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    Monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis: Clinical and population perspectives,

    CYTOMETRY, Issue S1 2010
    Neil E. Caporaso
    Abstract Monoclonal B Cell Lymphocytosis (MBL) refers to clones of CLL-like cells that exhibit CLL characteristics that fall short of the numbers required for CLL diagnosis. Data from large CLL kindreds document increased prevalence of MBL suggesting a genetic contribution to its etiology. The molecular features that favor progression of MBL to CLL are poorly understood but an elevated B-cell count is a risk factor for progression. An important consideration when evaluating volunteers from CLL families who are willing to donate bone marrow is that MBL be ruled out since the MBL donor clone could result in a second CLL in the recipient. Further studies of MBL are needed to identify the molecular features and how they evolve during progression. Published 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    CD146+ T lymphocytes are increased in both the peripheral circulation and in the synovial effusions of patients with various musculoskeletal diseases and display pro-inflammatory gene profiles,,

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 2 2010
    Pradeep Kumar Dagur
    Abstract Twenty-eight synovial effusions (SE) were obtained from 24 patients, paired samples of peripheral blood (PB) from 10 of these patients, and PB from 36 healthy individuals for analysis of CD146 on T-lymphocytes by flow cytometry. CD146+ or CD146, T-lymphocytes were sorted from three SE to study gene expression profiles and selected genes revalidated using QPCR assays. We found more CD3+CD146+ and CD4+CD146+ T-lymphocytes in PB from patients compared with PB of healthy individuals (4.71% ± 2.48% vs. 2.53% ± 1.08%, P = 0.028) and (6.29% ± 2.74% vs. 2.41% ± 0.96%, P = 0.0017), respectively, whereas CD8+CD146+ T-lymphocytes were not significantly different (2.55% ± 1.65% vs. 3.18% ± 2.59%, P = 0.5008). SE displayed CD146 staining on 16.32% ± 6.06% of CD3+ cells. This expression was skewed toward CD4+ T-lymphocytes, with CD146 present on 24.06% ± 8.20% of the CD4+ T-lymphocytes compared with 6.19% ± 5.22% of the CD8+ T-lymphocytes. CD146 on CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes in SE was significantly higher compared with PB in patients (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0036, respectively). Gene expression profiles of sorted CD146+CD4+CD3+ vs. CD146,CD4+CD3+ T-lymphocytes (n = 2) and CD2+CD146+ vs. CD2+CD 146, (n = 1) from SE, displayed increased CD146, LAIR2, CXCL13, CD109, IL6ST, IL6R, TNFRsf18, and TNFRsf4 genes, whereas decreased CCR7, CCL5, and cytotoxicity-associated genes including granzymes b, h, and k, perforin were found with the CD146, T-lymphocytes. By QPCR higher mRNA expression of CXCL13, CD146 and CD109 was also noted in the CD146+ subset, compared with the CD146, subset, in PB of healthy individuals and in PB and SE from patients. Our study establishes increased CD146+ T-lymphocytes in diseases with joint effusions, and demonstrates pro-inflammatory gene profiles in these cells. Published 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Discrepancy in measuring CD4 expression on T-lymphocytes using fluorescein conjugates in comparison with unimolar CD4-phycoerythrin conjugates,,

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 6 2007
    Lili Wang
    Abstract Background: Numerous methods for quantitative fluorescence calibration (QFC) have been developed to quantify receptor expression on lymphocytes. However, the results from the use of these different QFC methods vary considerably in the literature. To better identify the causes of these discrepancies, we measured CD4 expression using FITC and phycoerythrin (PE) conjugates to stain CYTO-TROLÔ Control Cells and T-lymphocytes in whole blood and isolated cell preparations. We further examined pH of the cellular microenvironment as a cause of discordant results obtained with the FITC conjugate. Methods: Calibration with Quantibrite PE-labeled microspheres and the use of unimolar CD4-PE conjugates provided direct measurement of the antibody bound per cell value (ABC) for CD4 expression on normal T-lymphocytes. Calibration for CD4-FITC monoclonal antibody (Mab) labeled CYTO-TROL Control Cells and normal T-lymphocytes was based on molecules of equivalent soluble fluorochrome (MESF) as determined by FITC-labeled microspheres traceable to NIST RM 8640. The MESF value for CD4-FITC Mab was determined that enabled the conversion of the MESF values obtained for CYTO-TROL cells to ABC. We investigated the likely pH change in the fluorescein microenvironments within FITC-labeled Mab and cells stained with FITC-labeled Mab using a pH sensitive indicator. Results: The mean ABC value for T-lymphocytes prepared from fresh whole blood using CD4-PE conjugate (48,321) was consistent with previous results, and it was much higher than the mean ABC using CD4-FITC Mab (22,156). The mean ABC value for CYTO-TROL cells using CD4-PE conjugate (43,090) was also higher than that using CD4-FITC conjugate (34,734), although the discrepancy was not as great. Further studies suggested the discrepancy in CYTO-TROL results may be accounted for by the low pH of the membrane microenvironment, but the greater discrepancy in T-lymphocytes could not be fully explained. Conclusion: CD4 expression on fresh normal whole blood samples and CYTO-TROL cells can be consistently quantified in ABC units using Quantibrite PE quantification beads and unimolar CD4-PE conjugates. Quantification with CD4-FITC conjugate is not as consistent, but may be improved by the use of CD4 T-cells as biological calibrators. This approximation is valid only for surface receptors with consensus ABC values measured by different QFC methods serving as biological standards. Published 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Guidelines for improving the reproducibility of quantitative multiparameter immunofluorescence measurements by laser scanning cytometry on fixed cell suspensions from human solid tumors

