Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Winter

  • austral winter
  • cold winter
  • dry winter
  • early winter
  • first winter
  • late winter
  • mild winter
  • niño winter
  • previous winter
  • severe winter
  • warmer winter

  • Terms modified by Winter

  • winter annual
  • winter barley
  • winter climate
  • winter condition
  • winter crop
  • winter day
  • winter diapause
  • winter feeding
  • winter flock
  • winter flood
  • winter flounder
  • winter flounder pseudopleuronectes americanu
  • winter meeting
  • winter monsoon
  • winter month
  • winter mortality
  • winter nao
  • winter oilseed rape
  • winter period
  • winter precipitation
  • winter quarter
  • winter rain
  • winter rainfall
  • winter season
  • winter severity
  • winter snow cover
  • winter storm
  • winter survival
  • winter temperature
  • winter weather
  • winter wheat
  • winter wheat cultivar

  • Selected Abstracts

    Roman Wives, Roman Widows: The Appearance of New Women and the Pauline Communities

    Article first published online: 24 APR 200
    Books reviewed: Roman Wives, Roman Widows: The Appearance of New Women and the Pauline Communities, Bruce W. Winter Reviewed by Helen K. Bond School of Divinity Edinburgh University, UK Response to Helen Bond By Bruce W. Winter University of Cambridge, UK [source]

    Factors influencing the seasonal life history of the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii

    Alan O. Bergland
    Abstract., 1.,The effects of resource levels, thermal microclimate, and seasonal oviposition patterns on fecundity and survivorship in the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii (Coq.), were examined at a northern Wisconsin bog over the course of 2 years. Wyeomyia smithii are bivoltine at this locality, thereby enabling the study of summer and overwintering generations separately. 2.,Nutrient resources of W. smithii were not limiting and there was no indication of density-dependent survivorship or fecundity. 3.,Oviposition rates were highest in young, large pitchers and individual mosquitoes appeared to allocate only a few eggs to any one leaf. 4.,Winter was the harsh season, and the principal manifestation of seasonal harshness was reduced survivorship. 5.,Overwintering W. smithii that had been oviposited later in the summer had a higher odds of survival than those oviposited earlier in the summer. 6.,It was concluded that dispersal of eggs among many pitchers serves to spread the risk of encountering lethal winter temperatures among spatially unpredictable patches. [source]

    Migrants and urban change , By Anne Winter

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Genetic microheterogeneity of human transthyretin detected by IEF

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 12 2007
    Klaus Altland Professor Dr.
    Abstract Mutations of the human transthyretin (TTR) gene have attracted medical interest as a cause of amyloidosis. Recently, we have described in detail an electrophoretic procedure with PAGE followed by IEF in urea gradients for the study of the microheterogeneity of TTR monomers (Altland, K., Winter, P., Sauerborn, M. K., Electrophoresis 1999, 20, 1349,1364). In this paper, we present a study on 49 different mutations of TTR including 33 that result in electrically neutral amino acid substitutions. The aims of the investigation were to test the sensitivity of the procedure to detect TTR variants in patients with TTR amyloidosis and their relatives and to identify some common characteristics that could explain the amyloidogenicity of these variants. We found that all tested amyloidogenic mutations could be detected by our method with the exception of those for which the corresponding variant was absent in plasma samples. Most of the electrically neutral amyloidogenic TTR variants had in common a reduced conformational stability of monomers by the activity of protons and urea. For three variants, e.g. TTR,F64L, TTR,I107V and TTR,V122I, the monomers had a conformational stability close to that of normal monomers but we found experimental and structural arguments for a weakening of the monomer-monomer contact. All types of amyloidogenic mutations affected the stability of TTR tetramers. [source]

    Creative ways to empower action to change the organization: Cases in point

    John P. Kotter
    In the Winter 2002 issue, the affiliation of Dan S. Cohen, co-author of the article, "Creative Ways To Empower Action To Change the Organization: Cases in Point" was incorrect. He is a Principal with Deloitte Consulting LLC. [source]

    Direct Lightning Hits on Wind Turbines in Winter Season Lightning Observation Results for Wind Turbines at Nikaho Wind Park in Winter

