Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Bend

  • river bend

  • Terms modified by Bend

  • bend angle
  • bend strength
  • bend test

  • Selected Abstracts

    Experimental techniques for fracture instability toughness determination of unidirectional fibre metal laminates

    ABSTRACT The aim of this work is to propose procedures for the measurement of the fracture toughness of fibre metal laminates (FMLs) reinforced with unidirectional fibres of aramid or glass. Experimental techniques for fracture toughness evaluation by using Compact (C(T)) and Single-Edge Bend (SE(B)) specimens obeying ASTM standards are introduced. Procedures from the standard for thick metallic materials were modified in order to overcome problems, which can arise when testing FMLs , that is, specimen buckling, indentations and crack growth in planes other than the plane of the fatigue pre-crack or notch. The methodology proposed was experimentally tested leading to satisfactory results. [source]

    Features of cross-Pacific climate shown in the variability of China and US precipitation

    Q. Li
    Abstract In this study, we have analyzed the climate features of China and the United States with a focus on the differences, similarities, connectivity, and predictability of precipitation and the relationships between precipitation and large-scale patterns of natural variability. China precipitation is characterized by large seasonality, with a maximum in summer and a minimum in winter. The seasonality of precipitation shows an increasing linear tendency in northwest China, with a change of about 20% from 1901 to 1998. A relatively weaker increasing tendency also appears in the Big Bend of Yellow River (BBYR) and the Tibetan Plateau, while southwest China experiences a decreasing tendency. Furthermore, the seasonality in the BBYR shows particularly significant interdecadal variability, while that of southern and eastern China has decreased slightly in the recent decades. Compared to China, the United States as a whole has less precipitation in summer but more precipitation in other seasons. Here, the seasonality of precipitation is only about 24% of that in China. The annual mean precipitation is 64.1 mm per month in the United States, compared to 54.6 mm per month in China. The seasonality of precipitation exhibits a decreasing tendency in the southeast, Pacific Northwest, and Gulf Coast and an increasing tendency in the Great Lakes. The seasonality in the Great Plains exhibits large interdecadal variability. The long-term variations of precipitation are highly seasonally dependent. In summer, a decreasing trend is observed in north China and an increasing trend is found in eastern-central China. However, these trends are almost opposite in spring. In addition, the fall precipitation decreases with time nearly everywhere in China except for the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Valley. Results also indicate that the El Nio/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Arctic Oscillation (AO), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and the North Pacific (NP) fluctuation affect strongly the variations of China and US precipitation. Although these influences vary with regions and seasons, we in particular emphasize the importance of AO and NAO for China precipitation and NP and PDO for US precipitation. In fall, ENSO and PDO are the two phenomena that influence predominantly precipitation variability in both China and the United States We also identify the common phenomena that influence China and US regional precipitation and provide a better understanding of the physical mechanism for precipitation variability through the associated changes in atmospheric and oceanic conditions. Furthermore, we develop a linear regression model, based on multiple regression method by combining the regionally and seasonally varying impacts, to increase the skill of precipitation prediction. Copyright 2005 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

    95 Development of macroalgal (seaweed) taxonomic keys utilizing digital & media technology

    R. L. Lehman
    Digital, user-friendly seaweed identification keys and instructional materials can provide information that allows students and researchers to enhance and improve marine field and ecological studies by including macroalgae. In much of the scientific literature, the seaweeds are only characterized to division (red, green, and brown), sometimes to genus, and very rarely to species; so there is clearly a need for a reference that facilitates the identification of the seaweeds. Many of the problems occur because of the lack of user-friendly identification keys. However, it is not necessary to be an expert to identify seaweeds as many of the key characteristics used in their identification can be ascertained with the naked eye, a hand lens and an inexpensive microscope. What is needed is an identification guide that uses and displays important characters and identification structures visually (both macroscopic and microscopic) so that research scientists, students, teachers and the general public will be able to identify the seaweeds with confidence. We are using Lucid Professional software to construct digital keys for the identification of macroalgae from the Texas Coastal Bend. The advantages include: 1) key characters along with descriptions and images for specific macroalgae may be chosen from a geographic area of choice, 2) the user may evaluate the characters in any order and difficult or uncertain characters may be ignored, 3) descriptive pages of images, definitions, video clips and illustrations may be included for each taxon, and 4) the key can be displayed as a website or packaged as a CD to be used with laptop computers in the field. [source]

