Benzyl Benzoate (benzyl + benzoate)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Pittosporum undulatum Vent. grown in Portugal: secretory structures, seasonal variation and enantiomeric composition of its essential oil

Nicolau J. Ferreira
Abstract Aerial parts of Pittosporum undulatum were collected fortnightly for 1 year at the Parque de Sade de Lisboa. Collective samples of two populations were investigated, i.e. from pruned and non-pruned trees, and in addition samples from one pruned and one non-pruned individual. An SEM study of the aerial parts showed the presence of non-glandular T-shaped trichomes, and capitate trichomes with an elongated stalk and two to four round-shaped cells on the top. Numerous canals were seen at the level of the capsule wall as well as in the leaves and stems. Essential oil samples were isolated from the (deep-frozen) aerial parts by hydrodistillation to estimate the oil yields, and by distillation,extraction to determine their percentage composition, and analysed by GC and GC,MS. Monoterpenes (59,97%) were dominant in all oils, sabinene (5,58%), limonene (2,37%) and terpinen-4-ol (4,27%) being the major components, although in different relative amounts during the year of collection. Benzyl benzoate (8%) and benzyl salicylate (10%) attained high relative amounts in the oils from fully developed flowers, whereas in the oils from the other plant parts their relative amounts did not exceed 1%. The enantiomeric ratio of sabinene, limonene and terpinen-4-ol was investigated in the leaf, flower and capsule oils, showing dominance of the (+)-forms and homogeneity between all the oil samples. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Sensitization to 26 fragrances to be labelled according to current European regulation

Results of the IVDK, review of the literature
To study the frequency of sensitization to 26 fragrances to be labelled according to current European regulation. During 4 periods of 6 months, from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2004, 26 fragrances were patch tested additionally to the standard series in a total of 21 325 patients; the number of patients tested with each of the fragrances ranged from 1658 to 4238. Hydroxymethylpentylcyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HMPCC) was tested throughout all periods. The following frequencies of sensitization (rates in %, standardized for sex and age) were observed: tree moss (2.4%), HMPCC (2.3), oak moss (2.0), hydroxycitronellal (1.3), isoeugenol (1.1), cinnamic aldehyde (1.0), farnesol (0.9), cinnamic alcohol (0.6), citral (0.6), citronellol (0.5), geraniol (0.4), eugenol (0.4), coumarin (0.4), lilial (0.3), amyl-cinnamic alcohol (0.3), benzyl cinnamate (0.3), benzyl alcohol (0.3), linalool (0.2), methylheptin carbonate (0.2), amyl-cinnamic aldehyde (0.1), hexyl-cinnamic aldehyde (0.1), limonene (0.1), benzyl salicylate (0.1), ,-methylionon (0.1), benzyl benzoate (0.0), anisyl alcohol (0.0). 1) Substances with higher sensitization frequencies were characterized by a considerable number of ,++/+++' reactions. 2) Substances with low sensitization frequencies were characterized by a high number of doubtful/irritant and a low number of stronger (++/+++) reactions. 3) There are obviously fragrances among the 26 which are, with regard to contact allergy, of great, others of minor, and some of no importance at all. [source]

Lanthanide Formamidinates as Improved Catalysts for the Tishchenko Reaction

Agustino Zuyls
Abstract The tris(formamidinato)lanthanum(III) complexes [La(o -TolForm)3(thf)2] [1; o -TolForm = N,N, -bis(o -tolyl)formamidinate], [La(XylForm)3(thf)] [2; XylForm = N,N, -bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl)formamidinate], and [La(EtForm)3] [3, EtForm = N,N, -bis(2,6-diethylphenyl)formamidinate] are a new class of precatalysts for the Tishchenko reaction. Their catalytic activity is a result of their high Lewis acidity and the ease with which the ligand spheres can be interchanged. For the dimerization of benzaldehyde to give benzyl benzoate, which is a benchmark reaction, compound 1 is, to the best of our knowledge, the most active catalyst ever reported. On a preparative scale, the reaction can be performed in the absence of solvent. A range of aromatic, heteroaromatic, and aliphatic aldehydes was rapidly converted into the corresponding esters by using catalysts 1,3.( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2008) [source]

Chemical composition of essential oils from aerial parts of Cinnamomum malabatrum (Burman f.) Bercht & Presl.