    A. Asakawa Member
    Abstract Lightning observation has been carried out at the Nikaho wind park since 2003 by CRIEPI and J-Power using still cameras and specially designed Rogowski coils of wide frequency band from 0.1 Hz to 100 kHz. In 2005, 125 lightning flashes on wind turbines were observed and 85 lightning current records on wind turbines were obtained. The 50% value of lightning current peak is about 3.1 kA and the 50% value of charge amount of pulse-type current and continuing-type current are 0.13 C (18 data) and 33.8 C (67 data), respectively. Copyright © 2010 Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

    The effectiveness and efficiency of corporate insolvency law,part two

    Karin Luttikhuis
    Little empirical research has been done in the Netherlands (or internationally) into the effect of corporate insolvency proceedings. The Dutch legislature has made several attempts in the past decades to revise the current Dutch Bankruptcy Act (Faillissementswet) of 1893, while almost nothing is known about the effectiveness and efficiency of the Dutch corporate insolvency law. I have studied the effectiveness of the current Dutch insolvency law and of European Directive 2001/23/EC which is incorporated in this law, on the basis of theoretical and large-scale empirical research. The study concerned all 4167 of the corporate insolvencies that ended in 2004. In the first part of this Article (International Insolvency Review, Volume 17, 3, Winter 2008, pp. 189,209), the research results showed that the Dutch Bankruptcy Act achieved the goals set on it only to a limited degree and that the informal restructuring procedure is of great social importance. In this second part, I concentrate on the conditions imposed by European Directive 2001/23/EC on the European national legislatures to protect employees' rights: automatic transfer of employment contracts in the event of transfers as part of insolvency proceedings, together with measures to prevent misuse of insolvency proceedings in such a way as to deprive employees of the rights provided for in this European Directive. The study shows that, in the Netherlands, not applying automatic transfer of employment contracts when an undertaking or business is transferred as part of an insolvency proceeding does not result in large-scale misuse of insolvency law. It appears that automatic transfer of employment contracts outside insolvency proceedings can actually impede the informal restructuring of financially unsound companies. These surprising results are interesting for corporate insolvency proceedings worldwide. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Air temperature changes in the arctic from 1801 to 1920

    Rajmund Przybylak
    Abstract In this paper, the results of an investigation into the thermal conditions in the Arctic in the period from 1801 to 1920 are presented. For this ,early instrumental' period limited meteorological data exist. Generally, the first meteorological stations in the Arctic were established in the second half of the 19th century and almost all of them were located in the coastal parts of Greenland. In order to get at least a rough idea of thermal conditions in the Arctic in the study period, data from different land and marine expeditions were collected. A total of 118 temperature series of monthly means have been gathered. Although the area and time periods covered by the data are variable, it is still possible to describe the general character of the temperature conditions. The results show that the areally averaged Arctic temperature in the early instrumental period was 0.8 °C lower than the next 60-year period (1861,1920). In comparison to present-day conditions, winter and autumn were significantly colder (winter by 1.6 °C and autumn by 0.9 °C) than were summer (colder by 0.4 °C) and spring (colder by only 0.2 °C). The air temperature in the real Arctic during the first International Polar Year (IPY) was, on average, colder than today by 1.0,1.5 °C. Winter was exceptionally cold with the average temperature being lower by more than 3 °C in all months except February. On the other hand, spring (March,May) was slightly warmer than today, and April was exceptionally warm (1.1 °C above present norm). The temperature differences calculated between historical and modern mean monthly temperatures show that majority of them lie within one standard deviation (SD) from present long-term mean. Thus, it means that the climate in the early instrumental period was not as cold as some proxy data suggest. Copyright © 2009 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

    Changes in Antarctic Peninsula tropospheric temperatures from 1956 to 1999: a synthesis of observations and reanalysis data