    Origin of Bends in Unperturbed Vinyl Polymers: An Illustration with Polystyrene

    Yergou B. Tatek
    Abstract Previous experimental works have shown that dendronized vinyl polymers exhibit bends when adsorbed onto a surface. Two different mechanisms are believed to be responsible for the formation of these bends. These mechanisms are the temperature dependent random fluctuations of torsional bond states on one hand, and the intramolecular interactions due to the randomness in the stereochemical sequence of side chains on the other hand. Investigation of the amplitude and scope of the above mechanisms has been made by studying the conformational space of PS chains via RIS based Monte Carlo sampling. It was found that at low temperature bend formation is due to tacticity, whereas it was thermally driven at high temperature. The existence of a transition temperature between these two bend formation modes was demonstrated. It was also shown that for atactic chains, the maximum of bend formation occurs at Pm,,,0.7. [source]

    Modulation of VE-cadherin and PECAM-1 mediated cell,cell adhesions by mitogen-activated protein kinases

    Jianqiang Wu
    Abstract Endothelial cell transition from a differentiated, quiescent phenotype to a migratory, proliferative phenotype is essential during angiogenesis. This transition is dependent on alterations in the balanced production of stimulatory and inhibitory factors, which normally keep angiogenesis in check. Activation of MAPK/ERKs is essential for endothelial cell migration and proliferation. However, its role in regulation of endothelial cell adhesive mechanisms requires further delineation. Here, we show that sustained activation of MAPK/ERKs results in disruption of cadherin-mediated cell,cell adhesion, down-regulation of PECAM-1 expression, and enhanced cell migration in microvascular endothelial cells. Expression of a constitutively active MEK-1 in mouse brain endothelial (bEND) cells resulted in down-regulation of VE-cadherin and catenins expression concomitant with down-regulation of PECAM-1 expression. In contrast, inhibition of MEK-1 restored parental morphology, cadherin/catenins expression and localization. These data are further supported by our observation that sustained activation of MAPK/ERKs in phorbol myristate acetate incubated HUVEC lead to disruption of cadherin-mediate cell,cell interactions and enhanced capillary formation on Matrigel. Thus, sustained activation of MAPK/ERKs plays an important role in disruption of cell,cell adhesion and migration of endothelial cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 90: 121,137, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Malin Odenlund
    SUMMARY 1Oestrogen reduces vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation in mouse vascular injury models. Data on the antiproliferative effect of oestrogen in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are less conclusive than those obtained in whole animal studies. 2In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that oestrogen-induced attenuation of VSMC proliferation is facilitated by the presence of endothelial cells (EC) using a coculture system of EC and VSMC. 3Treatment with a physiological concentration of oestrogen (17,-estradiol (E2); 100 nmol/L) had no effect on fetal calf serum (FCS)-stimulated DNA synthesis in either A7r5 VSMC or bEnd.3 EC. However, stimulation of bEnd. 3 cells with E2 in a coculture system of bEnd.3 and A7r5 cells reduced FCS-induced DNA synthesis in A7r5 cells by approximately 45%. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG -nitro- l- arginine methyl ester (l -NAME; 100 mol/L) did not reverse the oestrogen-induced attenuation of DNA synthesis. The antiproliferative effect of E2 may be mediated via either oestrogen receptor (ER) ,, ER, or both because the bEnd.3 cells expressed immunoreactivity for both ER subtypes. 4These data show that ER,- and ER,-expressing endothelial cells, which are stimulated with a physiological concentration of oestrogen, release a factor(s) that arrests the proliferation of cocultured VSMC. Oestrogen-induced attenuation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation is not prevented by l -NAME, suggesting that a mechanism other than endothelial NO is involved. [source]

    FlattGen: Teaching tool for surface flattening

    Simon Kolmani
    Abstract In many cases in the industry, we can face a problem, where an object has to be manufactured out of thin plane material. This is especially the case in the car, airplane, shipbuilding, textile, and shoe making industry. In order to manufacture such an object, a pattern has to be generated first. It has to be cut out from plane material and then bend to the final shape. The same problem can be found also in computer graphics, where flat patterns are used to decrease distortions in texture mapping. Therefore, it is important for designers and computer engineers to master the flat pattern generation. In literature, a great number of methods for pattern generation can be found and it is important to know their advantages and weaknesses. In this article, the application FlattGen is presented where the most important flattening methods can be seen and compared to each other. In this way, students can experiment and prepare themselves better for the future work. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 14: 106,119, 2006; Published online in Wiley InterScience (; DOI 10.1002/cae.20060 [source]

    Understanding heart development and congenital heart defects through developmental biology: A segmental approach

