Beneficial Changes (beneficial + change)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Formation and resolution of ankylosis under application of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) to class III furcation defects in cats

D. Takahashi
Objectives:, Periodontal regeneration under application of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) is compromised by ankylosis. Ankylosis disappearance following application of BMP has been observed in the case of a small defect, which might be beneficial change for periodontal regeneration. However, the histological observation of ankylosis disappearance has not been demonstrated in a large defect. The purpose of this present study was to confirm resolution of ankylosis during periodontal regeneration by recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) applied to class III furcation defects. Material and methods:, Class III furcation defects were created in the premolars of six adult cats. The rhBMP-2 material, prepared by applying rhBMP-2 to a combination of polylactic acid,polygricolic copolymer and gelatin sponge (PGS; 0.33 µg rhBMP-2/mm3 PGS) or control material containing only PGS, was implanted into each defect. The cats were killed at 3, 6 or 12 weeks after surgery and serial sections were prepared for histological and histometrical observation. Results:, Ankylosis was observed in some of the rhBMP-2/PGS group at 3 and 6 weeks, but not at 12 weeks. At 6 weeks, osteoclast-like cells were visible in the rhBMP-2/PGS group with ankylosis. Residual PGS was evident between the bone and root surface in the rhBMP-2/PGS group without ankylosis at 3 weeks. Conclusions:, Resolution of ankylosis by osteoclast-like cells possibly occurred under application of rhBMP-2. Residual PGS might play an important role in preventing ankylosis formation. [source]

Mechanisms of exercise-induced improvements in the contractile apparatus of the mammalian myocardium

O. J. Kemi
Abstract One of the main outcomes of aerobic endurance exercise training is the improved maximal oxygen uptake, and this is pivotal to the improved work capacity that follows the exercise training. Improved maximal oxygen uptake in turn is at least partly achieved because exercise training increases the ability of the myocardium to produce a greater cardiac output. In healthy subjects, this has been demonstrated repeatedly over many decades. It has recently emerged that this scenario may also be true under conditions of an initial myocardial dysfunction. For instance, myocardial improvements may still be observed after exercise training in post-myocardial infarction heart failure. In both health and disease, it is the changes that occur in the individual cardiomyocytes with respect to their ability to contract that by and large drive the exercise training-induced adaptation to the heart. Here, we review the evidence and the mechanisms by which exercise training induces beneficial changes in the mammalian myocardium, as obtained by means of experimental and clinical studies, and argue that these changes ultimately alter the function of the whole heart and contribute to the changes in whole-body function. [source]

Psychological effects of prevention: do participants of a type 2 diabetes prevention program experience increased mental distress?

Katrin E. Giel
Abstract Objective To evaluate the mental health outcome of a lifestyle intervention for the prevention of type 2 diabetes and to exclude possible harmful psychological effects. Background There is little empirical data on potential harmful effects of prevention programs. However, information, education, diagnostic procedures, phenotyping and risk assessment may cause or intensify psychological distress such as anxiety, depression or somatization in vulnerable individuals. Methods The Tuebingen Lifestyle Intervention Program (TULIP) for the prevention of type 2 diabetes has assessed mental health outcome in the participants after 9 months of program participation using the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R). The 24-months lifestyle intervention TULIP comprises regular exercise and changes in nutrition and assesses both, a broad range of somatic parameters as well as psychometric variables. For an interim analysis of psychological outcome, complete data sets of the SCL-90-R assessed at baseline and after 9 months of intervention were available for 195 participants (125 females, 70 males; age: 46.1 ± 10.6 years). Data on somatization, anxiety, depression and overall psychological distress were compared to baseline levels. Results SCL-90-R scores of the TULIP-participants did not significantly differ from the German healthy reference population. Compared to baseline, a significant decrease in SCL-90-R scores was found for anxiety, depression and overall psychological distress at re-assessment after 9 months. Conclusion The interim analysis on mental health outcome of a type 2 diabetes prevention program comprising extensive phenotyping and risk assessment rules out adverse psychological effects, suggesting rather beneficial changes concerning symptoms of anxiety, depression and overall psychological distress. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Improvements in insulin sensitivity and ,-cell function (HOMA) with weight loss in the severely obese

