Winter Days (winter + day)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


The effects of extreme seasonality of climate and day length on the activity budget and diet of semi-commensal chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) in the Cape Peninsula of South Africa

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PRIMATOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
A.C. van Doorn
Abstract We examined the effects of extreme seasonality on the activity budget and diet of wild chacma baboons with access to a high-quality, human-derived food source. The Cape Peninsula of South Africa is unusual among nonhuman primate habitats due to its seasonal extremes in day length and climate. Winter days are markedly shorter and colder than summer days but have higher rainfall and higher primary production of annually flowering plants. This combination of fewer daylight hours but higher rainfall is substantially different from the ecological constraints faced by both equatorial baboon populations and those living in temperate climates with summer rainfall. We sought to understand how these seasonal differences affect time budgets of food-enhanced troops in comparison to both other food-enhanced troops and wild foraging troops at similar latitudes. Our results revealed significant seasonal differences in activity budget and diet, a finding that contrasts with other baboon populations with access to high-return anthropogenic foods. Similar to nonprovisioned troops at similar latitudes, troop members spent more time feeding, socializing, and traveling during the long summer days compared to the short winter days, and proportionately more time feeding and less time resting in summer compared to winter. Summer diets consisted mainly of fynbos and nonindigenous foods, whereas winter diets were dominated by annually flowering plants (mainly grasses) and ostrich pellets raided from a nearby ostrich farm. In this case, food enhancement may have effectively exaggerated seasonal differences in activity budgets by providing access to a high-return food (ostrich pellets) that was spatially and temporally coincident with abundant winter fallback foods (grasses). The frequent use of both alien vegetation and high-return, human-derived foods highlights the dietary flexibility of baboons as a key element of their overall success in rapidly transforming environments such as the South African Cape Peninsula. Am. J. Primatol. 72:104,112, 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Effect of phase change material on passive thermal heating of a greenhouse

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESEARCH, Issue 4 2006
Nisha Kumari
Abstract In this study, a periodic analysis of a greenhouse with combination of phase change material (PCM) and insulation as a north wall has been developed for thermal heating. The thermal model is based on Fourier analysis. Effect of distribution of PCM thickness on plant and room air temperature has been studied in detail. The plant and room air temperature have been evaluated with and without north wall. Numerical computations have been carried out for a typical winter day of New Delhi. On the basis of numerical results, it is inferred that (i) there is a significant effect of PCM north wall and heat capacity of plant temperature during off-sunshine hour due to storage effect and (ii) the rate of heat flux inside greenhouse from north wall is maximum for least thickness of PCM. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Acclimation of snow gum (Eucalyptus pauciflora) leaf respiration to seasonal and diurnal variations in temperature: the importance of changes in the capacity and temperature sensitivity of respiration

PLANT CELL & ENVIRONMENT, Issue 1 2000
O. K. Atkin
ABSTRACT We investigated the relationship between daily and seasonal temperature variation and dark respiratory CO2 release by leaves of snow gum (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng) that were grown in their natural habitat or under controlled-environment conditions. The open grassland field site in SE Australia was characterized by large seasonal and diurnal changes in air temperature. On each measurement day, leaf respiration rates in darkness were measured in situ at 2,3 h intervals over a 24 h period, with measurements being conducted at the ambient leaf temperature. The rate of respiration at a set measuring temperature (i.e. apparent ,respiratory capacity') was greater in seedlings grown under low average daily temperatures (i.e. acclimation occurred), both in the field and under controlled-environment conditions. The sensitivity of leaf respiration to diurnal changes in temperature (i.e. the Q10 of leaf respiration) exhibited little seasonal variation over much of the year. However, Q10 values were significantly greater on cold winter days (i.e. when daily average and minimum air temperatures were below 6 and ,1 C, respectively). These differences in Q10 values were not due to bias arizing from the contrasting daily temperature amplitudes in winter and summer, as the Q10 of leaf respiration was constant over a wide temperature range in short-term experiments. Due to the higher Q10 values in winter, there was less difference between winter and summer leaf respiration rates measured at 5 C than at 25 C. The net result of these changes was that there was relatively little difference in total daily leaf respiratory CO2 release per unit leaf dry mass in winter and summer. Under controlled-environment conditions, acclimation of respiration to growth temperature occurred in as little as 1,3 d. Acclimation was associated with a change in the concentration of soluble sugars under controlled conditions, but not in the field. Our data suggest that acclimation in the field may be associated with the onset of cold-induced photo-inhibition. We conclude that cold-acclimation of dark respiration in snow gum leaves is characterized by changes in both the temperature sensitivity and apparent ,capacity' of the respiratory apparatus, and that such changes will have an important impact on the carbon economy of snow gum plants. [source]