    Masahide Sakabe
    ABSTRACT The heart is the first organ to form and function during development. In the pregastrula chick embryo, cells contributing to the heart are found in the postero-lateral epiblast. During the pregastrula stages, interaction between the posterior epiblast and hypoblast is required for the anterior lateral plate mesoderm (ALM) to form, from which the heart will later develop. This tissue interaction is replaced by an Activin-like signal in culture. During gastrulation, the ALM is committed to the heart lineage by endoderm-secreted BMP and subsequently differentiates into cardiomyocyte. The right and left precardiac mesoderms migrate toward the ventral midline to form the beating primitive heart tube. Then, the heart tube generates a right-side bend, and the d-loop and presumptive heart segments begin to appear segmentally: outflow tract (OT), right ventricle, left ventricle, atrioventricular (AV) canal, atrium and sinus venosus. T-box transcription factors are involved in the formation of the heart segments: Tbx5 identifies the left ventricle and Tbx20 the right ventricle. After the formation of the heart segments, endothelial cells in the OT and AV regions transform into mesenchyme and generate valvuloseptal endocardial cushion tissue. This phenomenon is called endocardial EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transformation) and is regulated mainly by BMP and TGF,. Finally, heart septa that have developed in the OT, ventricle, AV canal and atrium come into alignment and fuse, resulting in the completion of the four-chambered heart. Altered development seen in the cardiogenetic process is involved in the pathogenesis of congenital heart defects. Therefore, understanding the molecular nature regulating the ,nodal point' during heart development is important in order to understand the etiology of congenital heart defects, as well as normal heart development. [source]

    Effects of vegetation on channel morphodynamics: results and insights from laboratory experiments

    Michal Tal
    Abstract A series of laboratory experiments demonstrates that riparian vegetation can cause a braided channel to self-organize to, and maintain, a dynamic, single-thread channel. The initial condition for the experiments was steady-state braiding in non-cohesive sand under uniform discharge. From here, an experiment consisted of repeated cycles alternating a short duration high flow with a long duration low flow, and uniform dispersal of alfalfa seeds over the bed at the end of each high flow. Plants established on freshly deposited bars and areas of braidplain that were unoccupied during low flow. The presence of the plants had the effect of progressively focusing the high flow so that a single dominant channel developed. The single-thread channel self-adjusted to carry the high flow. Vegetation also slowed the rate of bank erosion. Matching of deposition along the point bar with erosion along the outer bend enabled the channel to develop sinuosity and migrate laterally while suppressing channel splitting and the creation of new channel width. The experimental channels spontaneously reproduced many of the mechanisms by which natural meandering channels migrate and maintain a single dominant channel, in particular bend growth and channel cutoff. In contrast with the braided system, where channel switching is a nearly continuous process, vegetation maintained a coherent channel until wholesale diversion of flow via cutoff and/or avulsion occurred, by which point the previous channel tended to be highly unfavorable for flow. Thus vegetation discouraged the coexistence of multiple channels. Varying discharge was key to allowing expression of feedbacks between the plants and the flow and promoting the transition from braiding to a single-thread channel that was then dynamically maintained. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 1 2009
    Jim Garrison
    These include nurturing caregiver, guardian of morality, champion of the global economy, self-sacrificing do-gooder, cultural worker, intellectual, tyrant, and many more metaphors. Jim Garrison's essay introduces another figure, a mythological persona, to the pantheon of images depicting the school teacher , the Trickster. Tricksters are masters of multiple interpretation that cross, bend, break, and redefine borders. Garrison concentrates on prophetic tricksters that create openings in closed structures to reveal hidden possibilities. In practice, many teachers are tricksters. They know how to maneuver in, around, and through rigid bureaucratic structures and standards to connect with their students and make a difference while exercising creative autonomy in the classroom. Garrison's essay provides examples of trickster teachers drawn from literature depicting classroom practice. [source]

    Evaluation of creep damage accumulation models: Considerations of stepped testing and highly stressed volume

    W. A. GRELL
    ABSTRACT Many components experience combined temperature and stress loading and are designed to withstand creep. In this study, experimental creep testing was performed under both static and stepped loading conditions with constant temperature for two specimen geometries (tensile and three-point bend). The objective of this study was to evaluate whether existing damage accumulation models accurately predict creep performance when considering step loading and stress gradients. Model predictions, based on static tensile creep data and using a highly stressed volume correction for the three-point bend specimens and the experimental average damage sum, agreed well with experimental data; differences were on average within 38% (static) and 2.2 h (stepped). Comparisons showed more accurate predictions using an exponential Larson,Miller parameter curve and the Pavlou damage accumulation model. Findings of the current study have applicability to component design, where complex geometries often contain stress gradients and it is desirable to predict creep performance from static tensile creep data. [source]