J. B. Dixon
Abstract Aims To examine the effect of weight loss on insulin sensitivity and ,-cell function in severely obese subjects of varying glycaemic control. Patients and methods Subjects were 254 (F:M 209:45) patients having adjustable gastric banding for severe obesity, with paired biochemical data from before operation and at 1-year follow up. The homeostatic model assessment method was used to calculate insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S) and ,-cell function (HOMA%B). Subjects were grouped by diabetic status and by pre-weight loss HbA1c. Results Initial mean (sd) weight and body mass index were 128 (26) kg and 46.2 (7.7) kg/m2, respectively, and at 1-year were 101 (22) kg and 36.4 (6.7) kg/m2. The percentage of excess weight lost (%EWL) was 44.3 (14)%. HOMA%S improved from 37.5 (16)% presurgery to 62 (25)% (P < 0.001). %EWL was the only predictor of HOMA%S improvement (r = 0.28, P < 0.001). Subjects with normal fasting glucose, impaired fasting glucose and Type 2 diabetes had a fall, no change and increase in HOMA%B, respectively. The improvement in HOMA%B in subjects with diabetes (n = 39) was inversely related to the time with diabetes (r = ,0.36, P = 0.02). In non-diabetic subjects the HOMA%S,HOMA%B relationship was favourably altered with weight loss, so that for any given HOMA%S there was an increase in HOMA%B (f = 11.8, P = 0.001). This improvement in HOMA%B was positively related to %EWL (r = 0.25, P = 0.019). Discussion There are beneficial changes in both insulin sensitivity and ,-cell function with weight loss. Modern laparoscopic obesity surgery may have an important early role in the management of Type 2 diabetes in obese subjects. [source]

Placebo-corrected efficacy of modern antiepileptic drugs for refractory epilepsy: Systematic review and meta-analysis

EPILEPSIA, Issue 1 2010
Stefan Beyenburg
Summary Although adjunctive treatment with modern antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is standard care in refractory epilepsy, it is unclear how much of the effect can be attributed directly to the AEDs and how much to the beneficial changes seen with placebo. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence to determine the placebo-corrected net efficacy of adjunctive treatment with modern AEDs on the market for refractory epilepsy. Of 317 potentially eligible articles reviewed in full text, 124 (39%) fulfilled eligibility criteria. After excluding 69 publications, 55 publications of 54 studies in 11,106 adults and children with refractory epilepsy form the basis of evidence. The overall weighted pooled-risk difference in favor of AEDs over placebo for seizure-freedom in the total sample of adults and children was 6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 4,8, z = 6.47, p < 0.001] and 21% (95% CI 19,24, z = 17.13, p < 0.001) for 50% seizure reduction. Although the presence of moderate heterogeneity may reduce the validity of the results and limit generalizations from the findings, we conclude that the placebo-corrected efficacy of adjunctive treatment with modern AEDs is disappointingly small and suggest that better strategies of finding drugs are needed for refractory epilepsy, which is a major public health problem. [source]

Survival rates, causes of failure and productivity of Skylark Alauda arvensis nests on lowland farmland

IBIS, Issue 4 2002
P. F. Donald
This paper analyses data from 995 Skylark Alauda arvensis nests found on lowland farms in southern England from 1996 to 1998. The majority of recorded nest failures were caused by predation except in agricultural grass, where trampling and agricultural operations were equally important. Nest survival rates varied between crop types, nests in cereals being around twice as likely to succeed as nests in grass or set-aside. In cereals, nest survival rates increased with increasing distance from the nearest tramline and declined over the course of the breeding season. Predator control also had a significant independent effect on nest survival rates. On one farm where many other factors were held constant, a highly significant increase in nest survival rates from 12.3% to 40.7% coincided with the introduction of intensive predator control, which also appeared to bring forward mean laying dates. Most environmental factors explaining significant variation in nest survival rates did so only at the chick stage. The mean number of chicks produced per nesting attempt was 1.26 in cereals, 0.78 in set-aside and 0.63 in grass, the differences being due primarily to variation in nest survival rates. Low densities of Skylark territories in cereal crops are not therefore the consequence of low breeding success at the scale of the individual nest and probably reflect limitations on the number of attempts made in a season. Measures taken to improve the attractiveness of cereal crops as a nesting habitat for Skylarks, and beneficial changes in grassland management, are likely to increase overall productivity. [source]