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 1 2006
    Stanley Shackney
    Abstract Background: Laser scanning Cytometry (LSC) is a versatile technology that makes it possible to perform multiple measurements on individual cells and correlate them cell by cell with other cellular features. It would be highly desirable to be able to perform reproducible, quantitative, correlated cell-based immunofluorescence studies on individual cells from human solid tumors. However, such studies can be challenging because of the presence of large numbers of cell aggregates and other confounding factors. Techniques have been developed to deal with cell aggregates in data sets collected by LSC. Experience has also been gained in addressing other key technical and methodological issues that can affect the reproducibility of such cell-based immunofluorescence measurements. Methods and results: We describe practical aspects of cell sample collection, cell fixation and staining, protocols for performing multiparameter immunofluorescence measurements by LSC, use of controls and reference samples, and approaches to data analysis that we have found useful in improving the accuracy and reproducibility of LSC data obtained in human tumor samples. We provide examples of the potential advantages of LSC in examining quantitative aspects of cell-based analysis. Improvements in the quality of cell-based multiparameter immunofluorescence measurements make it possible to extract useful information from relatively small numbers of cells. This, in turn, permits the performance of multiple multicolor panels on each tumor sample. With links among the different panels that are provided by overlapping measurements, it is possible to develop increasingly more extensive profiles of intracellular expression of multiple proteins in clinical samples of human solid tumors. Examples of such linked panels of measurements are provided. Conclusions: Advances in methodology can improve cell-based multiparameter immunofluorescence measurements on cell suspensions from human solid tumors by LSC for use in prognostic and predictive clinical applications. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Slit-flow ektacytometry: Laser diffraction in a slit rheometer

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 1 2005
    Sehyun Shin
    Abstract Background Deformability of red blood cells (RBCs) is a determinant of blood flow resistance as RBCs pass through small capillaries of the microcirculation. Available techniques for measuring RBC deformability often require a washing process after each measurement, which is not optimal for day-to-day clinical use. Methods A laser diffraction technique has been combined with slit-flow rheometry, which shows significant advances in ektacytometric design, operation, and data analysis. The essential features of this design are its simplicity (ease of operation and no moving parts) and a disposable element that is in contact with the blood sample. Results With slit ektacytometry, the deformation of RBCs subjected to continuously decreasing shear stress in a slit flow can be quickly measured with extremely small quantities of blood. The measurements with the slit ektacytometer were compared with those of LORCA and a strong correlation was apparent. The deformability of the hardened RBCs was markedly lower than that of the normal RBCs. In addition, the young cells showed higher values of the elongation index than did the old cells. Conclusions The newly developed slit ektacytometer can measure RBC deformability with ease and accuracy. In addition, the slit ektacytometer can be easily used in a clinical setting owing to the incorporation of a disposable element that holds the blood sample. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Peripheral blood MDS score: A new flow cytometric tool for the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes,