    Fatigue of shot peened 7075-T7351 SENB specimen , A 3-D analysis

    T. HONDA
    ABSTRACT As-received or shot peened 7075-T7351 single-edged notch bend (SENB) specimens, 8.1-mm thick, were fatigued at a constant maximum load and at stress ratios of R= 0.1 and 0.8 to predetermined numbers of fatigue cycles or to failure. The SENB specimens were then fractured by overload and the tunnelling crack profiles were recorded. The crack-growth rate, da/dN, after crack initiation at the notch was determined by crack-profile measurement and fractography at various fatigue cycles. The shot peened surface topography and roughness was also evaluated by three-dimensional (3-D) laser scanning microscopy. Residual stresses in the as-received specimens and those generated by shot peening at Almen scales of 0.004A, 0.008A, 0.012A and 0.016A, were measured by an X-ray diffraction stress analyser with an X-ray target, CrK, every 0.1 mm to a depth of 1 mm. The 3-D stress intensity factor of the curved crack front was determined by the superposition of the 3-D finite element solutions of the stress intensity factor of the loaded SENB specimen without the residual stress and the stress intensity factor of the unloaded SENB specimen with a prescribed residual stress distribution. da/dN versus the resultant stress intensity factor amplitude, ,KI, plots showed that while the residual stress locally retarded the crack-growth rate it had no effect on the overall crack-propagation rate. [source]

    Numerical investigation on J -integral testing of heterogeneous fracture toughness testing specimens: Part I , weld metal cracks

    Y.-J. KIM
    ABSTRACT Based on extensive two-dimensional (2D) finite element (FE) analyses, the present work provides the plastic , factor solutions for fracture toughness J -integral testing of heterogeneous specimens with weldments. Solutions cover practically interesting ranges of strength mismatch and relative weld width, and are given for three typical geometries for toughness testing: a middle cracked tension (M(T)) specimen, single edge cracked bend (SE(B)) specimen and (C(T)) specimen. For mismatched M(T) specimens, both plane strain and plane stress conditions are considered, whereas for SE(B) and C(T) specimens, only the plane strain condition is considered. For all cases, only deep cracks are considered, and an idealized butt weld configuration is considered, where the weld metal strip has a rectangular cross section. Based on the present solutions for the strength mismatch effect on plastic , factors, a window is provided, within which the homogeneous J estimation procedure can be used for weldment toughness testing. The effect of the weld groove configuration on the plastic , factor is briefly discussed, concluding the need for further systematic analysis to provide guidance to practical toughness testing. [source]

    The dispersal and deposition of hydrochorous plant seeds in drainage ditches

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 10 2010
    Summary 1. Surface water is an important dispersal vector for wetland plant species. However, most previous studies on hydrochory (i.e. water dispersal) have focused on ecosystems with relatively rapid water flow. Therefore, there is a need to study such dispersal in slow-flowing or stagnant waterbodies, such as drainage ditches, which might act as dispersal corridors between habitat patches. 2. To gain insight into the mechanisms by which seeds are transported in drainage ditches, the effect of the velocity of wind and water on the rate of transport of floating seeds of three wetland species (Carex pseudocyperus L., Iris pseudacorus L. and Sparganium erectum L.) was investigated. Furthermore, in release and retrace experiments with painted C. pseudocyperus seeds, a number of factors potentially determining the probability of seed deposition were investigated. 3. Net wind speed was found to be the main factor determining the rate at which seeds are transported in drainage ditches. No relation between water flow at middepth in the ditches and seed transport was found. Wind speed and flow at the water surface were positively related. The effect of wind speed on the rate of transport of floating seeds was greater for S. erectum seeds, because a greater ratio of their volume protrudes from the water, than for C. pseudocyperus and I. pseudacorus seeds. 4. The principal factors that determine seed deposition were aquatic plant cover, ditch slope and indentations in the ditch bank. Seeds changed direction if the wind direction changed, or if there was a bend in the ditch. The final pattern of deposition was related to mean net wind speed. Mean transport distance after 2 days varied between 34 and 451 m. 5. Unlike in rivers, seed transport in ditches was determined by wind speed and direction, enabling multidirectional seed dispersal. We conclude that in slow-flowing waters, wind is a more important driver for hydrochorous seed transport than the flow of water. This sheds a new light on hydrochory and has important consequences for the management of otherwise fragmented wetland remnants. [source]

    Factors affecting fluid flow in strike,slip fault systems: coupled deformation and fluid flow modelling with application to the western Mount Isa Inlier, Australia

    GEOFLUIDS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 1 2009
    A. FORD
    Abstract Deformation and focused fluid flow within a mineralized system are critical in the genesis of hydrothermal ore deposits. Dilation and integrated fluid flux due to coupled deformation and fluid flow in simple strike,slip fault geometries were examined using finite difference analysis in three dimensions. A series of generic fault bend and fault jog geometries consistent with those seen in the western Mount Isa Inlier were modelled in order to understand how fault geometry parameters influence the dilation and integrated fluid flux. Fault dip, fault width, bend/jog angle, and length were varied, and a cross-cutting fault and contrasting rock types were included. The results demonstrate that low fault dips, the presence of contrasts in rock type, and wide faults produce highest dilation and integrated fluid flux values. Increasing fault bend lengths and angles increases dilation and integrated fluid flux, but increasing fault jog length or angle has the opposite effect. There is minimal difference between the outputs from the releasing and restraining fault bend and jog geometries. Model characteristics producing greater fluid flows and/or gradients can be used in a predictive capacity in order to focus exploration on regions with more favorable fault geometries, provided that the mineralized rocks had Mohr,Coulomb rheologies similar to the ones used in the models. [source]