Irbesartan has no short-term effect on insulin resistance in hypertensive patients with additional cardiometabolic risk factors (i-RESPOND)

K. G. Parhofer
Summary Aims:, Intervention studies have shown that angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) may reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is currently unclear whether short-term therapy with ARBs affects metabolic parameters. Methods:, i-RESPOND, a randomised, controlled, multicentre, double-blind study evaluated the effect of 16 weeks of irbesartan vs. hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) on insulin resistance as well as on lipid and inflammatory parameters in hypertensive subjects with metabolic syndrome. Patients received irbesartan (150 mg/d; n = 211) or HCTZ (12.5 mg/d; n = 215), titrated to 300 mg/day and 25 mg/day respectively. In a second part of the study (weeks 16,28), patients initially randomised to irbesartan received additional HCTZ and vice versa. Results:, At week 16 both irbesartan and HCTZ had no effect on insulin resistance measured by the Matzuda index and beta-cell function. Similarly, in the second part of the study (week 16,28) no differences between irbesartan and HCTZ with respect to glucose metabolism were observed. However, irbesartan induced beneficial changes in high-sensitivity-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (irbesartan: ,5.5 ± 5.2%; HCTZ + 19.9 ± 6.5%, p = 0.0024) and in urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) (irbesartan: ,13%; HCTZ + 9%; p = 0.0041) compared with HCTZ despite a similar decrease in blood pressure in both treatment groups. Irbesartan and HCTZ were well tolerated and adverse events were comparable. Conclusion:, Irbesartan did not show significant favourable effects on insulin resistance compared with HCTZ in this study; however, may have beneficial effects on inflammation and microalbuminuria in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome. [source]

Renal damage in rats induced by myocardial ischemia/reperfusion: Role of nitric oxide

Background: It has been demonstrated that myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) causes renal damage. However, the mechanism underlying this damage in kidneys during revascularization of myocardium is unclear. Direct renal ischemia/reperfusion has been implicated in the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) that leads to increase production of nitric oxide (NO). Recently, excessive production of NO has been found to be involved in causing renal injury by formatting peroxinitrite (ONOO,). The aim of this study was to investigate whether NO has a role in this damage, using aminoguanidine (AMG), a known iNOS inhibitor and an antioxidant, in rats undergoing MI/R. Methods: Male Wistar rats were used for the experiments (n = 7 each group). In the MI/R group, the left coronary artery was occluded for 30 min and then reperfused for 120 min; the same procedure was used for the AMG group, with the additional step of AMG (200 mg/kg) administered 10 min prior to ischemia. A control group underwent sham operation. At the end of the reperfusion period, all rats were killed and their kidneys removed for biochemical determination and histopathological analysis. Results: Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion in the rat kidney was accompanied by a significant increase in malondialdehyde and NO production, and a decrease in glutathione content. Administration of AMG reduced malondialdehyde and NO production and prevented depletion of glutathione content. These beneficial changes in the biochemical parameters were also associated with parallel changes in histopathological appearance. Conclusion: These findings suggest that MI/R plays a causal role in kidney injury and AMG exerts renal-protective effects, probably by inhibiting NO production and antioxidant activities. [source]

Ageing and the changing role of the family and the community: An African perspective

