-up interviews over 30 months. Setting The NYC metropolitan area. Participants A total of 2752 non-institutionalized adult residents of NYC. Measurements We used growth mixture models to assess trajectories in levels of total alcohol consumption and bingeing in the past 30 days, and predictors of these trajectories. Findings We identified five trajectories of alcohol consumption levels and three bingeing trajectories. Predictors of higher levels of use over time included ongoing stressors, traumatic events and lower income. Ongoing exposure to stressors and low income also play a central role in bingeing trajectories. Conclusions While point-in-time mass traumatic events may matter in the short term, their contribution subsides over time. Accumulated stressors and traumatic events, in contrast, lead to higher levels of consumption among respondents already vulnerable to high alcohol use. Interventions to mitigate post-disaster stressors may have substantial benefit in reducing alcohol abuse in the medium- to long term. [source]

    Social Polarization and the Politics of Low Income Mortgage Lending in the United States

    Jason Hackworth
    ABSTRACT The structured inequalities of capital investment and disinvestment are prominent themes in critical urban and regional research, but many accounts portray ,capital' as a global, faceless and placeless abstraction operating according to a hidden, unitary logic. Sweeping political-economic shifts in the last generation demonstrate that capital may shape urban and regional processes in many different ways, and each of these manifestations creates distinct constraints and opportunities. In this paper, we analyze a new institutional configuration in the USA that is reshaping access to wealth among the poor , a policy ,consensus' to expand home-ownership among long-excluded populations. This shift has opened access to some low- and moderate-income households, and racial and ethnic minorities, but the necessary corollary is a greater polarization between those who are able to own and those who are not. We provide a critical analysis of these changes, drawing on national housing finance statistics as well as a multivariate analysis of differences between owners and renters in the 1990s in New York City. As home-ownership strengthens its role as a privatized form of stealth urban and housing policy in the USA, its continued expansion drives a corresponding reconstruction of its value for different groups, and inscribes a sharper axis of property-rights inequalities among owners and renters in the working classes. [source]

    Oral disease experience of older adults seeking oral health services

    GERODONTOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Kavita P. Ahluwalia
    doi:10.1111/j.1741-2358.2009.00311.x Oral disease experience of older adults seeking oral health services Objective:, The objective of this investigation was to describe the dental disease (dental caries and alveolar bone loss) experience in a sample of community-dwelling older adults who regularly utilize dental services in New York City. Background:, Public financing for dental care directed at older adults in the United States is minimal. Improved preventive methods, primarily the use of fluorides, have resulted in declines in tooth loss, and concomitant increase in risk for dental diseases among older adults. While the oral disease burden in institutionalized elderly and those unable to access services is well-documented, the dental care needs of older adults who access dental services are not well documented. Materials and Methods:, Radiographic and record review were used to determine prevalence of dental caries, alveolar bone loss, frequency of service utilization, and medical status in this cross-sectional investigation of a sample of older adults (N = 200) using dental services at Columbia University College of Dental Medicine. Results:, Only 9% of the sample was completely edentulous, the mean DMFT was 19.9 and mean alveolar bone loss was 3.6 mm. Missing and Decayed Teeth accounted for 57.8% and 6.5% of the total caries burden respectively. Missing Teeth and alveolar bone loss increased with increasing age, but there was no increase in Decayed Teeth. Conclusions:, While access to and utilization of dental services may result in improved tooth retention, older adults who use dental services continue to have dental care needs, especially periodontal care needs. [source]