    The heat transfer heterogeneities of bends in flow boiling of hairpin tubes

    Meng Meng
    Abstract A series of visual experiments were conducted for liquid, vapor two-phase flow in hairpin tubes, and it was observed that most of the nucleation sites were located at the outer tube wall of the bend. From the simulation, it was concluded that the uneven velocity distribution in the bend induced the heat transfer heterogeneity. Furthermore, the nucleation of both the inner and outer tube wall of the bend and the wall temperature distribution were discussed to understand the physical phenomena. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Heat Trans Asian Res; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/htj.20269 [source]

    Electronic and Mechanical Coupling in Bent ZnO Nanowires

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 48 2009
    Xiaobing Han
    A red shift of the exciton of ZnO nanowires is efficiently produced by bending strain, as demonstrated by a low-temperature (81,K) cathodoluminescence (CL) study of ZnO nanowires bent into L- or S-shapes. The figure shows a nanowire (Fig. a) with the positions of CL measurements marked. The corresponding CL spectra,revealing a peak shift and broadening in the region of the bend,are shown in Figure b. [source]

    A simple model of river meandering and its comparison to natural channels

    Stephen T. Lancaster
    Abstract We develop a new method for analysis of meandering channels based on planform sinuosity. This analysis objectively identifies three channel-reach lengths based on sinuosity measured at those lengths: the length of typical, simple bends; the length of long, often compound bends; and the length of several bends in sequence that often evolve from compound bends to form multibend loops. These lengths, when normalized by channel width, tend to fall into distinct and clustered ranges for different natural channels. Mean sinuosity at these lengths also falls into distinct ranges. That range is largest for the third and greatest length, indicating that, for some streams, multibend loops are important for planform sinuosity, whereas for other streams, multibend loops are less important. The role of multibend loops is seldom addressed in the literature, and they are not well predicted by previous modelling efforts. Also neglected by previous modelling efforts is bank,flow interaction and its role in meander evolution. We introduce a simple river meandering model based on topographic steering that has more in common with cellular approaches to channel braiding and landscape evolution modelling than to rigorous, physics-based analyses of river meandering. The model is sufficient to produce reasonable meandering channel evolution and predicts compound bend and multibend loop formation similar to that observed in nature, in both mechanism and importance for planform sinuosity. In the model, the tendency to form compound bends is sensitive to the relative magnitudes of two lengths governing meander evolution: (i) the distance between the bend cross-over and the zone of maximum bank shear stress, and (ii) the bank shear stress dissipation length related to bank roughness. In our simple model, the two lengths are independent. This sensitivity implies that the tendency for natural channels to form compound bends may be greater when the banks are smoother. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    CF3CH(ONO)CF3: Synthesis, IR spectrum, and use as OH radical source for kinetic and mechanistic studies

    M. P. Sulbaek Andersen
    The synthesis, IR spectrum, and first-principles characterization of CF3CH(ONO)CF3 as well as its use as an OH radical source in kinetic and mechanistic studies are reported. CF3CH(ONO)CF3 exists in two conformers corresponding to rotation about the RCONO bond. The more prevalent trans conformer accounts for the prominent IR absorption features at frequencies (cm,1) of 1766 (NO stretch), 1302, 1210, and 1119 (CF stretches), and 761 (ONO bend); the cis conformer contributes a number of distinct weaker features. CF3CH(ONO)CF3 was readily photolyzed using fluorescent blacklamps to generate CF3C(O)CF3 and, by implication, OH radicals in 100% yield. CF3CH(ONO)CF3 photolysis is a convenient source of OH radicals in the studies of the yields of CO, CO2, HCHO, and HC(O)OH products which can be difficult to measure using more conventional OH radical sources (e.g., CH3ONO photolysis). CF3CH(ONO)CF3 photolysis was used to measure k(OH + C2H4)/k(OH + C3H6) = 0.29 0.01 and to establish upper limits of 16 and 6% for the molar yields of CO and HC(O)OH from the reaction of OH radicals with benzene in 700 Torr of air at 296 K. 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Chem Kinet 35: 159,165, 2003 [source]