Nana Araba Apt
Global ageing, the major social issue of the twenty-first century, will have greater social repercussions for developing countries. The fastest increase of older persons in terms of ratio in relation to younger people is happening in developing countries, and in Africa segregation of older people in rural areas will become manifest. While beneficial changes for women have accompanied modernization in many of the developing countries, the situation of older women appears to be particularly precarious. Social changes brought about by modernization are also profoundly affecting the traditional systems of care for older people. Even though most older people requiring care are still looked after within the informal structures of the family, this can no longer be taken for granted as we move into the new century. This paper critically reviews social protection systems and the resource constraints which characterize developing countries and warns against blind development of social security systems based on those of the industrialized countries. The paper argues for the design of intergenerational support back into mainstream social relations so that older persons are not marginalized and put at risk through social protection programmes which reinforce physical vulnerability stereotypes and stress welfare needs over and above older people's social and economic contributions to society [source]

Intestinal function and gut microflora of broiler chickens as influenced by cereal grains and microbial enzyme supplementation

M. D. Shakouri
Summary A study was conducted to investigate the effect of the key cereal grains and a microbial enzyme supplement on broiler chicken performance, gut microflora and intestinal function. Ingestion of the barley-based diet was associated with low 28-day body weight, decreased feed intake and high FCR. The supplemental enzyme increased feed intake and weight gain of the chickens on a wheat-based diet. The pH of the gizzard and caecal contents varied with the grain type. Enzyme supplementation reduced ileal viscosity, particularly in birds that received the diet based on wheat. The birds on the barley-based diet had lower ileal digestibility of dry matter, protein and energy than those given maize and sorghum-based diets. The ileal digestibility of starch was increased by enzyme supplementation. Enzyme supplementation increased the number of total anaerobic bacteria in the gizzard of birds fed on sorghum and increased lactobacilli in the gizzard of those fed both sorghum and wheat. The birds fed the sorghum-based diet had the lowest counts of caecal total anaerobic bacteria and lactobacilli. Jejunal villus height and villus:crypt ratio of birds fed the barley-based diet were the lowest when compared with those fed the other diets. Enzyme application induced an increase in villus height and villus:crypt ratio of birds on wheat, crypt depth on barley and a reduction in crypt depth of chickens on the sorghum-based diets. The highest activity of maltase and the lowest activity of sucrase were observed in tissue from birds fed on maize and sorghum-based diets respectively. The differences in the performance of broilers on cereal grains could be explained by changes in intestinal morphology, enzyme activities and gut microflora as well as nutrient digestibility. The improved performance by supplemental enzyme in wheat-fed chickens was associated with beneficial changes in intestinal morphology and digesta viscosity. [source]

A three-year prospective study of adult subjects with gingivitis II: microbiological parameters

R. P. Teles
Abstract Aim: To investigate whether the clinical benefits obtained with a periodontal prevention programme in subjects with periodontal health or minimal disease were accompanied by beneficial changes in the subgingival microbiota. Material and Methods: One hundred and twenty-four subjects completed the study. Subjects were clinically and microbiologically monitored at baseline, 1, 2 and 3 years. Subgingival plaque samples were taken from the mesiobuccal aspect of every tooth and were analysed for the levels of 40 bacterial species using checkerboard DNA,DNA hybridization (total samples=13,477). The mean counts of each of the 40 test species were calculated for each subject at each time point. Significance of differences over time was sought using the Friedman test. p values were adjusted for multiple comparisons. Results: All clinical parameters, at the microbiologically sampled sites, improved over time. The clinical changes were accompanied by statistically significant decreases in the mean counts of 35 of the 40 test species. Major reductions occurred by year 2 for Actinomyces, Capnocytophaga, Campylobacter, Fusobacterium and Prevotella species. At year 3, there was a modest re-growth of the majority of the species. Conclusions: The clinical improvements obtained through preventive measures were accompanied by a shift to a more host-compatible subgingival microbiota. [source]

What interventions should we add to weight reducing diets in adults with obesity?