    Neonatal health care costs related to smoking during pregnancy

    HEALTH ECONOMICS, Issue 3 2002
    E. Kathleen Adams
    Abstract Research objective: Much of the work on estimating health care costs attributable to smoking has failed to capture the effects and related costs of smoking during pregnancy. The goal of this study is to use data on smoking behavior, birth outcomes and resource utilization to estimate neonatal costs attributable to maternal smoking during pregnancy. Study design: We use 1995 data from the Center for Disease Control's (CDC) Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) database. The PRAMS collects representative samples of births from 13 states (Alabama, Alaska, California, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Maine, Michigan, New York (excluding New York City), Oklahoma, South Carolina, Washington, and West Virginia), and the District of Columbia. The 1995 PRAMS sample is approximately 25 000. Multivariate analysis is used to estimate the relationship of smoking to probability of admission to an NICU and, separately, the length of stay for those admitted or not admitted to an NICU. Neonatal costs are predicted for infants ,as is' and ,as if' their mother did not smoke. The difference between these constitutes smoking attributable neonatal costs; this divided by total neonatal costs constitutes the smoking attributable fraction (SAF). We use data from the MarketScanÔ database of the MedStatÔ Corporation to attach average dollar amounts to NICU and non-NICU nursery nights and data from the 1997 birth certificates to extrapolate the SAFs and attributable expenses to all states. Principal findings: The analysis showed that maternal smoking increased the relative risk of admission to an NICU by almost 20%. For infants admitted to the NICU, maternal smoking increased length of stay while for non- NICU infants it appeared to lower it. Over all births, however, smoking increased infant length of stay by 1.1%. NICU infants cost $2496 per night while in the NICU and $1796 while in a regular nursery compared to only $748 for non-NICU infants. The combination of the increased NICU use, longer stays and higher costs result in a positive smoking attributable fraction (SAF) for neonatal costs. The SAF across all states is 2.2%. Across the states, the SAF varied from a low of 1.3% in Texas to a high of 4.6% in Indiana. Conclusions: These results further confirm the adverse effects of smoking. Among mothers who smoke, smoking adds over $700 in neonatal costs. The smoking attributable neonatal costs in the US represent almost $367 million in 1996 dollars; these costs vary from less than a million in smaller states to over $35 million in California. These costs are highly preventable since the adverse effects of maternal smoking occur in the short-run and can be avoided by even a temporary cessation of maternal smoking. These cost estimates can be used by managed care plans, state and local public health officials and others to evaluate alternative smoking cessation programs. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Multilevel Analysis of the Chronic Care Model and 5A Services for Treating Tobacco Use in Urban Primary Care Clinics

    Dorothy Y. Hung
    Objective. To examine the chronic care model (CCM) as a framework for improving provider delivery of 5A tobacco cessation services. Methods. Cross-sectional surveys were used to obtain data from 497 health care providers in 60 primary care clinics serving low-income patients in New York City. A hierarchical generalized linear modeling approach to ordinal regression was used to estimate the probability of full 5A service delivery, adjusting for provider covariates and clustering effects. We examined associations between provider delivery of 5A services, clinic implementation of CCM elements tailored for treating tobacco use, and the degree of CCM integration in clinics. Principal Findings. Providers practicing in clinics with enhanced delivery system design, clinical information systems, and self-management support for cessation were 2.04,5.62 times more likely to perform all 5A services ( p<.05). CCM integration in clinics was also positively associated with 5As delivery. Compared with none, implementation of one to six CCM elements corresponded with a 3.69,30.9 increased odds of providers delivering the full spectrum of 5As ( p<.01). Conclusions. Findings suggest that the CCM facilitates provider adherence to the Public Health Service 5A clinical guideline. Achieving the full benefits of systems change may require synergistic adoption of all model components. [source]

    Do Commercial Managed Care Members Rate Their Health Plans Differently than Medicaid Managed Care Members?