    Application of siphon principle to fluid drainage in transurethral surgery

    Abstract, Transurethral resection is usually performed using an all-in-one drape with a fluid collection pouch, drainage port and hose. Gravity drainage of irrigation fluid through the hose is often hampered, resulting in fluid retention in the pouch. We applied a siphon principle to facilitate fluid drainage by making a U-shaped bend near the distal end of the hose, using an adhesive tape, and hooking the distal end of inverted U shape on the edge of bucket placed on the floor. When the hose is filled with irrigation fluid up to the crest of the siphon, fluid flow driven by atmospheric pressure continues until the pouch is evacuated. Repriming and restarting occur automatically throughout the operation. This simple device has virtually eliminated fluid retention in the pouch and proved to be especially useful in transurethral prostatectomy, which requires a large amount of irrigation fluid. [source]

    Ultrastructure of sperms in Acoela (Acoelomorpha) and its concordance with molecular systematics

    Anatoly Petrov
    Abstract. The sperms of the Acoela, a group of lower worms, are filiform cells with 2 flagella incorporated into the cell body. Their axonemes can variously have 9+2, 9+1, or 9+0 patterns of microtubules; and singlet microtubules in the cell body can be arranged in axial or cortical positions. An analysis of phylogenetic relationships of acoels based on molecular characters (18S rDNA sequence data) showed that these patterns of microtubules, where known, fell into discrete monophyletic groups. To test this hypothesis, we have expanded the database of sperm characters by examining the ultrastructure of a further 10 species representing 4 acoel families. As expected, the Convolutidae fell into 2 unrelated groups: "small-bodied convolutids"(Convoluta pulchra, Praeconvoluta tigrina, Pseudaphanostoma smithrii) having 9+2 axonemes and cortical microtubules, and "large-bodied convolutids" (including Wulguru cuspidata) having 9+0 axonemes and axial microtubules. Also, as expected, a member of the Mecynostomidae (Paedomecynostomum bruneum) has 9+1 axonemes and axial microtubules. Members of a family that appears intermediate by molecular characters, the Otocelididae, significantly have a variety of patterns: axonemes with both 9+2 and 9+0 patterns (Notocelis gullmarensis) or just 9+2 (the other species), and either axial (Philocelis brueggemanni), both axial and cortical (N. gullmarensis) microtubules, or microtubules that bend between axial and cortical positions along the length of the sperm (Otocelis sandara). Members of the Dakuidae (Daku woorimensis) also belong to this intermediate group, having 9+2 axonemes and axial microtubules, while in a fifth otocelidid (Stomatricha hochbergi), sperm characters are like those of the "large-bodied convolutids" (9+0 axonemes and axial microtubules). Characters of sperm morphology generally support the molecular hypothesis of relationships and confirm a suspected polyphyly of the families Convolutidae, Otocelididae, and Actinoposthiidae. [source]

    Studies on Insulin/IGF-1 Hybrid and IGF-1 Growth-Promoting Functional Region

    IUBMB LIFE, Issue 4 2000
    Ping Wang
    Abstract Single-chain insulin/IGF-1 hybrid-[Ins/IGF-1(C)], single-chain porcine insulin precursor-(PIP), and B10Asp PIP were prepared by protein engineering. Their growth-promoting activities in mouse breast cancer cell line GR2H6 are 10, 0.2, and 2 times that of insulin, respectively, and 29%, 0.6%, and 6% of that of IGF-1, indicating that the C domain and 9Glu of IGF-1 are important for its growth-promoting activity. Given these results and previous reports, we propose that the C domain, 9Glu, and 23Phe-26Asn beta bend are involved in the growth-promoting functional region of IGF-1. [source]

    Gulf sturgeon summer habitat use and fall migration in the Pascagoula River, Mississippi, USA

    R. J. Heise
    Summary The locations and habitat features of freshwater holding areas and the timing of fall migration are undocumented for Gulf sturgeon in the Pascagoula River drainage, Mississippi. Our objectives were to identify and characterize holding areas for Gulf sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi), document their summer and fall movement patterns, and determine migration cues. To do this we captured, radio-tagged, and monitored movement of Gulf sturgeon in the Pascagoula River drainage and analyzed these data using geographic information systems. From May to November Gulf sturgeon congregate in a holding area in the lower portion of the Pascagoula River and Big Black Creek [river kilometers (rkm) 57,68] and near Cumbest Bluff (rkm 40), before they return to the Gulf of Mexico. While in the holding area, Gulf sturgeon were typically found in deep locations, either in or downstream from river bends. As found in other rivers, Gulf sturgeon in the Pascagoula River showed little movement within the holding area and often stayed within a single river bend; although we observed local movements by some individuals (under 10 rkm). In the Pascagoula River, Gulf sturgeon initiated their migration out of fresh water from late-September to mid-October, coincident with shorter day length, falling water temperature (mean = 23.7C, range 21,26C), and elevated river flow. Our work demonstrates that the lower Pascagoula River serves as a vital area for Gulf sturgeon. [source]