    Gareth J. Marshall
    Abstract The surface warming at Faraday station in the western Antarctic Peninsula is one of the largest observed anywhere over the last 50 years, yet the physical mechanisms driving this climate change are poorly understood. In this paper we synthesize radiosonde temperature observations from three Peninsula stations and NCEP,NCAR reanalysis data in order to examine contemporaneous regional tropospheric temperature trends (1956,99), which may in turn help us to understand better the causes of the surface warming. The reanalysis data are utilized in two ways: (i) to provide long-term mean monthly offsets between Faraday, which ceased radiosonde observations in 1982, and two other stations in the region having more recent data, Bellingshausen and Marambio, in order to create post-1982 simulated Faraday data; (ii) after having any spurious trends and bias removed, to provide directly a monthly value for Faraday when no equivalent value from regional observations is available. Using available months of overlap, a comparison between temperature observations and simulated data suggests that the latter are a reasonable facsimile of the former. The synthesized time-series of tropospheric temperatures reveal a statistically significant mean annual tropospheric (850,300 hPa) warming above Faraday between 1956 and 1999 of ,0.027±0.022 °C year,1. Winter and summer both show a warming trend, with significance varying with height and season. Annually, the mean tropospheric warming is half that at the surface, Unlike the surface warming, the calculated tropospheric warming trend is no greater than observed at other Antarctic stations, and indeed is not significantly greater than the background global warming trend for most of the period examined. Thus, we cannot dismiss the possibility that the Peninsula surface warming may simply be a response to a global warming magnified by the observed strong regional feedback between sea-ice extent and surface temperature during winter. Copyright © 2002 Royal Meteorological Society. [source]

    A Cross-Atlantic Dialogue: The Progress of Research and Theory in the Study of International Migration

    Alejandro Portes
    The articles included in this issue were originally presented at a conference on Conceptual and Methodological Developments in the Study of International Migration held at Princeton University in May 2003. The conference was jointly sponsored by the Committee on International Migration of the Social Science Research Council (SSRC), the Center for Migration and Development (CMD) at Princeton, and this journal. Its purpose was to review recent innovations in this field, both in theory and empirical research, across both sides of the Atlantic. The conference was deliberately organized as a sequel to a similar event convened by the SSRC on Sanibel Island in January 1996 in order to assess the state of international migration studies within the United States from an inter-disciplinary perspective. A selection of articles from that conference was published as a special issue of International Migration Review (Vol. 31, No. 4, Winter), and the full set of articles was published as the Handbook of International Migration: The American Experience (Hirschman, Kasinitz and DeWind, 1999). [source]

    Yield and Forage Quality of Different ×Festulolium Cultivars in Winter

    W. Opitz v. Boberfeld
    Abstract ×Festulolium ssp. are of particular interest as autumn-saved herbage in the winter grazing system, but information concerning their performance in this low-input system is not available. To this end, we examined dry matter (DM) yield and forage quality in winter of four different cultivars of ×Festulolium ssp. (×Festulolium pabulare, Festulolium braunii), either with festucoid or loloid attributes, compared with Festuca arundinacea Schreb. Furthermore, pre-utilization (accumulation since June or July) and date of winter harvest (December or January) were varied examining the influence of different sward management. DM yield, crude protein, metabolizable energy (ME) (in vitro rumen fermentation technique), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and ergosterol concentration were determined. Within all years, the festucoid cultivars (mean 3.4 t ha,1) attained significant higher yields during winter than the loloid cultivars (mean 1.6 t ha,1), but their yields were comparable with F. arundinacea (mean 3.0 t ha,1). Crude protein was decisively influenced by the different yield levels of the cultivars resulting in higher values for the loloid cultivars. Energy concentrations decreased with later winter harvest, whereas ADF as well as ergosterol concentrations frequently increased from December to January. The greatest differences between festucoid and loloid cultivars were generally observed during severe winters. Obviously, the festucoid cultivars were better adapted to a utilization as autumn-saved herbage than the cultivars with rather loloid attributes. However, the hybrids did not surpass F. arundinacea regarding yield and quality. [source]

