Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Words

  • certain word
  • correct word
  • emotion word
  • emotional word
  • familiar word
  • individual word
  • key word
  • last word
  • negative word
  • neutral word
  • new word
  • novel word
  • other word
  • own word
  • single word
  • target word
  • text word

  • Terms modified by Words

  • word association test
  • word frequency
  • word identification
  • word knowledge
  • word learning
  • word list
  • word meaning
  • word order
  • word processing
  • word reading
  • word recognition
  • word recognition task
  • word search
  • word use
  • word used

  • Selected Abstracts

    Measurement Properties of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories at Ages One and Two Years

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 2 2000
    Heidi M. Feldman
    In a prospective study of child development in relation to early-life otitis media, we administered the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) to a large (N = 2,156), sociodemographically diverse sample of 1- and 2-year-old children. As a prerequisite for interpreting the CDI scores, we studied selected measurement properties of the inventories. Scores on the CDI/Words and Gestures (CDI-WG), designed for children 8 to 16 months old, and on the CDI/Words and Sentences (CDI-WS), designed for children 16 to 30 months old, increased significantly with months of age. On several scales of both CDI-WG and CDI-WS, standard deviations approximated or exceeded mean values, reflecting wide variability in results. Statistically significant differences in mean scores were found according to race, maternal education, and health insurance status as an indirect measure of income, but the directionality of differences was not consistent across inventories or across scales of the CDI-WS. Correlations between CDI-WG and CDI-WS ranged from .18 to .39. Our findings suggest that the CDI reflects the progress of language development within the age range 10 to 27 months. However, researchers and clinicians should exercise caution in using results of the CDI to identify individual children at risk for language deficits, to compare groups of children with different sociodemographic profiles, or to evaluate the effects of interventions. [source]

    Cross-linguistic transfer of phonological skills: a Malaysian perspective

    DYSLEXIA, Issue 1 2002
    Caroline Gomez
    Abstract This study examined the phonological and reading performance in English of Malaysian children whose home language was Bahasa Malaysia (BM). A sample of 69 Malaysian Standard Two pupils (aged 7,8 years) was selected for the study. Since commencing school at the age of 6 years, the children had been learning to read in BM and had subsequently also been learning to read in English for some 12 months. The study was part of a larger scale research programme that fully recognized the limitations of tests that had not been developed and standardized in Malaysia. Nevertheless, as a first step to developing such tests, a comparison with existing norms for the Phonological Assessment Battery (PhAB) and the Wechsler Objective Reading Dimension (WORD) was undertaken in relation to information about the children's L1 and L2 language competencies. Results showed that the children's performance on PhAB was at least comparable to the UK norms while, not surprisingly, they fared less well on WORD. The results are discussed in terms of L1 and L2 transfer, whereby the transparency of written BM and the structured way in which reading is taught in BM facilitates performance on phonological tasks in English. This has implications for identifying children with phonologically based reading difficulties. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Jacques Bouveresse
    ABSTRACT The expression ,platonism in mathematics' or ,mathematical platonism' is familiar in the philosophy of mathematics at least since the use Paul Bernays made of it in his paper of 1934, ,Sur le Platonisme dans les Mathématiques'. But he was not the first to point out the similarities between the conception of the defenders of mathematical realism and the ideas of Plato. Poincaré had already stressed the ,platonistic' orientation of the mathematicians he called,Cantorian', as opposed to those who (like himself) were ,pragmatist' ones. I examine in this paper some very perplexing aspects of the use which is made at that time of a number of concepts, particularly ,idealism' (which generally designates what we would call ,mathematical realism') and ,empiricism' (which can designate almost any form of antirealism, even if, like for example intuitionism, it is not empiricist at all). There are, of course, historical reasons that may explain why it was for a time so easy and natural to use the words and the concepts in a way that may seem now very strange and to treat as if they were equivalent the two oppositions: realism/antirealism and idealism/empiricism. [source]