N. K. Leela
Abstract The constituents of the essential oils of leaf, petiole, shoot and terminal shoot of Cinnamomum malabatrum were determined by GC and GC,MS. Thirty-nine compounds, constituting 95% of the oil, were identified in the leaves. Major constituents of the leaf oil were (E)-caryophyllene (28.6%), (E)-cinnamyl acetate (15.1%), bicyclogermacrene (14.4%) and benzyl benzoate (8.5%). Twenty-eight compounds, representing 98% and 97% of the oil, were identified in the petioles and shoots, respectively, whereas in the oil of the terminal shoots 34 compounds, accounting for 97%, were identified. The essential oils of the petioles, shoots and terminal shoots were dominated by linalool (77.8,79.4%). This is the first report of the essential oil constituents of C. malabatrum. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Composition of essential oil, concrete, absolute, wax and headspace volatiles of Murrarya paniculata (Linn.) Jack flowers

P. K. Rout
Abstract Murraya paniculata (Linn) Jack, syn. M. exotica Linn., commonly known as orange jessamine, is grown in gardens for its large clusters of fragrant flowers. Distillation of the fresh flowers in water furnished the essential oil in 0.027% yield. Extraction of the fresh flowers with pentane afforded the concrete (0.78%). Precipitating the waxes from the concrete with methanol gave absolute (0.62%). The chemical composition of essential oil, concrete, absolute and wax were analysed by GC and GC,MS. The components of essential oil in significant amounts were , -elemene (1.4%), (E)-caryophyllene (3.6%), germacrene D (2.7%), (E)-nerolidol (25.7%), benzyl benzoate (8.1%), phenyl ethyl benzoate (8.0%) and manool (18.7%). The major components in the concrete and absolute, respectively, were phenyl ethyl alcohol (2.9%, 3.0%), indole (0.8%, 1.0%), (E)-nerolidol (6.5%, 7.0%), benzyl benzoate (5.0%, 6.5%), phenyl ethyl benzoate (8.0%, 8.6%) and manool (25.2%, 27.9%). The methanol-insoluble wax contained (E)-nerolidol (2.6%), manool (9.4%) and most of the fatty acids/esters. The composition of the volatile components in the headspace emitted by flowers still on the branch (live flowers) and also by the picked flowers was determined by HS,SPME on a PDMS fibre and these results are also presented. The major components found in the headspace were linalool, indole, (E)-caryophyllene, germacrene D, bicyclogermacrene and (E,E)- , -farnesene. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A comparative study of the essential oils of the genus Plumeria Linn. from Malaysia

Norsita Tohar
Abstract The chemical composition of the flower oils of three Malaysian Plumeria Linn. species, P. acuminata Ait. (white flower), P. rubra Linn. (reddish-orange flower) and P. rubra Linn. (red flower), were determined by gas chromatography on two columns of different polarity, GC,MS and Kovts retention indices. The oil of P. acuminata Ait. (white flower) was made up predominantly of benzyl salicylate (39.0%), benzyl benzoate (17.2%), trans -nerolidol (10.6%), neryl phenylacetate (10.5%) and linalool (8.9%). Phenylethyl benzoate at 12.3% was the most abundant compound in the oil of P. rubra Linn. (reddish-orange flower), followed by dodecanoic acid at 11.8% concentration. Hexadecanoic acid constituted 9.3% and 27.2% of the oils of P. rubra Linn. (reddish-orange flower) and P. rubra Linn. (red flower), respectively. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Volatile constituents of the flowers of Clerodendron fragrans (Vent.) R. Br.