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 1 2005
    Sindhu Cherian
    Abstract Background Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of hematopoietic disorders diagnosed using morphologic and clinical findings supported by cytogenetics. Because abnormalities may be subtle, diagnosis using these approaches can be challenging. Flow cytometric (FCM) approaches have been described; however the value of bone marrow immunophenotyping in MDS remains unclear due to the variability in detected abnormalities. We sought to refine the FCM approach by using peripheral blood (PB) to create a clinically useful tool for the diagnosis of MDS. Methods PB from 15 patients with MDS was analyzed by multiparametric flow cytometry using an extensive panel of monoclonal antibodies. Patterns of neutrophil antigen expression were compared with those of normal controls (n = 16) to establish light scatter and/or immunophenotypic abnormalities that correlated with MDS. A scoring algorithm was developed and validated prospectively on a blinded patient set. Results PB neutrophils from patients with MDS had lower side scatter and higher expression of CD66 and CD11a than did controls. Some MDS PB neutrophils demonstrated abnormal CD116 and CD10 expression. Because none of these abnormalities proved consistently diagnostic, we sought to increase the power of the assay by devising a scoring system to allow the association of multiple abnormalities and account for phenotypic variations. The PB MDS score differentiated patients with MDS from controls (P < 0.0001) in the test set. In a prospective validation, the PB MDS score successfully identified patients with MDS (sensitivity 73%, specificity 90%). Conclusions FCM analysis of side scatter and only four additional immunophenotypic parameters of PB neutrophils using the PB MDS score proved more sensitive than standard laboratory approaches and may provide an additional, more reliable diagnostic tool in the identification of MDS. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    HLA-B27 typing: Evaluation of an allele-specific PCR melting assay and two flow cytometric antigen assays

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 1 2005
    Michael T. Seipp
    Abstract Background Human leukocyte antigen B27 (HLA-B27) is a major histocompatibility complex class 1 molecule that is strongly associated with the disease ankylosing spondylitis. Testing for HLA-B27 is of diagnostic value because 90% of patients with ankylosing spondylitis have the B27 antigen. Two commonly used HLA-B27 flow cytometric assays are commercially available. Methods An allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) melting assay for HLA-B27 was compared with two available antigen assays on 371 clinical samples. The accuracy of the assays was measured by receiver operating characteristic analysis using the PCR method and sequencing as the reference standard. Results When PCR results were compared with those of the antigen assays, complete concordance was observed except for five discrepant results that were resolved by sequence analysis. Using DNA sequencing as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of PCR were 99.6 and 100.0, those of the best single antigen assay were 98.2 and 97.6, and those of a reflex combination of both antigen assays were 98.8 and 97.6. Conclusions The allele-specific PCR melting assay for HLA-B27 genotyping is easy to perform and has better sensitivity and specificity than antigen assays. The performance of the two flow cytometric antigen assays depends on the antibody used and the positive cutoff values assigned. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Human monocyte CD163 expression inversely correlates with soluble CD163 plasma levels

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 1 2005
    Bruce H. Davis
    Abstract Background CD163 is a monocyte/macrophage-restricted receptor involved in the clearance of hemoglobin,haptoglobin complexes and regulation of inflammatory processes. CD163 is shed from the cell surface and exists as a soluble form in plasma (sCD163). Monocyte CD163 and sCD163 are potential diagnostic tools in variety of disease states. Methods We determined the relation between plasma sCD163 levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, membrane expressions of CD163, CD64, and CD14 on blood monocytes by flow cytometry, and monocyte counts in 129 random blood samples. Results A strong inverse correlation was found between membrane CD163 expression and sCD163 levels (r = ,0.65, P < 0.001). Monocyte CD163 expression and SCD163 levels did not correlate with the monocyte absolute count. Conclusions The inverse relation between monocyte surface CD163 expression and sCD163 levels in human blood suggests that plasma sCD163 is derived from circulating monocytes, in addition to an unknown component from tissue macrophages. The lack of correlation with the absolute monocyte number suggests that such a balance is driven by the functional state of monocytes, rather than simply by numerical changes in circulating cells. We propose that further clinical evaluations of CD163 as a diagnostic parameter should include simultaneous measurements of soluble and cell-bound forms of this antigen. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    C-Kit receptor (CD117) expression on myeloblasts and white blood cell counts in acute myeloid leukemia

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 1 2004
    Jolanta Wo
    Abstract Background The c-Kit receptor is considered to play a crucial role in hematopoiesis. Induction of mobilization of hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow requires cooperative signaling through c-Kit and c-Kit ligand pathway, and these interactions are important in the retention of stem cells within the bone marrow. Therefore, we analyzed c-Kit density on the leukemic myeloblasts of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in relation to white blood cell count (WBC) in the peripheral blood. Methods Bone marrow aspirates collected from patients with AML and bone marrow aspirates and leukapheresis products after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor blood mobilization from adult volunteers were studied. To determine the level of c-Kit receptor expression, we applied quantitative (relative fluorescence intensity and antibody binding per cell) cytometric methods. Results Our data showed negative correlation between the level of c-Kit expression intensity on myeloblasts and the number of leukocytes in blood of AML patients. The c-Kit receptor density on myeloblasts in patients with low WBC was significantly stronger than that on myeloblasts in patients with high WBC. In the latter patient group, the density c-Kit receptor on myeloblasts was similar to that on CD34+ cells in mobilized peripheral blood. Conclusions The obtained data suggest an involvement of c-Kit receptor in the regulation of leukemic myeloblasts egress to the peripheral blood. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Monitoring of monocyte functional state after extracorporeal circulation: A flow cytometry study