    Scoping mental health nursing education

    Michael Clinton
    ABSTRACT: In late 1999 the National Mental Health Working Group of the Australian Health Ministers Advisory Council commissioned the Australian and New Zealand College of Mental Health Nurses to undertake a scoping study of mental health nursing. A final report will be submitted to the National Mental Health Working Group in February 2000. The purpose of this article is to draw attention to some of the systemic problems that confront the education of mental health nurses in Australia. Shortcomings in the preparation of undergraduate students of nursing for commencing practice in mental health nursing are described and comments are given on issues affecting the quality of postgraduate mental health nursing education. KEY WORDS: mental health, nursing education. [source]


    Ronald J. Chenail
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Berit Brogaard
    With the aid of some results from current linguistic theory, I examine a recent anti-Fregean line with respect to hybrid talk of numbers and ordinary things, such as ,The number of moons of Jupiter is four'. I conclude that the anti-Fregean line with respect to these sentences is indefensible. [source]

    SIMDE: An educational simulator of ILP architectures with dynamic and static scheduling

    I. Castilla
    Abstract This article presents SIMDE, a cycle-by-cycle simulator to support teaching of Instruction-Level Parallelism (ILP) architectures. The simulator covers dynamic and static instruction scheduling by using a shared structure for both approaches. Dynamic scheduling is illustrated by means of a simple superscalar processor based on Tomasulo's algorithm. A basic Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) processor has been designed for static scheduling. The simulator is intended as an aid-tool for teaching theoretical contents in Computer Architecture and Organization courses. The students are provided with an easy-to-use common environment to perform different simulations and comparisons between superscalar and VLIW processors. Furthermore, the simulator has been tested by students in a Computer Architecture course in order to assess its real usefulness. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 14: 226,239, 2007; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com); DOI 10.1002/cae.20154 [source]

    Word and Reed as Sword and Shield: A Laudation for Edward Said

    Ashwani Saith
    First page of article [source]

    The Power of the Last Word in Legislative Policy Making

    ECONOMETRICA, Issue 5 2006
    B. Douglas Bernheim
    We examine legislative policy making in institutions with two empirically relevant features: agenda setting occurs in real time and the default policy evolves. We demonstrate that these institutions select Condorcet winners when they exist, provided a sufficient number of individuals have opportunities to make proposals. In policy spaces with either pork barrel or pure redistributional politics (where a Condorcet winner does not exist), the last proposer is effectively a dictator or near-dictator under relatively weak conditions. [source]

    From Milah (Circumcision) to Milah (Word): Male Identity and Rituals of Childhood in the Jewish Ultraorthodox Community

    ETHOS, Issue 2 2003
    Professor Yoram Bilu
    In contemporary Jewish ultraorthodox communities, most three-year-old male children undergo a twofold ritual sequence in which the first haircut is associated with entering the world of study. Focusing on the paramount value of holy Torah study and its prerequisites, I seek to decode the psychocultural meanings of the haircutting and school initiation ceremonies and their ceremonial antecedent, circumcision, as markers on the male trajectory from milah (circumcision) to milah (word). The ritual sequence is evaluated comparatively against the widespread conception of manhood as a special-status category of achievement that requires indoctrination and testing. In order to account for the recent proliferation of the rituals, an attempt is made to situate them historically in the current context of contemporary ultraorthodox and Israeli society. [source]

    Effects of Word and Fragment Writing During L2 Vocabulary Learning

    Joe Barcroft
    This study examined how writing (copying) target words and word fragments affects intentional second language (L2) vocabulary learning. English-speaking first-semester learners ofSpanish attempted to learn 24 Spanish nouns via word-picture repetition in three conditions: (1) word writing, (2) fragment writing, and (3) no writing. After the learning phase, the participants completed productive (picture-to-L2) and recpectively oriented (L2-to-first language) posttests. Vocabulary learning scores in the no-writing condition were higher than in the other two conditions and higher in the word-writing condition than in the fragment-writing condition. These fmdings provide new evidence on how forced Output without access to meaning can detract from early word learning by exhausting processing resources needed to encode new word forms. The pedagogical implications of the study call for language instructors to rethink the practice of encouraging students to write down a word to remember it. [source]

    Paganism in Conversion-Age Anglo-Saxon England: The Evidence of Bede's Ecclesiastical History Reconsidered