K. C. Wong
Abstract The volatile constituents of Clerodendron fragrans (Vent.) R. Br. flowers were analysed by capillary GC and GC,MS following isolation by hydrodistillation,extraction; 41 compounds were identified. Oxygenated monoterpenes and aromatic compounds originating from phenylpropanoid metabolism predominated, accounting for 41.2% and 36.0% respectively, of the total volatiles. The major components were linalol, benzyl acetate and benzyl benzoate. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Volatile constituents of benzoin gums: Siam and Sumatra.

Abstract The volatile extract composition of two different benzoin gums, Siam and Sumatra, were analysed by GC,MS. Twenty components representing more than 99.1% of the oil from Siam and 29 components representing more than 97.4% of the oil from Sumatra were analysed. The major components were benzyl benzoate (76.1,80.1%) for the two oils and benzoic acid (12.5%), methyl benzoate (1.5%) and allyl benzoate (1.5%) for Siam, and styrene (2.3%), cinnamic acid (3.5%) and benzyl cinnamate (3.3%) for Sumatra. Volatile compounds of oils and crushed benzoins were also studied using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) employing carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane and carbowax/divinylbenzene ,bres. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

New Approaches to 6-Oxoisoaporphine and Tetrahydroisoquinoline Derivatives

Eduardo Sobarzo-Snchez
Abstract 2,3-Dihydro-6-hydroxy-5-methoxy-7H -dibenzo[de,h]quinolin-7-one, 6-hydroxy-5-methoxy-7H -dibenzo[de,h]quinolin-7-one, and 2-(6,7-dimethoxy-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-1-yl)benzyl benzoate, easily available by a Bischler,Napieralski cyclization, were used as starting materials to afford 6-oxoisoaporphine and 2,3-dimethoxy-5,6,8,12b-tetrahydroisoindolo[1,2- a]isoquinoline as the main products. However, the catalytic hydrogenation of the benzyl benzoate derivative afforded, under mild conditions, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-1-(2-methylphenyl)isoquinoline. [source]

Oestrogenic activity of benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate and butylphenylmethylpropional (Lilial) in MCF7 human breast cancer cells in vitro

A. K. Charles
Abstract Benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate and butylphenylmethylpropional (Lilial) are added to bodycare cosmetics used around the human breast. We report here that all three compounds possess oestrogenic activity in assays using the oestrogen-responsive MCF7 human breast cancer cell line. At 3 000 000-fold molar excess, they were able to partially displace [3H]oestradiol from recombinant human oestrogen receptors ER, and ER,, and from cytosolic ER of MCF7 cells. At concentrations in the range of 5 10,5 to 5 10,4 m, they were able to increase the expression of a stably integrated oestrogen-responsive reporter gene (ERE-CAT) and of the endogenous oestrogen-responsive pS2 gene in MCF7 cells, albeit to a lesser extent than with 10,8 m 17, -oestradiol. They increased the proliferation of oestrogen-dependent MCF7 cells over 7 days, which could be inhibited by the antioestrogen fulvestrant, suggesting an ER-mediated mechanism. Although the extent of stimulation of proliferation over 7 days was lower with these compounds than with 10,8 m 17, -oestradiol, given a longer time period of 35 days the extent of proliferation with 10,4 m benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate or butylphenylmethylpropional increased to the same magnitude as observed with 10,8 m 17, -oestradiol over 14 days. This demonstrates that benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate and butylphenylmethylpropional are further chemical components of cosmetic products which give oestrogenic responses in a human breast cancer cell line in culture. Further research is now needed to investigate whether oestrogenic responses are detectable using in vivo models and the extent to which these compounds might be absorbed through human skin and might enter human breast tissues. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Self-emulsifying O/W formulations of paclitaxel prepared from mixed nonionic surfactants