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 1 2004
    Silverio Sbrana
    Abstract Background Cardiovascular surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) induces systemic inflammation and postoperative complications depending on pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Activated polymorphonuclear cells and monocytes may be responsible for morbidity associated with CPB. Knowledge of the monocyte functional state in particular may help to develop protective interventions. Methods Samples were drawn from venous peripheral blood (basal condition, at 4 and 24 h after CPB) and coronary blood (before and after cardioplegic arrest) of 14 patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The following phenotypic and functional parameters of the monocyte population were studied by flow cytometry: surface molecules expression (CD18, CD11a, CD11b, CD14, CD15, CD45, HLA-DR, and Toll-like receptor [TLR]-4), myeloperoxidase (MPO) content, and intracellular cytokine production (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-,, interleukin [IL]-1,, IL-6, and IL-8). Results Cardiac surgery with CPB induced down-modulation of surface molecules expression on peripheral monocytes, especially at 24 h after CPB, for CD18, CD11a, and CD11b (P < 0.003) and for the CD15 adhesive cluster (P = 0.0028) and HLA-DR (P < 0.001). At 4 h after CPB, downregulation was observed for CD14 (P = 0.004), CD45 (P = 0.014), and CD15 (P = 0.0056). A loss of MPO was detected in venous peripheral (at 24 h after CPB, P = 0.01) or coronary (at reperfusion, P < 0.02) blood. The CD15 cluster complex exhibited a down-modulation in coronary blood (at reperfusion, P = 0.0003). Spontaneous intracellular production of IL-1,, IL-6, and IL-8 decreased at 24 h after CPB (P < 0.05). Conclusions The down-modulation of integrins and adhesive receptor expression and the loss of MPO suggest a strong activation and shedding reaction of circulating monocyte after CPB, further exacerbated by contact with coronary ischemic vessels. The changes of differentiation antigens may reflect the appearance of a partially immature population immediately after CPB. The reduced proinflammatory cytokine production, observed at 24 h after CPB, suggests a functional polarization of circulating monocytes. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Albumin enhanced morphometric image analysis in CLL,

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 1 2004
    Matthew A. Lunning
    Abstract BACKGROUND The heterogeneity of lymphocytes from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and blood film artifacts make morphologic subclassification of this disease difficult. METHODS We reviewed paired blood films prepared from ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (ETDA) samples with and without bovine serum albumin (BSA) from 82 CLL patients. Group 1 adhered to NCCLS specifications for the preparations of EDTA blood films. Group 2 consisted of blood films containing EDTA and a 1:12 dilution of 22% BSA. Eight patients were selected for digital photomicroscopy and statistical analysis. Approximately 100 lymphocytes from each slide were digitally captured. RESULTS The mean cell area ± standard error was 127.8 ,m2 ± 1.42 for (n = 793) for group 1 versus 100.7 ,m2 ± 1.39 (n = 831) for group 2. The nuclear area was 88.9 ,m2 ± 0.85 for group 1 versus 76.4 ,m2 ± 0.83 for group 2. For the nuclear transmittance, the values were 97.6 ± 0.85 for group 1 and 104.1 ± 0.83 for group 2. The nuclear:cytoplasmic ratios were 0.71 ± 0.003 for group 1 and 0.78 ± 0.003 for group 2. All differences were statistically significant (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS BSA addition results in the reduction of atypical lymphocytes and a decrease in smudge cells. BSA also decreases the lymphocyte area and nuclear area, whereas nuclear transmittance and nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio are increased. A standardized method of slide preparation would allow accurate interlaboratory comparison. The use of BSA may permit better implementation of the blood film-based subclassification of CLL and lead to a better correlation of morphology with cytogenetics and immunophenotyping. Published 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Flow cytometry versus histamine release analysis of in vitro basophil degranulation in allergy to Hymenoptera venom