    Effect of rheological behavior of epoxy during precuring on foaming

    Osamu Takiguchi
    Abstract In this study, the effect of rheological behavior of epoxy during precuring on foaming was investigated. Dynamic time sweep test of epoxy/curing agent (100/1, w/w) was conducted. The viscosities as a function of time showed extremely rapid increase from the order of 102,103 to 106Pa · s at a certain time, followed by slow increase of the viscosities. Dynamic frequency sweep test of precured epoxy with curing agent was conducted at 90°C. The critical gelation time was obtained by using rheological criterion proposed by Winter and Chambon. We found that the slopes of G,(,) and G,(,) decreased with increasing precuring time. Correspondingly, tan , showed a change from negative to positive slope at a critical time. By using the results, the critical gelation time was determined as t = 895,935 s. Samples of epoxy/curing agent/blowing agent (100/1/0.5) were precured for 960,1620 s. And then precured samples were foamed at 230°C for 300 s to decompose chemical blowing agent. The formed bubble size distribution becomes sharp with increase of the precuring time. There are roughly two sizes of bubbles when precured for relatively short time (t < 1080 s) before foaming: large bubbles (>100 ,m) and small ones (,30 ,m). On the other hand, foams precured for long time (t > 1200 s) before foaming, large bubbles disappear, and the average diameter of the bubble becomes small while the porosity is low. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    SOUTH AFRICA: Winter of Discontent

    Article first published online: 27 AUG 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Optimum Postmortem Chilled Storage Temperature for Summer and Winter Acclimated, Rested, Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) White Muscle

    A.R. Jerrett
    ABSTRACT Chemical anaesthesia (AQUI-STM) was used to harvest 2 groups of tank-reared chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), naturally acclimated to summer (18.8 °C) and winter (10.7 and 12.4 °C) temperatures, in a "rested"state. Carcasses were stored in 35% seawater at temperatures between approximately 2 and 19 °C to investigate the effects of acclimation and storage temperature on the postmortem metabolic rate of rested epaxial white muscle tissue. Muscle pH, [lactate], and adenosine triphosphate/inosine monophosphate measurements made 20 h postharvest indicated that winter acclimated fish were 2.2 times more sensitive to temperature than summer fish. A 3rd group of winter acclimated fish, stored between ,1.2 and 6 °C, indicated that significant cold injury only occurred on freezing. [source]

    A four-fold humanity: Margaret Mead and psychological types

    Gerald SullivanArticle first published online: 19 MAR 200
    Beginning in 1933, while working in New Guinea, Margaret Mead developed her so-called squares hypothesis. Mead never published its terms, though she made a brief comment on it in her autobiography, Blackberry Winter (1972), and the arguments found in Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies (1935) and the research leading to Balinese Character (Bateson & Mead, 1942) bore its imprint. Beginning with William McDougall's distinction between temperament (innate predispositions) and character (learned organization of habit), Mead articulated a morphological approach to the interplay between biology and culture that yielded four primary and four intermediary personality types. Under specified but not inevitable circumstances, the conscious choices of a given people could render one or another of these types characteristic or predominantly stable within their population, giving each of the other types a definite relation to the dominant type and thereby the cultural ethos of its society. Persons of each type followed a developmental path specific to their type different both from that of other types and in its manifestations given the various relations of the individual's type to the dominant type. Mead's hypothesis was, therefore, a vision of the unity and diversity of a single human species as well as an approach to the differing psychological positioning of individuals in cultures. In examining Mead's hypothesis, this essay also takes up Mead's debts to several leading psychologists (McDougall, C. G. Jung, and Erik Erikson), and (provisionally) how her vision differed from that of Ruth Benedict. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Winter cover crops for local ecosystems: linking plant traits and ecosystem function

    Brook J Wilke
    Abstract Winter cover crops are capable of supplying multiple economic and environmental benefits in temperate environments of North America, but the lack of adapted populations for specific environmental and agricultural contexts has resulted in cover crops that are unreliable and perform ecosystem functions unevenly. To maximize the benefits provided by winter cover crops, we argue for trait selection by crop scientists that is cognizant of desired ecosystem functions, with the goal of providing commercially available populations that have variable functions. We illustrate this approach through a case study of a promising winter annual legume cover crop, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa). Six key traits and associated functions are considered within specific agroecological contexts. We discuss tradeoffs that may occur among desired plant traits and illustrate how over-selection for a particular trait could negatively affect performance and overall benefits from a cover crop. Intraspecific combinations of complementary cover crops are suggested as means to achieve multiple agroecosystem functions. Copyright © 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Long-term dynamics of winter and summer annual communities in the Chihuahuan Desert