Jen-Ting Lo
Abstract Nonionic self-emulsifying oil-in-water (O/W) formulations free of Cremophore were developed as drug delivery vehicles for paclitaxel. The surfactants used included phosphatidylcholine purified from egg yolk (EPC), Tween, and Span. Oils phases were either pure components or blends from benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol benzyl benzoate, and tributyrin. Among these surfactants, mixtures of EPC and Tween-80 gave really stable emulsions in proper sizes ranging from 70 to 200,nm, mainly depends on the ratio of EPC to Tween-80 and amount of oils. Paclitaxel could be well preserved without any loss in oily stocks, namely mixtures of oils and paclitaxel as well as surfactants, stored at 4C for more than 8 months. Only gentle mixing on oily stocks with aqueous diluents is enough to make paclitaxel-contained emulsions. The optimum formulation contains oils from 1 to 3 wt%, Tween-80 and EPC from 0.4 to 1.2 wt%, respectively. Consequently, near 500,ppm of paclitaxel can be contained in emulsions. Moreover, these paclitaxel-containing emulsions are compatible with commonly used injection fluids. No precipitation is observed upon preparation of emulsion from dilution of oily stocks. Negligible cytotoxicity on these emulsions assessed with NIH/3T3 cells implied their good biocompatibility and promising applications as drug delivery carriers. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 99: 2320,2332, 2010 [source]

Acaricidal properties of piperazine and its derivatives against house-dust and stored-food mites

Chi-Hoon Lee
Abstract BACKGROUND: Piperazine derivatives possess pharmacological properties, yet the acaricidal activity of these compounds has not been investigated. This study was conducted to evaluate the colour alteration and acaricidal activity of piperazine derivatives against Dermatophagoides spp. and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) using filter paper and fumigant methods. RESULTS: In a fumigant bioassay, 1-phenylpiperazine (7.83 g cm,2) against D. farinae (Hughes) was found to be 4.7 times more toxic than DEET (36.84 g cm,2), followed by benzyl benzoate (9.72 g cm,2), piperazine (11.41 g cm,2), 1-ethoxycarbonylpiperazine (20.14 g cm,2) and 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (22.14 g cm,2). In a filter paper bioassay, 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (3.65 g cm,2) was 5.7 times more toxic than DEET (20.64 g cm,2), followed by 1-ethoxycarbonylpiperazine (4.02 g cm,2), 1-phenylpiperazine (4.75 g cm,2), benzyl benzoate (7.83 g cm,2) and piperazine (10.59 g cm,2). Similar results have been exhibited with piperazine derivatives against D. pteronyssinus (Troussart). However, no activity against T. putrescentiae was observed for piperazine derivatives, except for piperazine. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that piperazine derivatives may be suitable as vapour-phase acaricide fumigants owing to their high volatility, acaricidal activity and safety. 1-Phenylpiperazine was found to be an excellent mite indicator based on the colour change it induced. Taken together, these findings indicate that piperazine derivatives may be used to replace existing problematical acaricides owing to their activity and ability to act as a mite indicator. Copyright 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Phytochemistry and preliminary biological evaluation of Cyathostemma argenteum, a malaysian plant used traditionally for the treatment of breast cancer

i Khamis
Abstract Bioassay guided fractionation of the roots of Cyathostemma argenteum using the brine shrimp resulted in the isolation of two uncommon ,avanones, 2,5-dihydroxy-7-methoxy,avanone 1 and 2,5-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy,avanone 2 while the stem bark yielded the related compounds 5-hydroxy-7-methoxy,avone 3 and 5-hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy,avone 4. The alkaloids liriodenine 5 and discretamine 6 as well as benzyl benzoate 7 were isolated from the roots and 6 was also isolated from the stembark. In cytotoxicity tests using four human breast cancer cell lines, 1 and 2 were weakly toxic to MCF-7 cells (IC50 = 19.6 and 19.0 m, respectively) but showed little activity against MCF-7 cells resistant to doxorubicin or against two oestrogen receptor-de,cient cell lines. Compound 5, but not 6 and 7, was moderately cytotoxic against all four cell lines. These results are discussed in the context of the traditional use of C. argenteum in the treatment of breast cancer. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]