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 1 2003
    C. Lambert
    Abstract Background Flow cytometry (FCM) has been proposed for specific allergy in vitro testing. We investigated its biological significance for allergy to Hymenoptera venoms and compared it with the routinely performed basophil histamine release test (HRT). Methods Blood samples from 26 allergic and 8 nonallergic donors were incubated with venom at serial concentrations. Basophils were analyzed with anti-CD45-PE-Cyanin 5, Anti-IgE-FITC, and Anti-CD63-Phycoerythrine. HRT was measured by radioimmunoassay. Results FCM was as convenient as HRT for measuring basophil reactivity in at least 87% of allergic and 75% of nonallergic subjects. CD63 outer expression was specifically induced in 91% of releaser subjects (86% on HRT) and in 1 of 10 tests in nonallergic donors, or one of six tests (16% on HRT) in allergic patients tested with an irrelevant allergen. Both methods were concordant in 85.7% of the tests. The three discordant patients had low-grade reactions and borderline biological responses on FCM (n = 2) or HRT (n = 1). Conclusions The dynamic, physiologic significance of CD63, the dose,response curve, and dependency on ethylene-diaminetetra acetic acid suggested that both tests reflect the same mechanism. Cytometry Part B (Clin. Cytometry) 52B:13,19, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Human B cells express a CD45 isoform that is similar to murine B220 and is downregulated with acquisition of the memory B-cell marker CD27,

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 1 2003
    Jack J. H. Bleesing
    Abstract Background Differences between human and murine B cells exist at all stages of B-cell development, including the stage of memory B-cell formation. B cells in mice are identified with the pan,B-cell,specific CD45 isoform, B220. In initial studies in humans, it appeared that B220 expression did not include all B cells. This study was performed to expand on those preliminary findings. Methods Multiparameter flow cytometric detection of B220 expression on B cells was combined with a variety of B-cell markers. Results In contrast to mice, B220 was not a pan,B-cell marker in humans but was downregulated in the majority of B cells that acquired the human memory B-cell marker, CD27, whereas a minor memory B-cell subset remained B220+, suggesting differences in differentiation. Conclusions The B220 isoform in humans is developmentally regulated in humans, tied to the acquisition of a memory phenotype, and as such can be used as a differentiation-specific CD45 isoform, akin to the use of CD45 isoforms to distinguish between naive and memory T-cell subsets. Patients with immunodeficiency disorders, associated with defective memory B-cell generation and absent or reduced CD27+ B cells, showed a corresponding lack of B220 downregulation consistent with altered differentiation of B-cell subsets. Cytometry Part B (Clin. Cytometry) 51B:1,8, 2003. Published 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    CD87 as a marker for terminal granulocytic maturation: Assessment of its expression during granulopoiesis

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 1 2003
    M. Tarek Elghetany
    Abstract Background Understanding the normal surface maturation pattern of granulocytes is essential for the recognition of abnormal patterns, which in turn may be of diagnostic or pathogenetic significance in disorders such as myelodysplastic syndromes and inherited bone marrow failure disorders. CD87 plays a role in cellular interaction, cell migration, and inflammatory response. Surface expression of this antigen has not been adequately studied on bone marrow granulocytes, and the small number of previous studies has provided conflicting data. Methods Bone marrow aspirates from 11 control subjects were studied by flow cytometry and a lysed whole blood technique to compare surface expression of CD87 on marrow granulocytes with those of CD11b, CD16, CD35, and CD10, which are expressed at the myelocyte, metamyelocyte, band, and segmented stage of neutrophilic development, respectively. Four sorting experiments of CD87+ granulocytes were also performed. Results Our study showed no statistical difference between surface expression of CD35 and CD87 (P > 0.3), whereas significant differences existed between CD87 and the other antibodies (P < 0.004). Sorting experiments showed that more than 80% of CD87+ cells were bands and segmented neutrophils. Dual staining for CD87 and CD35 showed that most CD87+ granulocytes coexpress CD35. Conclusions CD87 is expressed on granulocytes at the band and segmented neutrophil stage of development and can be used to study normal and abnormal granulopoiesis. Cytometry Part B (Clin. Cytometry) 51B:9,13, 2003. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Multicenter clinical experience with flow cytometric method for fetomaternal hemorrhage detection