    On the electrostatic equilibrium of granular flow in pneumatic conveying systems

    AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 11 2006
    Jun Yao
    Abstract An analytical methodology involving the concept of "electrostatic equilibrium" is developed for granular flow in pneumatic conveying systems. The methodology can be used for estimation of the electrostatic field distribution at various sections of the system and explanation of the mechanisms involved for various electrostatic phenomena observed. For all cases conducted in the conveying system, there was a "charging time" required for the system to reach the state of "electrostatic equilibrium." Experiments conducted at different sections of the system showed that the time required increased in the order: horizontal pipe, vertical pipe, and pipe bend. Through a physical analysis, it is deduced that electrostatic equilibrium is related to the granules' behavior and local flow characteristics. In general, a longer time duration taken to reach equilibrium corresponds to a process with more complicated granular flow patterns. In the electrostatic equilibrium state, the field distribution shows the highest electrostatic field strength near the pipe wall, and this field strength degrades from the pipe wall to the pipe center. At various pipe sections, the highest strength occurs at the bend, in accord with observations that electric sparking first occurs at that location within the entire pneumatic conveying system. In the vertical pipe, granular distribution was measured using electrical capacitance tomography (ECT), and granular velocities were cross-referenced with those using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The electrostatic force at low air flow rates is found to be the primary cause for granules sticking to the pipe wall and results in the formation of the half-ring or ring structure. The state of electrostatic equilibrium is physically influenced by several elements in conveying systems. In a cyclic conveying system, a new pipe (or low humidity or no antistatic agent) tends to expedite the process to reach electrostatic equilibrium and attain high magnitude of electrostatic current at the state. In a non-cyclic horizontal conveying system, a thin film (pipe) is found to prolong the process duration to reach equilibrium, while the case with charged film (pipe) takes shorter duration to do so. 2006 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2006 [source]

    The effect of the addition of poly(methyl methacrylate) fibres on some properties of high strength heat-cured acrylic resin denture base material

    D. Jagger
    summary, The self-reinforcement of acrylic resin with butadiene styrene surface treated poly(methyl methacrylate) fibres has been reported to have the potential to substantially improve the transverse bend strength of conventional heat-cured acrylic resin. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the addition of butadiene styrene surface treated poly(methyl methacrylate) fibres in cross-ply arrangement to high impact acrylic resin on the transverse and impact strength. Specimens were prepared as specified in the International Standard Organization and British Standards for the Testing of Denture Base Resins (ISO 1567, 1988; BS 2487, 1989) and the British Standard Specification for Orthodontic resins (BS 6747, 1987) for transverse bend and impact testing. The impact strength was measured using a Zwick pendulum impact tester and the transverse bend strength measured using a Lloyds Instruments testing machine. The results showed that the impact strength was not improved with the addition of fibres, high impact acrylic resin with fibres (LF) 111 kJ m,2 and high impact acrylic resin (L) (125 kJ m,2). The modulus of rupture was decreased with the addition of fibres (578 MPa) for (LF) compared with (604 MPa) for (L). The modulus of elasticity was also reduced with the addition of fibres (18349 MPa) (LF) and 20862 MPa (L) as was the peak load (LF) (508 N) and (L) (558 N). It was concluded that the addition of surface treated poly(methyl methacrylate) fibres in cross-ply arrangement to high strength acrylic resin did not produce an improvement in the impact or transverse strength and cannot be recommended as a method of reinforcement. [source]

    The peptaibol antiamoebin as a model ion channel: similarities to bacterial potassium channels,

    JOURNAL OF PEPTIDE SCIENCE, Issue 11-12 2003
    Andrias O. O'Reilly
    Abstract Antiamoebin (AAM) is a polypeptide antibiotic that is capable of forming ion channels in phospholipid membranes; planar bilayer studies have suggested the channels are octamers. The crystal structure of a monomeric form of AAM has provided the basis for molecular modelling of an octameric helical bundle channel. The channel model is funnel-shaped due to a substantial bend in the middle of the polypeptide chain caused by the presence of several imino acids. Inter-monomer hydrogen bonds orientate a ring of glutamine side chains to form a constriction in the pore lumen. The channel lumen is lined both by side chains of Gln11 and by polypeptide backbone carbonyl groups. Electrostatic calculations on the model are compatible with a channel that transports cations across membranes. The AAM channel model is compared with the crystal structures of two bacterial (KcsA and MthK) potassium channels. AAM and the potassium channels exhibit common functional features, such as cation-selectivity and similar single channel conductances. Common structural features include being multimers, each formed from a bundle of eight transmembrane helices, with lengths roughly comparable to the thickness of lipid bilayers. In addition, they all have aromatic amino acids that lie at the bilayer interfaces and which may aid in the stabilization of the transmembrane helices, as well as narrower constrictions that define the ion binding sites or selectivity filters in the pore lumen. The commonality of structural and functional features in these channels thus suggests that antiamoebin is a good, simple model for more complex bacterial and eukaryotic ion channels, capable of providing insight into details of the mechanisms of ion transport and multimeric channel stability. Copyright 2003 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Raman and infrared spectra, conformational stability, ab initio calculations and vibrational assignment of dimethylsilylisocyanate

