Best Protection (best + protection)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Evaluation of analogues of DRDE-07 as prophylactic agents against the lethality and toxicity of sulfur mustard administered through percutaneous route

A. S. Kulkarni
Abstract Sulfur mustard (SM), chemically bis (2-chloroethyl) sulfide is a bifunctional alkylating agent that causes serious blisters on contact with human skin. Although several antidotes have been reported for the systemic toxicity of SM in experimental animals none of them are approved so far and decontamination of SM immediately by physical or chemical means is recommended as the best protection. Two compounds amifostine [S-2(3-aminopropylamino) ethyl phosphorothioate] and DRDE-07 [S-2(2-aminoethylamino) ethyl phenyl sulfide] gave very good protection as an oral prophylactic agent against SM the in mouse model, but in the rat model the protection was only moderate. In the search for more effective and less toxic compounds, a number of analogues of DRDE-07 were synthesised and their protective efficacy was evaluated in mouse and rat models. The LD50 of S-aryl substitution was between 1 and 2 g kg,1 and S-alkyl substitution was more than 2 g kg,1. In the mouse model, DRDE-07, DRDE-10, DRDE-21, DRDE-30 and DRDE-35 gave about 20 fold protection, and DRDE-23 and DRDE-38 gave less protection of 4.8 and 9.0 fold respectively, against percutaneously administered SM. In the rat model, DRDE-07, DRDE-09, DRDE-10 and DRDE-21 gave about two fold protection. Percutaneously administered SM (19.33 mg kg,1) significantly depleted the hepatic GSH content in mice. Pretreatment with DRDE-21 significantly elevated the levels. A 4.4 fold increase in % DNA fragmentation was observed 7 days after SM administration (19.33 mg kg,1) in mice. Pretreatment with DRDE-07, DRDE-09, DRDE-10, DRDE-21, DRDE-30 and DRDE-35 significantly protected the mice from SM induced DNA damage. The histopathological lesions in liver and spleen induced by percutaneously administered SM was reduced by pretreatment with DRDE-07, DRDE-09, DRDE-10 and DRDE-21. These analogues may prove as prototypes for the designing of more effective prophylactic drug for SM. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Ultrasonic immunization of sea bream, Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel), with a mixed vaccine against Vibrio alginolyticus and V. anguillarum

Y-C Zhou
In order to clarify the effectiveness of ultrasonication on vaccine delivery, juvenile sea bream, Pagrus major, were treated with eight different ultrasonic methods. A mixed vaccine against Vibrio alginolyticus and V. anguillarum was used to immunize the fish. The intensity and frequency of the ultrasound were 280 mW cm,2 and 35 kHz, respectively. The ultrasonic methods included continuous or pulsed ultrasound for 3 min, and continuous or pulsed ultrasound for 3 min before and/or after immersion for 3 min. Of all the eight ultrasonic methods tested, `pulsed ultrasound followed by immersion' and `immersion, pulsed ultrasound, and followed by immersion again' provided the best protection, which were comparable with protection of fish immunized by intraperitoneal injection. Moreover, the convenience of applying these two ultrasonic methods for immunization was comparable with the immersion method and was much better than intraperitoneal injection. If 2 × 108 CFU mL,1 of this mixed vaccine was used for vaccination repeatedly five times by ultrasonic methods, it could still produce good protection for the immunized sea bream. Therefore, the ultrasonic method is an effective and practical approach for fish vaccination on a large scale. [source]

Interaction of fomblin® lubricant with surface nitrided and/or coated bearing (M50) steel

A. K. Rai
Abstract High-temperature perfluoropolalkylether lubricants including Fomblin® are susceptible to degradation and cause corrosion in the presence of ferrous metals such as M50 bearing steel. This paper describes the effect of surface treatment (nitriding), coating chemistry and architecture in preventing corrosion/oxidation of M50 steel and thermo-oxidative degradation of Fomblin® fluid. Specifically, Cr-CrN multilayered coating architecture was used with and without a nitrided steel surface. The oxidation/corrosion tests were conducted by immersing the nitrided and/or coated M50 coupons in Fomblin® fluid in an oxidative environment at 270°C for 24,h and compared with untreated/uncoated coupons. It is shown that a considerable lessening of the corrosion of the steel and degradation of the Fomblin® fluid can be achieved by nitriding alone. Nitriding in combination with the multilayered Cr-CrN coating exhibited the best protection. The results are discussed in relation to the literature data. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd. [source]

Effect of light and oxygen transmission characteristics of packaging materials on photo-oxidative quality changes in semi-hard Havarti cheeses

Grith Mortensen
Abstract Changing transmission characteristics of food packaging materials by colouring the materials may be a suitable way of reducing photo-oxidative quality changes. This study proved that packaging in black laminates provided the best protection of Havarti cheese, followed by a white laminate. However, transparent packaging materials did not protect the product in the critical wavelength range, i.e. 400,500,nm, and changes in colour and odour were already notable after few hours of exposure to fluorescent light. Additionally, secondary oxidation products, hexanal, 1-pentanol, and 1-hexanol, were formed in cheese packaged in transparent or semi-transparent packaging materials. The expected effects of oxygen transmission were difficult to evaluate, due to high residual oxygen levels in the packages. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The evaluation of the radioprotective effect of chyavanaprasha (an ayurvedic rasayana drug) in mice exposed to lethal dose of , -radiation: a preliminary study

Ganesh Chandra Jagetia
Abstract The effect of various doses of 50% ethanolic extract of chyavanaprasha (an Ayurvedic rejuvenating herbal preparation) was studied on the survival of mice exposed to 10 Gy of , -radiation. Treatment with chyavanaprasha, consecutively for ,ve days before irradiation, delayed symptoms of radiation sickness and onset of mortality when compared with the non-drug treated irradiated controls. All doses of chyavanaprasha provided a signi,cant protection against gastrointestinal (GI) death (death of animals within 10 days after exposure to radiation), however, highest protection against GI death was observed for 15 mg/kg chyavanaprasha. Chyavanaprasha also provided a signi,cant protection against the bone marrow death after 10 to 40 mg/kg. However, the best protection was seen for 15 mg/kg, where the highest number of survivors was observed at the end of 30 days post-irradiation. The drug was non-toxic up to a dose of 6 g/kg b. wt., the highest drug dose that could be tested. Our study demonstrates that chyavanaprasha can provide good radioprotection at a very low non-toxic dose. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]