    HISTORY, Issue 310 2008
    S. D. CHURCH
    This article argues that the current understanding of English paganism relies too heavily on the belief that, when they wrote of the pre-Christian religion(s) of the English, Pope Gregory I (d. 604), in the letters preserved in his Register, and the Northumbrian monk Bede (d. 735), in his Ecclesiastical History, were describing English religion before conversion to Christianity as it really was. Their purpose in discussing English paganism, it is argued, was to provide succour and support for the process by which the English would be saved from eternal damnation in the face of the coming Day of Judgement. Neither Gregory nor Bede, both of whom came to be revered as Fathers of the Church, were passive observers of the conversion process. On the contrary, both men were active participants in the eradication of error amongst the English; error whose detail they had no interest or incentive to describe empirically. These were men who answered to a greater Truth , the Truth of the Word of God. It was this Truth which, this article argues, actually informed their descriptions of English paganism and should inform our understanding of their words on this subject. [source]

    Can Infants Use a Nonhuman Agent's Gaze Direction to Establish Word,Object Relations?

    INFANCY, Issue 4 2009
    Laura O'Connell
    Adopting a procedure developed with human speakers, we examined infants' ability to follow a nonhuman agent's gaze direction and subsequently to use its gaze to learn new words. When a programmable robot acted as the speaker (Experiment 1), infants followed its gaze toward the word referent whether or not it coincided with their own focus of attention, but failed to learn a new word. When the speaker was human, infants correctly mapped the words (Experiment 2). Furthermore, when the robot interacted contingently, this did not facilitate infants' word mapping (Experiment 3). These findings suggest that gaze following upon hearing a novel word is not sufficient to learn the referent of the word when the speaker is nonhuman. [source]

    Type of Maternal Object Motion During Synchronous Naming Predicts Preverbal Infants' Learning of Word,Object Relations

    INFANCY, Issue 2 2008
    Dalit J. Matatyaho
    Mothers' use of specific types of object motion in synchrony with object naming was examined, along with infants' joint attention to the mother and object, as a predictor of word learning. During a semistructured 3-min play episode, mothers (N = 24) taught the names of 2 toy objects to their preverbal 6- to 8-month-old infants. The episodes were recoded from Gogate, Bolzani, and Betancourt (2006) to provide a more fine-grained description of object motions used by mothers during naming. The results indicated that mothers used forward/downward and shaking motions more frequently and upward and backward motions less frequently in temporal synchrony with the spoken words. These motions likely highlight novel word,object relations. Furthermore, maternal use of shaking motions in synchrony with the spoken words and infants' ability to switch gaze from mother to object contributed to infants' learning of the word,object relations, as observed on a posttest. Thus, preverbal infants' learn word,object relations within an embodied system involving tightly coupled interaction between infants' perception and joint attention, and specific properties of caregivers' naming. [source]

    God's Free Grace and the Freedom of the Church: Theological Aspects of the Barmen Declaration

    This article explores the fundamental theological decisions of the ,six evangelical truths' of the Barmen Theological Declaration of 1934 on the occasion of its 75th anniversary. Seeing it in close proximity to the theology of Karl Barth, the essay considers in turn the substance and ongoing significance of the Declaration's reaffirmation of the First Commandment, its iteration of the threefold form of the Word of God, its repudiation of natural theology, its ringing affirmation of the positive freedom of the church and, finally, its ecumenical importance as an impulse to Christian unity. [source]

    Hermeneutics and the Doctrine of Scripture: Why They Need Each Other

    Current attempts to understand Scripture theologically typically appeal either to modern hermeneutics or to more traditional doctrines of Scripture , but not to both together. It is argued here that hermeneutics can help to identify and resolve certain problems bequeathed to posterity by the characteristic sixteenth-century equation of Scripture with ,Word of God'. The problems in question relate to the past and present modes of divine speech, the relation of text to community and the fundamental significance of the ,Word of God' concept itself. [source]

