Benign Procedure (benign + procedure)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


An Efficient Synthesis of Novel Hexahydropyrido[2,3- d]pyrimidine Derivatives from (Arylmethylidene)pyruvic Acids (=(3E)-4-Aryl-2-oxobut-3-enoic Acids) in Aqueous Media

HELVETICA CHIMICA ACTA, Issue 5 2009
Saeed Balalaie
Abstract A series of new hexahydropyrido[2,3- d]pyrimidine derivatives 3 were synthesized by the cyclocondensation reaction of (arylmethylidene)pyruvic acids (=(3E)-4-aryl-2-oxobut-3-enoic acids) 1 and 6-aminouracils (=6-aminopyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-diones) 2 in H2O under reflux conditions (Scheme,1, Table). This novel protocol has the advantages of facility, of easy workup, of high yields, and of an environmentally benign procedure. The structures of compounds 3a,3f were corroborated spectroscopically (IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR, and EI-MS). A plausible mechanism for the reaction is proposed (Scheme,2). [source]


An efficient and clean synthesis of pyrido[2,3- d]pyrimidine-4,7-dione derivatives in aqueous media

JOURNAL OF HETEROCYCLIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 6 2009
Da-Qing Shi
A series of 2-amino-5-aryl-5,6-dihydropyrido[2,3- d]pyrimidine-4,7(3H,8H)-dione derivatives were synthesized via the three-component reaction of aromatic aldehyde, 2,6-diaminopyrimidine- 4(3H)-one, and Meldrum's acid in water in the presence of triethylbenzylammonium chloride (TEBAC). This protocol has the advantages of easier work-up, milder reaction conditions, and environmentally benign procedure. J. Heterocyclic Chem., (2009). [source]


A facile synthesis of furo[3,4- e]pyrazolo[3,4- b]pyridine-5(7H)-one derivatives via three-component reaction in ionic liquid without any catalyst

JOURNAL OF HETEROCYCLIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 3 2009
Da-Qing Shi
A series of furo[3,4- e]pyrazolo[3,4- b]pyridine-5(7H)-one and indeno[2,1- e]pyrazolo[3,4- b]pyridine-5(1H)-one derivatives were synthesized via the three-component reaction of an aldehyde, 5-aminopyrazole and either tetronic acid or 1,3-indanedione in ionic liquid without any catalyst. The structures of the products have been established by spectroscopic data and further confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. This method has the advantages of easier work-up, mild reaction conditions, high yields and an environmentally benign procedure. J. Heterocyclic Chem., 46, 469 (2009). [source]


Cardiac Output Technologies with Special Reference to the Horse

JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE, Issue 3 2003
Kevin T.T. Corley
Critical illness, anesthesia, primary cardiovascular disease, and exercise may result in marked hemodynamic alterations. Measuring cardiac output (CO) is central to defining these alterations for both clinician and researcher. In the past 10 years, several new methods of measuring CO have been developed for the human medical market. Some of these methods are now validated in the horse and are in clinical use. The Fick method has been used in equine research for more than a century. It depends on simultaneous measurement of mixed venous (pulmonary arterial) and peripheral arterial oxygen content and oxygen uptake by the lungs. The technique is technically demanding, which restricts its clinical use. Indicator dilution techniques, with indocyanine green, cold (thermodilution), or lithium as the marker, have also been widely used in the horse. The indocyanine technique is cumbersome, and thermodilution requires right heart catheterization, which is not a benign procedure, making both of these methods less than ideal for clinical use. Lithium dilution requires catheterization of a peripheral artery and a jugular vein. It has recently been validated in anesthetized adult horses and neonatal foals. Doppler echocardiography is a noninvasive ultrasound-based technique. More accurate measurements are obtained with transesophageal than with transthoracic measurements; however, both methods require considerable technical expertise. Bioimpedance and pulse contour analysis are 2 new methods that have yet to be validated in the horse. With the currently available technology, lithium dilution appears to be the method of measuring CO best suited to the equine clinic. [source]


Complication Risk with Pulse Generator Change: Implications When Reacting to a Device Advisory or Recall

PACING AND CLINICAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 6 2007
SURAJ KAPA M.D.
Background:Recent advisories and recalls of pacemakers and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) have highlighted the need for evidence-based recommendations regarding management of patients with advisory devices. In order to better facilitate decision-making when weighing the relative risks and benefits of performing generator changes in these patients, we conducted a review to assess operative complication rates. Methods:We reviewed generator changes performed between 2000 and 2005 at the Mayo Clinic-Rochester, including a total of 732 change-outs consisting of 570 done for elective replacement indicators (ERI) and 162 for manufacturer advisories or recalls. Complications included all those requiring reoperation, occurring within a 60-day period postoperatively and directly attributable to the generator change. These included infection requiring device excision, hematoma requiring evacuation, and incisional dehiscence requiring reclosure. Results:Operation-associated complications requiring intervention were noted in 9 patients, or 1.24% of our population. Of these nine complications, eight occurred among patients receiving pulse generator replacement for ERI (1.40%) and one occurred in a patient receiving replacement for a manufacturer advisory or recall (0.62%). Complications included 5 infections, 3 hematomas, and 1 incisional dehiscence. Conclusions:Generator replacement is not a benign procedure and associated risks must be weighed in the context of other variables when making management choices in patients with advisory or recall devices. [source]


An Environmentally Benign Access to Dimethylated 1,6-Dihydropyrimidines Using Dimethyl Carbonate as Methylating Agent under Microwave

CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY, Issue 2 2008
Xi-Cun WANG
Abstract An environmentally benign procedure for dimethylated 1,6-dihydropyrimidines has been developed by the reaction of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-2-thiones with dimethyl carbonate, a non-toxic and environmentally friendly reagent. The methylation of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-2-thione was promoted by MgO and tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) under microwave. This protocol avoids the use of strong bases and highly toxic methylating agents such as methyl halide or dimethyl sulfate. Additionally, the possible role of MgO/TBAB in the reaction was also presented. [source]