A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of adding drug therapy, behaviour therapy or combinations of these interventions, exercise
Abstract Background, Evidence is needed for the effectiveness of interventions given with reducing diets for obese adults: drug therapy, exercise, or behaviour therapy. Methods, We systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials in any language. We searched 13 databases and handsearched journals. Trials lasted 1 year or more. One investigator extracted data and a second checked data extraction. Trial quality was assessed. Results, Adding orlistat to diet was associated with weight change for up to 24 months (,3.26 kg, 95% CI, ,4.15 to ,2.37 kg), and statistically significant beneficial changes were found for total and LDL cholesterol, blood pressure and glycaemic control. Adding sibutramine to diet was associated with a 12 month weight change of ,4.18 kg (95% CI, ,5.14 to ,3.21 kg), and statistically significant beneficial effects on high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and triglycerides (TGs), but an increase in diastolic blood pressure. Adding exercise to diet, or to diet and behaviour therapy, was associated with improved weight loss for up to 36 months and improvements in HDL, TGs and blood pressure. Adding behaviour therapy to diet, or to diet and sibutramine together, was associated with improved weight loss for up to 18 months. Adding drugs, exercise or behaviour therapy to dietary advice was each associated with similar weight change. Conclusions, Adding orlistat, sibutramine, exercise, or behaviour modification to dietary advice can improve long-term weight loss. [source]

Changing from a mixed to self-selected vegetarian diet , influence on blood lipids

F. Robinson
Abstract Objective To observe any changes in serum concentrations of lipids, when UK meat-eaters switch to a self selected vegetarian diet for 6 months. Design Observational study using capillary blood samples and 3-day estimated dietary diary. Setting Free-living subjects in the North-West of England. Subjects Twelve male and 31 female adult volunteers aged between 18 and 42 years. Outcome measures Serum lipids; nutrient intake and anthropometric measurements at baseline and 6 months after switching to a self-selected vegetarian diet. Results Total energy intake and amount of energy derived from saturated fatty acids decreased significantly after changing to a vegetarian diet (P < 0.05) whereas energy derived from carbohydrate, and intakes of nonstarch polysaccharide intake increased. On switching to a vegetarian diet, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations were not significantly changed, but HDL-C was 21% higher than at baseline (1.21 mmol L,1 vs. 1.47 mmol L,1; P = 0.001). Conclusions These results suggest that beneficial changes to diet occurred on changing to a self-selected vegetarian diet. Changing to a self-selected vegetarian diet appears to be one way of achieving a better blood lipid profile. [source]

Melatonin reduces uranium-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

Montserrat Bellés
Abstract:, The protective role of exogenous melatonin on U-induced nephrotoxicity was investigated in rats. Animals were given single doses of uranyl acetate dihydrate (UAD) at 5 mg/kg (subcutaneous), melatonin at 10 or 20 mg/kg (intraperitoneal), and UAD (5 mg/kg) plus melatonin (10 or 20 mg/kg), or vehicle (control group). In comparison with the UAD-treated group only, significant beneficial changes were noted in some urinary and serum parameters of rats concurrently exposed to UAD and melatonin. The increase of U excretion after UAD administration was accompanied by a significant reduction in the renal content of U when melatonin was given at a dose of 20 mg/kg. Melatonin also reduced the severity of the U-induced histological alterations in kidney. In renal tissue, the activity of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels increased significantly as a result of UAD exposure. Following UAD administration, oxidative stress markers in erythrocytes showed a reduction in SOD activity and an increase in TBARS levels, which were significantly restored by melatonin administration. In plasma, reduced glutathione (GSH) and its oxidized form (GSSG) were also altered in UAD-exposed rats. However, only the GSSG/GSH ratio was restored to control levels after melatonin treatment. Oxidative damage was observed in kidneys. Melatonin administration partially restored these adverse effects. It is concluded that melatonin offers some benefit as a potential agent to treat acute U-induced nephrotoxicity. [source]