    Patrick J. Roohan
    Objective. To determine if members of commercial managed care and Medicaid managed care rate the experience with their health plans differently. Data Sources. Data from both commercial and Medicaid Consumer Assessment of Health Plan Surveys (CAHPS) in New York State. Study Design. Regression models were used to determine the effect of population (commercial or Medicaid) on a member's rating of their health plan, controlling for health status, age, gender, education, race/ethnicity, number of office visits, and place of residence. Data Collection. Managed care plans are required to submit to the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) results of the annual commercial CAHPS survey. The NYSDOH conducted a survey of Medicaid enrollees using Medicaid CAHPS. Principal Findings. Medicaid managed care members in excellent or very good health rate their health plan higher than commercial members in excellent or very good health. There is no difference in health plan rating for commercial and Medicaid members in good, fair, or poor health. Older, less educated, black, and Hispanic members who live outside New York City are more likely to rate their managed care plan higher. Conclusions. Medicaid members rating of their health care equals or exceeds ratings by commercial members. [source]

    From Vacation to Summer School: The Transformation of Summer Education in New York City, 1894,1915

    Kenneth M. Gold
    First page of article [source]

    Power function decay of hydraulic conductivity for a TOPMODEL-based infiltration routine

    Jun Wang
    Abstract TOPMODEL rainfall-runoff hydrologic concepts are based on soil saturation processes, where soil controls on hydrograph recession have been represented by linear, exponential, and power function decay with soil depth. Although these decay formulations have been incorporated into baseflow decay and topographic index computations, only the linear and exponential forms have been incorporated into infiltration subroutines. This study develops a power function formulation of the Green and Ampt infiltration equation for the case where the power n = 1 and 2. This new function was created to represent field measurements in the New York City, USA, Ward Pound Ridge drinking water supply area, and provide support for similar sites reported by other researchers. Derivation of the power-function-based Green and Ampt model begins with the Green and Ampt formulation used by Beven in deriving an exponential decay model. Differences between the linear, exponential, and power function infiltration scenarios are sensitive to the relative difference between rainfall rates and hydraulic conductivity. Using a low-frequency 30 min design storm with 4·8 cm h,1 rain, the n = 2 power function formulation allows for a faster decay of infiltration and more rapid generation of runoff. Infiltration excess runoff is rare in most forested watersheds, and advantages of the power function infiltration routine may primarily include replication of field-observed processes in urbanized areas and numerical consistency with power function decay of baseflow and topographic index distributions. Equation development is presented within a TOPMODEL-based Ward Pound Ridge rainfall-runoff simulation. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Compensating for wetland losses in the United States

    IBIS, Issue 2004
    Joy B. Zedler
    Impacts of climate change on US wetlands will add to those of historical impacts due to other causes. In the US, wetland losses and degradation result from drainage for agriculture, filling for urbanization and road construction. States that rely heavily on agriculture (California, Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, Ohio, Indiana) have lost over 80% of their historical area of wetlands, and large cities, such as Los Angeles and New York City, have retained only tiny remnants of wetlands, all of which are highly disturbed. The cumulative effects of historical and future degradation will be difficult to abate. A recent review of mitigation efforts in the US shows a net loss of wetland area and function, even though ,no net loss' is the national policy and compensatory measures are mandatory. US policy does not include mitigation of losses due to climate change. Extrapolating from the regulatory experience, one can expect additional losses in wetland areas and in highly valued functions. Coastal wetlands will be hardest hit due to sea-level rise. As wetlands are increasingly inundated, both quantity and quality will decline. Recognition of historical, current and future losses of wetland invokes the precautionary principal: avoid all deliberate loss of coastal wetland area in order to reduce overall net loss. Failing that, our ability to restore and sustain wetlands must be improved substantially. [source]

    An Analysis of the Market for Taxicab Rides in New York City*

    Ricardo LagosArticle first published online: 2 JUN 200
    In the last few years, the city of New York has increased taxicab fares and relaxed a 59-year-old cap on the number of licenses. This article uses a dynamic equilibrium model of meeting frictions to quantify the impact of these policies on medallion prices and on the process that rules the meetings between passengers and taxicabs in New York City. [source]

    Sexual boundary violations in residential drug-free therapeutic community treatment