    Qinfeng Guo
    Kearney & Peebles (1960) Abstract. Winter and summer annuals in the Chihuahuan Desert have been intensively studied in recent years but little is known about the similarities and differences in the dynamics between these two communities. Using 15 yr of census data from permanent quadrats, this paper compared the characteristics and temporal dynamics of these two distinct, spatially co-existent but temporally segregated communities. Although the total number of summer annual species recorded during our 15 yr of observation was higher than winter annuals, the mean number of species observed each year was higher in the winter community. The winter community exhibited lower temporal variation in total plant abundance and populations of individual species, lower species turnover rate and higher evenness than the summer community. The rank abundances of species in winter were significantly positively correlated for a period of up to 7 yr while in summer significant positive correlations in rank abundance disappeared after 2 to 3 yr. The higher seasonal species diversity (i.e. number of species observed in each season) in winter rather than the overall special pool (over 15 yr) may be responsible for the greater community stability of winter annuals. The difference in long-term community dynamics between the two communities of annual plants are likely due to the differences in total species pool, life history traits (e.g. seed size), and seasonal climatic regimes. [source]

    Threshold wind velocity as an index of soil susceptibility to wind erosion under variable climatic conditions

    Laura A. de Oro
    Abstract Wind erosion starts when the threshold wind velocity (µt) is exceeded. We evaluated the sensitivity of µt to determine the wind erosion susceptibility of soils under variable climatic conditions. Three years field data were used to calculate µt by means of the equation µt,=,, - , ,,1 (,), where , is the mean wind speed (m,s,1), , the , standard deviation (m,s,1), , the saltation activity and , the standard normal distribution function of ,. Saltation activity was measured with a piezoelectric sensor (Sensit). Results showed that , of the whole studied period (3·41 m,s,1) was lower than µt (7·53,m,s,1), therefore, wind erosion was produced mainly by wind gusts. The µt values ordered in the sequence: Winter (6·10 m,s,1),<,Spring (8·22,m,s,1),=,Summer (8·28,m,s,1),<,Autumn (26·48,m,s,1). Higher µt values were related to higher air humidity and lower wind speeds and temperatures. The µt values did not agree with the erosion amounts of each season, which ordered as follows: Summer (12·88,t ha,1),>,Spring (3·11,t ha,1),=,Winter (0·17,t ha,1),=,Autumn (no erosion). Low µt and erosion amounts of Winter were produced by a scarce number of gusts during eroding storms. We concluded that µt is useful as an index of soil susceptibility to wind erosion of different climatic periods. The use of a unique µt value in wind erosion prediction models can lead to erroneous wind erosion calculations. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Influence of buffered propionic acid on the development of micro-organisms in hay

    MYCOSES, Issue 5-6 2002
    Der Einfluss gepufferter Propionsäure auf das Wachstum von Mikroorganismen im Heu
    Farmerlunge; Prävention; Propionsäure Summary. We tested the benefit of using buffered propionic acid (BPA) as a means of preventing farmer's lung disease (FLD). BPA, a new formulation of propionic acid, a hay preservative with no deleterious effect on farm machinery or cattle, reduces the development of micro-organisms in hay. Twenty pairs of round bales were analysed for concentration of micro-organisms measured in the winter following hay treatment. Each pair included one untreated bale and one bale treated with BPA during haymaking. Our results showed the following decreases in concentration in treated bales: total fungal species, 40% (P < 0.05); Eurotium amstelodami (the main species found), 65% (P < 0.01); and thermophilic actinomycetes, 60% (not significant), respectively. We conclude that BPA could be used to prevent FLD. Zusammenfassung. Wir untersuchten den Nutzen einer Anwendung gepufferter Propionsäure (BPA) als Mittel zur Vorbeugung der Farmerlunge (FLD). Gepufferte Propionsäure, eine neue Propionsäure-Formulierung, ein Heukonservierungsmittel ohne negative Auswirkungen, auf landwirtschaftliche Geräte, oder Vieh, vermindert das Wachstum von Mikroorganismen im Heu. Zwanzig Paar runder Heuballen wurden im Winter, nach einer Behandlung mit BPA, auf Mikroorganismenbefall untersucht. Jedes Paar bestand aus einem unbehandelten und einem während der Herstellung mit BPA behandelten Heuballen. Unsere Ergebnisse zeigten folgende Verringerung der Mikroorganismenkonzentration in den behandelten Heuballen: Gesamte Pilzarten minus 40% (P, < 0.05), Eurotium amstelodami (die am häufigsten gefundene Art) minus 65% (P ,< 0.01) und thermophile Actinomyceten minus 60% (NS). Dies belegt, daß BPA zur Vorbeugung einer FLD verwendet werden könnte. [source]