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 6 2002
    Jenn C. Chen
    Abstract BACKGROUND Enumeration of fetal red blood cells (RBCs) is important in the management of fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH), particularly in situations of Rh incompatibility. METHODS We evaluated results from three institutions using the flow cytometric method (FCM) to detect fetal RBCs based on the anti-hemoglobin F (HbF) monoclonal antibody method. RESULTS During 1997,2001, 69 of 1,248 patients (5.5%) had measurable fetal erythrocytes (RBCs) in maternal blood. Only 21 patients (1.7%) had more than 30 mL of fetal blood detected in maternal blood. Of the 11 patients with large FMH and clinical follow-up, 7 had fetal demise (64%). In positive samples, significant differences were found in the fluorescence intensity (FI) of anti-HbF antibody staining between HbF-negative erythrocytes (HbF-) and adult HbF containing erythrocytes (F cells; 4 ± 0 versus 57 ± 9 linear mean channels [LMC]; P < 0.001) and between HbF-cells and fetal RBCs (4 ± 0 versus 433 ± 136 LMC; P < 0.001). In addition, significant differences were observed in forward light scatter intensity between HbF-cells and fetal RBCs (298 ± 15 versus 355 ± 68 LMC, P = 0.03). The transportability of the test is also addressed by comparing results from two other laboratories. The experience of our three laboratories, as well as the results from the recently reinitiated College of American Pathologists survey, which compares FCM and manual methods, clearly documents the superiority of the FCM test over the manual Kleihauer-Betke (KB) test. CONCLUSIONS The FCM is a simpler, more objective, and more precise alternative to the KB method in clinical testing. The high mortality rate associated with large FMH and therapeutic implications of these results should give laboratories motivation to abandon the KB method with more robust FCM to detect FMH. Cytometry (Clin. Cytometry) 50:285,290, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Report from a workshop on multianalyte microsphere assays,,§

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 5 2002
    Marie C. Earley
    Abstract Multiplexed assays using fluorescent microspheres is an exciting technique that has been gaining popularity among researchers, particularly those in the public health field. Part of its popularity is due to its flexibility, as both immunoassays and oligonucleotide hybridization assays can be developed on this platform. This report summarizes a workshop held by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that discussed issues surrounding these assays and the Luminex 100 xMAP instrument. Topics included instrumentation, assay design, sample matrix and volume, quality control, and development of commercial applications. Cytometry (Clin. Cytometry) 50:239,242, 2002. Published 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Clinical applications of laser scanning cytometry

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 3 2002
    Attila Tárnok
    Abstract This study reviews existing and potential clinical applications of laser scanning cytometry (LSC) and outlines possible future developments. LSC provides a technology for solid phase cytometry. Fluorochrome-labeled specimens are immobilized on microscopic slides that are placed on a conventional epifluorescence microscope and analyzed by one or two lasers. Data comparable to flow cytometry are generated. In addition, the position of each event is recorded, a feature that allows relocalization and visualization of each measured event. The major advantage of LSC compared with other cytometric methods is the combination of two features: (a) the minimal clinical sample volume needed and (b) the connection of fluorescence data and morphological information for the measured event. Since the introduction of LSC, numerous methods have been established for the analysis of cells, cellular compartments, and tissues. Although most cytometric methods use only two or three colors, the characterization of specimens with up to five fluorochromes is possible. Most clinical applications have been designed to determine ploidy and immunophenotype; other applications include analyses of tissue biopsies and sections, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and the combination of vital and nonvital information on a single-cell basis. With the currently available assays, LSC has proven its wide spectrum of clinical applicability in slide-based cytometry and can be introduced as a standard technology in multiple clinical settings. Cytometry (Clin. Cytometry) 50:133,143, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    T-cell subset counting and the fight against AIDS: Reflections over a 20-year struggle

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 2 2002
    Francis Mandy
    Abstract The story of T-lymphocyte subset immunophenotyping technology is reviewed on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of CD4 T-cell enumeration. Over time, immunophenotyping has evolved into precise, reliable, but complicated and expensive technology requiring fresh blood samples. The gating technologies that were universally adapted for clinical flow cytometry for the past decade relied on rapidly deteriorating morphological scatter characteristics of leukocytes. This special issue dedicated to CD4 T-cell enumeration features most of the available new options that will have a significant impact on how this technology will be implemented within the first decade of the 21st century. In a series of original publications, including the new NIH guideline for T-cell subset enumeration, contemporary gating protocols that use immunologically logical parameters are presented as part of the more reliable and affordable immunophenotyping alternative. Some of the improvements addressed here include the costs of the assays and the capacity to monitor interlaboratory and intralaboratory performances. It is clear that an effective attack on the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has to embrace resource-poor regions. Reducing the cost of the assay while improving reliability and durability is a move in the right direction. Cytometry (Clin. Cytometry) 50:39,45, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Quality control of CD4+ T-lymphocyte enumeration: Results from the last 9 years of the United Kingdom national external quality assessment scheme for immune monitoring (1993,2001)