The effects of extreme seasonality of climate and day length on the activity budget and diet of semi-commensal chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) in the Cape Peninsula of South Africa

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PRIMATOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
A.C. van Doorn
Abstract We examined the effects of extreme seasonality on the activity budget and diet of wild chacma baboons with access to a high-quality, human-derived food source. The Cape Peninsula of South Africa is unusual among nonhuman primate habitats due to its seasonal extremes in day length and climate. Winter days are markedly shorter and colder than summer days but have higher rainfall and higher primary production of annually flowering plants. This combination of fewer daylight hours but higher rainfall is substantially different from the ecological constraints faced by both equatorial baboon populations and those living in temperate climates with summer rainfall. We sought to understand how these seasonal differences affect time budgets of food-enhanced troops in comparison to both other food-enhanced troops and wild foraging troops at similar latitudes. Our results revealed significant seasonal differences in activity budget and diet, a finding that contrasts with other baboon populations with access to high-return anthropogenic foods. Similar to nonprovisioned troops at similar latitudes, troop members spent more time feeding, socializing, and traveling during the long summer days compared to the short winter days, and proportionately more time feeding and less time resting in summer compared to winter. Summer diets consisted mainly of fynbos and nonindigenous foods, whereas winter diets were dominated by annually flowering plants (mainly grasses) and ostrich pellets raided from a nearby ostrich farm. In this case, food enhancement may have effectively exaggerated seasonal differences in activity budgets by providing access to a high-return food (ostrich pellets) that was spatially and temporally coincident with abundant winter fallback foods (grasses). The frequent use of both alien vegetation and high-return, human-derived foods highlights the dietary flexibility of baboons as a key element of their overall success in rapidly transforming environments such as the South African Cape Peninsula. Am. J. Primatol. 72:104,112, 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


ELF-magnetic flux densities measured in a city environment in summer and winter

BIOELECTROMAGNETICS, Issue 1 2008
Aksel Straume
Abstract Epidemiological studies have indicated a connection between extremely low frequency magnetic flux densities above 0.4,T (time weighted average) and childhood leukemia risks. This conclusion is based mainly on indoor exposure measurements. We therefore regarded it important to map outdoor magnetic flux densities in public areas in Trondheim, Norway. Because of seasonal power consumption variations, the fields were measured during both summer and winter. Magnetic flux density was mapped 1.0 m above the ground along 17 km of pavements in downtown Trondheim. The spectrum was measured at some spots and the magnetic flux density emanated mainly from the power frequency of 50 Hz. In summer less than 4% of the streets showed values exceeding 0.4,T, increasing to 29% and 34% on cold and on snowy winter days, respectively. The average levels were 0.13,T (summer), 0.85,T (winter, cold), and 0.90,T (winter, snow), with the highest recorded value of 37,T. High spot measurements were usually encountered above underground transformer substations. In winter electric heating of pavements also gave rise to relatively high flux densities. There was no indication that the ICNIRP basic restriction was exceeded. It would be of interest to map the flux density situation in other cities and towns with a cold climate. Bioelectromagnetics 29:20,28, 2008. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]