    William H. Gottdiener
    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the phenomenon of sexual boundary violations in residential therapeutic community (TC) programs for substance abusers using secondary data analysis methods. One hundred and ninety-seven participants who had been treated in TCs in New York City were interviewed 30 days post-discharge. Sexual boundary violations were reported by approximately one-quarter of the sample. Possible psychodynamic causes (e.g. enactments, group dynamics) of sexual boundary violations are discussed. Implications for research, theory, and for prevention of sexual boundary violations in TC programs are addressed. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Business as usual: New York City after 9/11

    Peter Eisinger
    First page of article [source]

    Street Justice: A History of Police Violence in New York City , Sophie Body-Gendrot

    Sophie Body-Gendrot
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The state of worker protections in the United States: Unregulated work in New York City

    Annette BERNHARDT
    Abstract. Using original data gathered in 2003,06, the authors examine the prevalence and types of non-compliance with labour law in New York City. Workplace violations , or "unregulated work", are widespread across a range of low-wage industries and have been driven by a mix of economic factors as well as public policy. The solution, the authors argue, is to strengthen law enforcement and provide for the new types of employment relationship that have resulted from changes in the organization of work and production. [source]

    An investigation of incident frequency, duration and lanes blockage for determining traffic delay

    Yi (Grace) Qi
    Traffic delay caused by incidents is closely related to three variables: incident frequency, incident duration, and the number of lanes blocked by an incident that is directly related to the bottleneck capacity. Relatively, incident duration has been more extensively studied than incident frequency and the number of lanes blocked in an incident. In this study, we provide an investigation of the influencing factors for all of these three variables based on an incident data set that was collected in New York City (NYC). The information about the incidents derived from the identification can be used by incident management agencies in NYC for strategic policy decision making and daily incident management and traffic operation. In identifying the influencing factors for incident frequency, a set of models, including Poisson and Negative Binomial regression models and their zero-inflated models, were considered. An appropriate model was determined based on a model decision-making tree. The influencing factors for incident duration were identified based on hazard-based models where Exponential, Weibull, Log-logistic, and Log-normal distributions were considered for incident duration. For the number of lanes blocked in an incident, the identification of the influencing factors was based on an Ordered Probit model which can better capture the order inherent in the number of lanes blocked in an incident. As identified in this study, rain is the only factor that significantly influenced incident frequency. For incident duration and the number of lanes blocked in an incident, various factors had significant impact. As concluded in this study, there is a strong need to identify the influencing factors in terms of different types of incidents and the roadways where the incidents occured. [source]

    Perceived Risk and Worry: The Effects of 9/11 on Willingness to Fly,

    Rochelle L. Bergstrom
    Most decision-making models rely on affect-free variables to understand the decisions that people make. We tested an affectively-loaded variable,worry,as a predictor of decision making in an affectively laden context: willingness to fly after 9/11. College students rated their willingness to fly to New York City or Washington, DC, in a study conducted 34 days after 9/11. They also recorded their beliefs about the likelihood that more terrorist attacks would occur, the severity of such attacks if they were to occur, and how much they worried about flying. Finally, they made these estimates for similar others. Results showed that worry was the most powerful predictor of one's own and similar others' willingness to fly. These findings suggest that models of how people make decisions may sometimes need to take feelings into account. [source]

    Institutional discharges and subsequent shelter use among unaccompanied adults in New York City

    Stephen Metraux
    This study empirically examines the link between homelessness and discharges from other institutions. An administrative record match was undertaken to determine rates of discharge from institutional care for 9,247 unaccompanied adult shelter users in New York City. Cluster analysis and multinomial logistic regression analysis was then used to assess associations between different types of institutional discharges and the likelihood of persons subsequently experiencing extended shelter stays. Results show that 28% of the cohort was discharged from institutional care within the 90-day period preceding their initial shelter entry, with different types of institutional discharge associated with differences in subsequent patterns of shelter use. Based on these findings, transitions from institution to the community are potentially a key intervention point for reducing homelessness and shelter use. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]