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 2 2002
    Liam Whitby
    Abstract The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) global epidemic has necessitated the routine enumeration of T-lymphocyte subsets, which has created a need for external quality assurance (EQA). The United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Scheme (UK NEQAS) for Immune Monitoring provides EQA for 296 laboratories in 40 countries. In 1993, UK NEQAS developed and incorporated into its program stabilized whole blood that enables the accurate monitoring of laboratory performance. Overall, the mean interlaboratory coefficient of variation (CV) for percentage CD4+ T-lymphocyte subset enumeration has fallen from 15% to less than 5%, as a direct result of the increased use of CD45/ side scatter (SSC) gating. Laboratories using alternative gating strategies (i.e., CD45/CD14 or forward scatter [FSC]/SSC) were about 7.4 times more likely to fail an EQA exercise. Furthermore, the adoption of single-platform technology resulted in a reduction of the overall mean interlaboratory CV for absolute CD4+ T lymphocytes from 56% (prior to the widespread use of single-platform technology) to 9.7%. Individual laboratory deficiencies were also identified using a performance monitoring system and, through re-education by collaboration with the coordinating center, satisfactorily resolved. In conclusion, during the last 9 years, the UK NEQAS for Immune Monitoring program has highlighted the significant technological advances made by laboratories worldwide that undertake lymphocyte subset enumeration. Cytometry (Clin. Cytometry) 50:102,110, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Impact of the international program for quality assessment and standardization for immunological measures relevant to HIV/AIDS: QASI

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 2 2002
    Francis Mandy
    Abstract Measurements of CD4 T-cell levels are essential for the assessment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease course, clinical staging, epidemiological studies, and decisions regarding prophylactic therapies against opportunistic infection. Until now, only in the industrialized countries was T-cell subset monitoring considered a practical option to assess disease progression. The Quality Assessment and Standardization for Immunological Measures Relevant to HIV/AIDS (QASI) program was established in 1997 to meet performance assessment for immunophenotyping laboratories in countries where such service is not available. The QASI program is provided at no cost to any laboratory in a resource-poor setting that wishes to participate. This report describes the beneficial impact of participation in the QASI program. Carefully selected commercial stabilized whole blood preparations were sent regularly to participating laboratories. Participants reported the T-cell subset values they obtained by flow cytometry. Once the aggregate mean values for the T-cell subsets were established for the shipment, a comprehensive and confidential report was sent to each laboratory. The results from five consecutive shipments were analyzed. The coefficient of variation decreased from 7.2% to 4.7% and from 14.2% to 8.8% for percent and absolute CD4 T-cell counts, respectively. With the implementation of the QASI program using commercial stabilized whole blood specimens, it is possible to reduce interlaboratory error. This study illustrates that a quality assessment program can improve the overall performance of laboratories. Reducing interlaboratory variation can enhance significantly the effectiveness of multicenter HIV vaccine or drug trial evaluation. Cytometry (Clin. Cytometry) 50:111,116, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Clinical utility of CD23 and FMC7 antigen coexistent expression in B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder subclassification

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 1 2002
    Ejaz Ahmad
    Abstract Background: CD23 and FMC7 are normal B-cell antigens utilized during diagnostic immunophenotyping of suspected lymphoproliferative disorders. However, the diagnostic utility of coexistent antigenic expression patterns with simultaneous two-color staining and flow cytometric analysis has not been studied extensively. Methods: Using multiparameter flow cytometry, we evaluated the expression pattern of FMC7 and CD23 in 218 cases of B-cell lymphoma from blood and bone marrow specimens. Results: The CD23(+)/FMC7(-) pattern was the most common pattern in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and related variants. The widest variation of patterns was found in patients with follicular cell lymphoma, large cell lymphoma, and Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, a lymphoplasmacytoid disorder, although most cases expressed the CD23-/FMC7(+) pattern. The CD23 and FMC7 antigen, along with the CD5 coexpression pattern, provides critical adjunctive data. These data allow accurate classification of the majority of cases, thereby providing a key aspect of a reliable diagnostic algorithm. The CD23 and FMC7 antigen expression pattern, along with selected other antigens, was predictive of subtypes in >95% of lymphoproliferative cases and narrowed the differential diagnosis in the remaining cases. Conclusion: The flow cytometric CD23/FMC7 expression pattern achieved by multicolor immunophenotyping facilitates accurate and reproducible classification of B-cell lymphomas and has diagnostic utility. Cytometry (Clin. Cytometry) 50:1,7, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Single-cell image analysis to assess ABC-transporter,mediated efflux in highly purified hematopoietic progenitors