Changes in body composition after a 12-wk aerobic exercise program in obese boys

Richard A DeStefano
Previous studies have shown that vigorous aerobic training programs for obese children result in minimal weight changes, and concluded that they may not be beneficial. Weight change alone may not detect important beneficial changes in body composition associated with vigorous training in these children. Fifteen obese boys (aged 9,12 yr, body mass index (BMI) 31.8±6.5, average percent body fat (%BF) 41±4.2) underwent a supervised aerobic and resistance training program (12 wk, 2 days/wk for 30 min/session), to investigate the effects on weight and body composition. After the 3-month training period, weight loss averaged only 1.5±1.0 kg (not significant), but total body fat decreased by 4.1±1.8 kg (p<0.05) and fat-free mass (FFM) increased by 2.6±1.1 kg (p<0.05) based on hydrostatic weighing. As a result, %BF fell by 10% (p<0.01). There was a 5.8±2.8 mL/kg/min (p<0.05) increase in peak volume of oxygen uptake (VO2), along with a 248±120 kcal/d (p<0.05) increase in resting energy expenditure (REE). Activity questionnaires showed a significant increase in high intensity recreational activities (6.5±1.5 vs 3.5±0.5 h physical activity/wk; p<0.01) in the home and a significant decrease in low intensity activities (7±2.0 vs 12±3.5 h TV viewing/wk; p<0.01). Conclusions: Vigorous supervised aerobic training in obese boys has beneficial effects on body composition, fitness and leisure time activities that are not apparent by measurement of changes in body weight alone. [source]

High-fiber diet promotes weight loss and affects maternal behavior in vervet monkeys

Lynn A. Fairbanks
Abstract The dramatic increase in obesity in western societies has shifted the emphasis in nutrition research from the problems of undernutrition to the adverse consequences of being overweight. As with humans, Old World monkeys are at increased risk for type II diabetes and other chronic diseases when they gain excessive weight. To prevent overweight and obesity, promote animal health, and provide a more natural level of fiber in the diet, the standard commercial monkey chow diet at a vervet monkey breeding colony was changed to a higher fiber formulation in 2004. The new diet was also higher in protein and lower in carbohydrate and energy density than the standard diet. Because maternal behavior is known to be sensitive to differences in resource availability, data on weight and mother,infant interactions for 147 mothers with 279 infants born from 2000 through 2006 were assessed for effects of the diet change. The results showed that, even though food was provided ad libitum, the mean body weight of breeding females was 10% lower after the transition to the high-fiber diet. Behaviorally, mothers on the high-fiber diet were significantly more rejecting to their infants, and their infants had to play a greater role in maintaining ventral contact in the first few months of their lives. The effects of the diet change on maternal rejection were significantly related to the mother's body weight, with lower-weight mothers scoring higher in maternal rejection. These results demonstrate that maternal behavior is responsive to changes in maternal condition, and that beneficial changes in the diet may have unintended consequences on behavior. Am. J. Primatol. 72:234,241, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Ozonated Autohemotherapy in Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis: Influence on Lipid Profile and Endothelium

Leszek Tylicki
Abstract:, Ozonated autohemotherapy (O3-AHT) is used in the treatment of atherosclerotic ischemia of lower limbs (AILL). The impact of ozone on serum lipids and endothelium injury is of particular interest since these factors are important in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. To evaluate this issue, a prospective, placebo-controlled study was designed. Twelve hemodialyzed subjects with AILL received autohemotherapy with oxygen as a control followed by O3-AHT with ozone concentration of 50 µg/ml. Serum lipids and plasma activity of von Willebrand factor (vWF) were measured. After O3-AHT, total cholesterol significantly decreased compared to the baseline (,8.34%) [P < 0.01]. LDL cholesterol was also significantly lower than the initial value (,17.71%) [P < 0.001]. No significant changes in the activity of vWF were found after the first session of O3-AHT and after all nine sessions of O3-AHT. The study demonstrated that O3-AHT did not affect deleteriously the endothelium in patients with chronic renal failure on maintenance hemodialysis. It ,may stimulate beneficial changes in serum lipid profile manifesting as,,a, decrease ,in the total- and LDL-cholesterol ,levels. [source]