    A Cold Winter in Kosovo

    Bernard Kouchner

    Monitoring of Venturia inaequalis harbouring the QoI resistance G143A mutation in French orchards as revealed by PCR assays

    Séverine Fontaine
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Genetic resistance to QoI fungicides may account for recent failures to control Venturia inaequalis (Cooke) Winter in French orchards. Two PCR-based assays were developed to detect the G143A point mutation in the fungal mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The mutation is known to confer a high level of resistance to QoI fungicides. Occurrence of the G143A mutation in French field isolates collected from 2004 to 2007 was monitored. RESULTS: The QoI-resistant cytochrome b allele was specifically detected either following the cleavage of the amplified marker by a restriction endonuclease (CAPS assay) or its amplification using an allele-specific PCR primer. Using either method, the G143A mutation was found in 42% of the 291 field samples originating from French orchards in which apple scab proved difficult to be controlled. Monitoring of the G143A mutation in orchards located in 15 French administrative regions indicated that the mutation was detected at least once in nine of the regions, and its presence ranged from 33% to 64% of the orchards analysed in 2004 and in 2007 respectively. CONCLUSION: The PCR-based methods developed in this study efficiently reveal the presence of the G143A mutation in French V. inaequalis field populations. Copyright © 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Cytochrome b gene structure and consequences for resistance to Qo inhibitor fungicides in plant pathogens

    Valeria Grasso
    Abstract The cytochrome b (cyt b) gene structure was characterized for different agronomically important plant pathogens, such as Puccinia recondita f sp tritici (Erikss) CO Johnston, P graminis f sp tritici Erikss and Hennings, P striiformis f sp tritici Erikss, P coronata f sp avenae P Syd & Syd, P hordei GH Otth, P recondita f sp secalis Roberge, P sorghi Schwein, P horiana Henn, Uromyces appendiculatus (Pers) Unger, Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd & P Syd, Hemileia vastatrix Berk & Broome, Alternaria solani Sorauer, A alternata (Fr) Keissl and Plasmopara viticola (Berk & Curt) Berlese & de Toni. The sequenced fragment included the two hot spot regions in which mutations conferring resistance to QoI fungicides may occur. The cyt b gene structure of these pathogens was compared with that of other species from public databases, including the strobilurin-producing fungus Mycena galopoda (Pers) P Kumm, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyer ex Hansen, Venturia inaequalis (Cooke) Winter and Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet. In all rust species, as well as in A solani, resistance to QoI fungicides caused by the mutation G143A has never been reported. A type I intron was observed directly after the codon for glycine at position 143 in these species. This intron was absent in pathogens such as A alternata, Blumeria graminis (DC) Speer, Pyricularia grisea Sacc, Mycosphaerella graminicola (Fuckel) J Schröt, M fijiensis, V inaequalis and P viticola, in which resistance to QoI fungicides has occurred and the glycine is replaced by alanine at position 143 in the resistant genotype. The present authors predict that a nucleotide substitution in codon 143 would prevent splicing of the intron, leading to a deficient cytochrome b, which is lethal. As a consequence, the evolution of resistance to QoI fungicides based on G143A is not likely to evolve in pathogens carrying an intron directly after this codon. Copyright © 2006 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Microscopy reveals disease control through novel effects on fungal development: a case study with an early-generation benzophenone fungicide,