    Union and Communion: Calvin's Theology of Word and Sacrament

    Some scholars consider Calvin's teaching on the sacraments to be an integral part of his theology. Others have challenged the Reformer's consistency in this area, regarding Calvin's eucharistic teaching in particular as a ,foreign, uncongenial element' in his work. My argument in this article is that Calvin's eucharistic teaching, particularly in its ,more nearly patristic' emphases, is neither inimical nor secondary to his system but is in fact an essential and promising outworking of his theology. As with other perspectives, Calvin's understanding of Word and sacrament generates a particular kind of ecclesiology with emphases that remain ecumenically significant and vital for the life and mission of the church. [source]

    Revelation, Scripture and Tradition: Some Comments on John Webster's Conception of ,Holy Scripture'

    Gavin D'Costa
    I argue that finally Webster's arguments fall short of what he wants to preserve: that in holy scripture we are confronted by God's Word, interpreted through his Spirit. It falls short precisely because the authoritative role of tradition is underplayed. Internal to Webster's argument the conceptual priority of sanctification to inspiration is called into question. I approach this criticism of Webster from a close inspection of his treatment of the Roman Catholic position on the matter. [source]

    Serving God's Mission Together in Christ's Way: Reflections on the Way to Edinburgh 2010

    Jacques Matthey
    This paper argues that missio Dei theology must continue to provide the basis for an ecumenical missiology, provided certain problems are revisited, in line with themes of the 2010 Edinburgh study process. Among them is the need for emphasizing the vertical dimension of a transformative spirituality, somehow neglected in earlier ecumenical theologies. Only this will prevent an over-estimation of humanity's capacities. Within a missio Dei theology the specific role of the church is to be reaffirmed: there is no way back behind integration, which remains a cornerstone of an ecumenical approach, provided it keeps a critical distance to dogmatic ecclesiologies that tend to hinder progress towards visible unity. The debate on gospel and culture has to be urgently taken up again, through a positive appreciation of syncretism and the related search for criteria in intercultural hermeneutics. This will lead to articulating pneumatological approaches to mission with Christologies. Indeed, the New Testament texts with the most universal horizon refer to Christ as Word or Wisdom and not to the Holy Spirit. The paper moves on to ask whether then the relevance of the biblical wisdom tradition should not feature more in missiology. It could provide fertile approaches to witness in a religiously plural and ecologically damaged world. Ecumenical mission should in future be shaped by wisdom as much as it has been by prophecy, and keep both traditions in creative tension. [source]

    Panel on Salvation: the Catholic Perspective

    Teresa Francesca Rossi
    In the reflection about salvation, mission and healing, the aspect of revelation has not been so much emphasized in the last years. However, it seems to me that revelation, rather than just eschatology, might be the key concept in understanding healing and reconciliation. The signs and wonders that confirm the preaching of the gospel of salvation are necessary in order to give the preacher and the faithful a shape, a frame to human knowledge of God and salvation, though in the "fleshy" knowledge of the human being. Without the shape or frame of a divine sign there can be neither prophecy nor preaching, because prophecy and preaching concern the Word of God. Signs and wonders confirm preaching but only by deepening a cognitive dimension. When we day, "God will heal you," we are announcing the good news of healing, while at the same time we are budding some new conditions to know God. We are at the heart of revelation. At the same time, when we deal with healing, we are not only dealing with the dimension of knowing God and operating signs and wonder, we are also dealing with a dimension of prophecy inasmuch as no prophecy is allowed unless there is a capability of speaking "in the name of", and "on behalf of", which implies a real, though imperfect, knowledge of God, such as we receive not only in revelation but also in signs and wonders. So, healing, this starting point, this unexplored way, this unprecedented path to the understanding of the economy of sulfation, continues revelation because it leads to new knowledge. Inasmuch ad heading does not belong to the economy of final salvation but to the economy of a "restored flesh", it is closer to revelation than to resurrection. It is the seal of redemption. [source]

    Avoiding the "G" Word in International Governance

    Leila Simona Talani
    Common Goods: Reinventing European and International Governance. Edited by Adrienne Heritier. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2002. 353 pp., $74.00 cloth (ISBN: 0-7425-1700-4), $29.95 paper (ISBN: 0-7425-1701-2) [source]