    Gamil A. Guirgis
    Abstract The Raman (3200-30 cm,1) and/or infrared spectra (3500 to 400 cm,1) of gaseous, liquid and solid dimethylsilylisocyanate, (CH3)2 Si(H)NCO, have been recorded. The MP2(full) calculations, employing a variety of basis sets with and without diffusion functions, have been used to predict the structural parameters, conformational stability, vibrational fundamental wavenumbers, Raman activities, depolarization values and infrared intensities to support the vibrational assignment. The low wavenumber Raman spectrum of the gas with a significant number of Q-branches for the SiNC(O) bend is consistent with an essentially linear SiNCO moiety. The ab initio calculations supported this conclusion as all possible orientations of the NCO moiety lead to nearly the same energy. This result is at variance with the conclusion from the electron diffraction study that the heavy atom skeleton was bent with an angle of 152(5) with one stable cis conformer. It is believed that this reported angle difference from 180 is due to the shrinkage effect. The SiH distance of 1.486 has been obtained from the isolated SiH stretching wavenumber. From the adjustment of the ab initio MP2(full)/6-311+G(d,p) predicted structural parameters, a proposed structure is reported, which is expected to give rotational constants within a few megahertz of the actual ones. These experimental and theoretical results are compared with the corresponding quantities of similar molecules. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Raman spectroscopic study of the magnesium-carbonate minerals,artinite and dypingite

    Ray L. Frost
    Abstract Magnesium minerals are important in the understanding of the concept of geosequestration. The two hydrated hydroxy magnesium-carbonate minerals artinite and dypingite were studied by Raman spectroscopy. Intense bands are observed at 1092 cm,1 for artinite and at 1120 cm,1 for dypingite, attributed ,1 symmetric stretching mode of CO32,. The ,3 antisymmetric stretching vibrations of CO32, are extremely weak and are observed at 1412 and 1465 cm,1 for artinite and at 1366, 1447 and 1524 cm,1 for dypingite. Very weak Raman bands at 790 cm,1 for artinite and 800 cm,1 for dypingite are assigned to the CO32,,2 out-of-plane bend. The Raman band at 700 cm,1 of artinite and at 725 and 760 cm,1 of dypingite are ascribed to CO32,,2 in-plane bending mode. The Raman spectrum of artinite in the OH stretching region is characterised by two sets of bands: (1) an intense band at 3593 cm,1 assigned to the MgOH stretching vibrations and (2) the broad profile of overlapping bands at 3030 and 3229 cm,1 attributed to water stretching vibrations. X-ray diffraction studies show that the minerals are disordered. This is reflected in the difficulty of obtaining Raman spectra of reasonable quality, and explains why the Raman spectra of these minerals have not been previously or sufficiently described. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Raman spectroscopy of walpurgite

    Ray L. Frost
    Abstract Raman spectra of walpurgite, (UO2)Bi4O4 (AsO4)22H2O, recorded at 298 K and 77 K are presented and compared with infrared spectra of walpurgite and phosphowalpurgite. Bands connected with (UO2)2+, (AsO4)3,, and H2O stretch and bend, and BiO stretch are tentatively assigned. Hydrogen bond lengths are calculated from the wavenumbers of the H2O stretching vibrations and compared with those from the crystal structure analysis of walpurgite. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Aqueous Colloidal Processing of ZTA Composites

    Susana M. Olhero
    Two different zirconia-alumina composites, ZTA-30 (70 wt% Al2O3+30 wt% ZrO2) and ZTA-60 (40 wt% Al2O3+60 wt% ZrO2), with potential for orthopedic applications, were processed in aqueous media and consolidated by slip casting (SC), hydrolysis-assisted solidification (HAS), and gelcasting (GC) from suspensions containing 50 vol% solids loading. For comparison purposes, the same ceramic compositions were also consolidated by die pressing of freeze-dried granules (FG). In the HAS process, 5 wt% of Al2O3 in the precursor mixture was replaced by equivalent amounts of AlN to promote the consolidation of the suspensions. Ceramics consolidated via GC exhibited higher green (three-point bend) strengths (,17 MPa) than those consolidated by other techniques. Further, these ceramics also exhibited superior fracture toughness and flexural strength properties after sintering for 1 h at 1600C in comparison with those consolidated by other techniques, including conventional die pressing (FG). [source]