    Mark R Schmitt
    Abstract The benzophenones are a new class of agricultural fungicides that demonstrate protectant, curative and eradicative/antisporulant activity against powdery mildews. The chemistry is represented in the marketplace by the fungicide metrafenone, recently introduced by BASF and discussed in the following paper. The benzophenones show no evidence of acting by previously identified biochemical mechanisms, nor do they show cross-resistance with existing fungicides. The value of microscopy in elucidating fungicide mode of action is demonstrated through identification of the effects of an early benzophenone, eBZO, on mildew development. eBZO caused profound alterations in the morphology of powdery mildews of both monocotyledons and dicotyledons, affecting multiple stages of fungal development, including spore germination, appressorial formation, penetration, surface hyphal morphology and sporogenesis. Identification of analogous effects of eBZO on sporulation in the model organism Aspergillus nidulans (Eidam) Winter provides a unique opportunity to elucidate important morphogenetic regulatory sites in the economically important obligate pathogens, the powdery mildews. Benzophenones provide a further example of the benefits of whole-organism testing in the search for novel fungicide modes of action. Copyright © 2006 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Impact of fungal drug transporters on fungicide sensitivity, multidrug resistance and virulence,

    Maarten A de Waard
    Abstract Drug transporters are membrane proteins that provide protection for organisms against natural toxic products and fungicides. In plant pathogens, drug transporters function in baseline sensitivity to fungicides, multidrug resistance (MDR) and virulence on host plants. This paper describes drug transporters of the filamentous fungi Aspergillus nidulans (Eidam) Winter, Botrytis cinerea Pers and Mycosphaerella graminicola (Fückel) Schroter that function in fungicide sensitivity and resistance. The fungi possess ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters that mediate MDR to fungicides in laboratory mutants. Similar mutants are not pronounced in field resistance to most classes of fungicide but may play a role in resistance to azoles. MDR may also explain historical cases of resistance to aromatic hydrocarbon fungicides and dodine. In clinical situations, MDR development in Candida albicans (Robin) Berkhout mediated by ABC transporters in patients suffering from candidiasis is common after prolonged treatment with azoles. Factors that can explain this striking difference between agricultural and clinical situations are discussed. Attention is also paid to the risk of MDR development in plant pathogens in the future. Finally, the paper describes the impact of fungal drug transporters on drug discovery. Copyright © 2006 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Baseline toxicity of several pesticides to Hyaliodes vitripennis (Say) (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Noubar J Bostanian
    Abstract Hyaliodes vitripennis (Say) is a univoltine indigenous predacious mirid. It has been reported in several orchards where IPM programmes are used. It is a generalist, and feeds on phytophagous mites in addition to other arthropods. In Quebec, a foliar application of imidacloprid, deltamethrin or lambda-cyhalothrin is used at least once per season to manage arthropod pests such as leafhoppers and leaf-eating caterpillars. Meanwhile, several applications of metiram, flusilazole, myclobutanil and mancozeb are made to control apple scab [Venturia inaequalis (Cooke) Winter]. In laboratory trials, comparison of lethal concentrations of the three insecticides against H vitripennis nymphs and adults showed no significant difference. However, when lethal concentrations were compared between two growth stages for each insecticide, a significant difference was noted between adults and nymphs treated with lambda-cyhalothrin, adults being more susceptible than nymphs. No such difference could be detected for imidacloprid or deltamethrin. When LC50 values were compared with the manufacturer's label rates, deltamethrin and imidacloprid were toxic to the nymphs and adults, and lambda-cyhalothrin was slightly toxic to the nymphs and moderately toxic to the adults. Among the fungicides evaluated in the laboratory, myclobutanil showed moderate toxicity to adults at the manufacturer's label rate. The remaining fungicides had no toxic effects to adults or nymphs, even at four times the manufacturer's label rate. © 2001 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Introduction: The Honorable William F. Winter