    Measuring Word of Mouth's Impact on Theatrical Movie Admissions

    Charles C. Moul
    Information transmission among consumers (i.e., word of mouth) has received little empirical examination. I offer a technique that can identify and measure the impact of word of mouth, and apply it to data from U.S. theatrical movie admissions. While variables and movie fixed effects comprise the bulk of observed variation, the variance attributable to word of mouth is statistically significant. Results indicate approximately 10% of the variation in consumer expectations of movies can be directly or indirectly attributed to information transmission. Information appears to affect consumer behavior quickly, with the length of a movie's run mattering more than the number of prior admissions. [source]

    The Barony and the Churches of Late Nineteenth Century Glasgow

    The Barony Parish Church was one of the most important churches in nineteenth century Scotland partly due to its history, size, and location at the heart of the "second city" of the Empire and its Minister, Norman MacLeod. Its congregation represented every tier of Glasgow society in terms of social class and gender and as such, throws light on the more general debates on religion and society in nineteenth century Britain. When compared with other churches and denominations in Glasgow, it builds a more general picture of church and people in the city. The picture drawn reveals a complex pattern of adherence varying between individuals and families. An over emphasis on secular reasons for church membership ignores the important role of faith in determining patterns of adherence. Family letters, diaries, and journals often reveal a deep-seated faith and critical reflections on the preaching of the Word. [source]

    Seeing the Word: Refocusing New Testament Study , By Markus Bockmuehl

    MODERN THEOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    Stephen Fowl
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Image and Word in the Theology of John Calvin , By Randall C. Zachman

    MODERN THEOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
    Kathryn Greene-McCreight
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Words upon the Word: An Ethnography of Evangelical Group Bible Study by J. S. Bielo

    Brian Malley
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    A Strong Pelvic Floor: How Nurses Can Spread the Word

    CAFCI PGCertPhysio(Cnt&PlvFlr Rehab)-Uni Melb Physiotherapist, Kelli Berzuk BMR.-PT
    The pelvic floor contains muscles that support continence, sexual functioning, childbirth and more. Yet, few people even know these muscles exist or how important they are to overall health and well-being. This article explains in detail the anatomy, functions and importance of the pelvic floor musculature (PFM) and how nurses can educate and empower women of all ages about its important role in many aspects of their health and well-being. Accompanying this article is a patient education page with specific instructions on how to exercise the PFM. [source]

    Nursing and the "F" Word

    NURSING FORUM, Issue 2 2000
    Deborah Kane
    This article uses a set of strategies designed by Abigail Stewart to guide the generation of knowledge about women and gender to revisit the relationship between nursing and feminism. It is important that nurses be aware of the valuable feminist contributions made by their predecessors in order to uncover the hidden links that exist between nursing and feminism. As long as the relationship between nursing and feminism remains invisible, the gender problems in nursing that are systemic to a woman's occupation in a male-dominated society will continue. [source]

    Wittgenstein at His Word , By Duncan Richter Historical Dictionary of Wittgenstein's Philosophy , By Duncan Richter

    Randy RamalArticle first published online: 15 AUG 200
    First page of article [source]

    Lexical inference mechanisms for text understanding and classification

    Elizabeth Figa
    This paper describes a framework for building story traces (compact global views of a narrative) and story projections (selections of key elements of a narrative) and their applications in text understanding and classification. Word and sense properties are extracted from documents using the WordNet lexical database enhanced with Prolog inference rules and a number of lexical transformations. Inference rules are based on navigation in various WordNet relation chains (hypernyms, meronyms, entailment and causality links, etc.) and derived relations expressed as Boolean combinations of node and edge properties used to direct the navigation. The resulting abstract story traces provide a compact view of the underlying narrative's key content elements and a means for automated indexing and classification of text collections. Ontology driven projections act as a kind of "semantic lenses" and provide a means to select a subset of a narrative whose key sense elements are subsumed by a set of concepts, predicates and properties expressing the focus of interest of a user. Finally, we discuss applications of these techniques in text understanding, classification of text collections and answering questions about a text. [source]