    William F. Winter
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Austria honours Dr Hans Winter

    Dr. George Osborne's Laudation
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Themen Heft 8/2010

    Article first published online: 30 JUN 2010
    F. Fingerloos: Der Eurocode 2 für Deutschland , Erläuterungen und Hintergründe Teil 3: Begrenzung der Spannungen, Rissbreiten und Verformungen J. Michels, S. Maas, A. Zürbes, D. Waldmann: Tragverhalten von Flachdecken aus Stahlfaserbeton im negativen Momentenbereich und Bemessungsmodell für das Gesamtsystem V. Bungard, J. Mahowald, S. Maas, A. Zürbes, D. Waldmann: Dynamische Zustandsbewertung einer Verbundbrücke: Beobachtung äußerer und nichtlinearer Einflüsse auf die modalen Eigenschaften J. Göske, S. Winter, H. Pöllmann, R. Wenda: Hydraulische Reaktionen des Zements in Mörtel bei verschiedenen Parametern , Analytische Betrachtungen mittels Kryotransfer-Rasterelektronenmikroskopie [source]

    Complex 1H,13C-NMR relaxation and computer simulation study of side-chain dynamics in solid polylysine

    BIOPOLYMERS, Issue 3 2005
    Alexey Krushelnitsky
    Abstract The side-chain dynamics of solid polylysine at various hydration levels was studied by means of proton spin,lattice relaxation times measurements in the laboratory and tilted (off-resonance) rotating frames at several temperatures as well as Monte Carlo computer simulations. These data were analyzed together with recently measured carbon relaxation data (A. Krushelnitsky, D. Faizullin, and D. Reichert, Biopolymers, 2004, Vol. 73, pp. 1,15). The analysis of the whole set of data performed within the frame of the model-free approach led us to a conclusion about three types of the side-chain motion. The first motion consists of low amplitude rotations of dihedral angles of polylysine side chains on the nanosecond timescale. The second motion is cis,trans conformational transitions of the side chains with correlation times in the microsecond range for dry polylysine. The third motion is a diffusion of dilating defects described in (W. Nusser, R. Kimmich, and F. Winter, Journal of Physical Chemistry, 1988, Vol. 92, pp. 6808,6814). This diffusion causes almost no reorientation of chemical bonds but leads to a sliding motion of side chains with respect to each other in the nanosecond timescale. This work evidently demonstrates the advantages of the simultaneous quantitative analysis of data obtained from different experiments within the frame of the same mathematical formalism, providing for the detailed description of the nature and geometry of the internal molecular dynamics. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 78: 129,139, 2005 This article was originally published online as an accepted preprint. The "Published Online" date corresponds to the preprint version. You can request a copy of the preprint by emailing the Biopolymers editorial office at [source]

    Distributional effects of WTO agricultural reforms in rich and poor countries

    ECONOMIC POLICY, Issue 50 2007
    Thomas W. Hertel
    SUMMARY WTO agricultural reforms Rich countries' agricultural trade policies are the battleground on which the future of the WTO's troubled Doha Round will be determined. Subject to widespread criticism, they nonetheless appear to be almost immune to serious reform, and one of their most common defences is that they protect poor farmers. Our findings reject this claim. The analysis conducted here uses detailed data on farm incomes to show that major commodity programmes are highly regressive in the US, and that the only serious losses under trade reform are among large, wealthy farmers in a few heavily protected sub-sectors. In contrast, analysis using household data from 15 developing countries indicates that reforming rich countries' agricultural trade policies would lift large numbers of developing country farm households out of poverty. In the majority of cases these gains are not outweighed by the poverty-increasing effects of higher food prices among other households. Agricultural reforms that appear feasible, even under an ambitious Doha Round, achieve only a fraction of the benefits for developing countries that full liberalization promises, but protect the wealthiest US farms from most of the rigors of adjustment. Finally, the analysis conducted here indicates that maximal trade-led poverty reductions occur when developing countries participate more fully in agricultural trade liberalization. , Thomas W. Hertel, Roman Keeney, Maros Ivanic and L. Alan Winters [source]