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 4 2002
    H.G.P. Raaijmakers
    Abstract Background Normal and malignant hematopoietic stem cells are characterized by their capacity to actively extrude fluorescent dyes. The contribution of different ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters to this phenomenon is largely unknown due to the small stem cell numbers limiting the use of standard methods to assess functional efflux. Methods We used epifluorescence microscopy (EFM) in combination with single-cell image analysis to study ABC-transporter,mediated efflux in highly purified, viable, CD34+CD38- cells sorted on an adhesive biolayer. P-glycoprotein and multidrug-resistant protein (MRP)-mediated efflux were quantitated using fluorescent substrates (rhodamine-123 and calcein acetoxymethyl ester [calcein-AM]) and specific inhibitors (verapamil and probenecid, respectively). Results The feasibility, sensitivity, and reproducibility of rhodamine-123 efflux quantitation using single-cell EFM was shown in cell lines and compared with standard flow cytometric assessment. P-glycoprotein,mediated transport was higher in CD34+CD38- cells than in more differentiated progenitors (mean efflux index = 2.24 ± 0.35 and 1.14 ± 0.11, respectively; P = 0.01). P-glycoprotein,mediated transport was the main determinant of the rhodamine "dull" phenotype of these cells. In addition, significant MRP-mediated efflux was demonstrated in CD34+CD38- and CD38+ cells (mean efflux index = 1.42 ± 0.19 and 1.28 ± 0.18, respectively). Conclusion The described method is a valuable tool for assessing ABC-transporter,mediated efflux in highly purified single cells. Both P-glycoprotein and MRP-mediated efflux are present in human CD34+CD38- hematopoietic stem cells. Cytometry 49:135,142, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Near-infrared dyes for six-color immunophenotyping by laser scanning cytometry

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 3 2002
    Andreas O.H. Gerstner
    Abstract Background To adequately analyze the complexity of the immune system and reduce the required sample volume for immunophenotyping in general, more measurable colors for the discrimination of leukocyte subsets are necessary. Immunophenotyping by the laser scanning cytometer (LSC), a slide-based cytometric technology, combines cell detection based on multiple colors with their subsequent visualization without the need for physical cell sorting. In the present study, the filter setting of the LSC was adapted for the measurement of the far-red emitting dye cyanine 7 (Cy7), thereby increasing the number of measurable commercially available fluorochromes. Methods The optical filters of the LSC were replaced,photomultiplier (PMT) 3/allophycocyanin (APC): 740-nm dichroic long pass, and 670-/55-nm bandpass; PMT 4/Cy7: 810-/90-nm bandpass. Peripheral blood leukocytes were stained directly by fluorochrome-labeled antibodies or by indirect staining. The tandem dyes of Cy7 (phycoerythrin [PE]-Cy7, APC-Cy7) and the fluorochromes fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), PE, PE-Cy5, and APC were tested alone and in different combinations. Results With the new filter combination and tandem fluorochromes, Cy7 was measurable at 488-nm (argon laser) or 633-nm (helium-neon laser) excitation. Resolution was in the range of FITC for PE-Cy7 but approximately 30% lower for APC-Cy7; spillover into the respective donor fluorochrome channel for both tandem dyes was prominent. A six-color panel for leukocyte subtyping was designed. Conclusions With this adaptation, it is possible to measure the tandem conjugates PE-Cy7 and APC-Cy7. This new setup opens the way for six-color immunophenotyping by LSC. Cytometry 48:115,123, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Spontaneous apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and its relationship to clinical and cell kinetic parameters

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 6 2001
    Gislaine B. Oliveira
    Abstract Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) presents considerable variability in clinical presentation as well as in its evolution. In contrast to the inhibition of apoptosis in vivo, spontaneous apoptosis after short-term culture occurs. We studied the degree of this apoptosis in vitro, and its interactions with several clinical and laboratory parameters. Apoptosis was measured by the annexin V technique. Proliferation rate was evaluated by the AgNOR (nucleolar organizer regions) technique. There were inverse correlations between the percentage of annexin V-positive cells and peripheral lymphocyte count (r = - 0.49), Rai stage (r = - 0.40), Binet stage (r = - 0.50), TTM (total tumor mass score; r = - 0.51), and percentage of cells with one AgNOR cluster (r = - 0.45). Direct correlations were found with hemoglobin values ( r = 0.34) and platelet counts (r = 0.52). The number of CD8-positive cells showed a correlation with peripheral lymphocyte count (r = 0.49). When this variable was held constant, a correlation was detected between CD8-positive cells and staging (r = -0.47), TTM (r = - 0.42), and platelet count (r = 0.67). CD4-positive lymphocytes presented a correlation only with CD8-positive lymphocytes. In a cluster analysis, it was possible to create three groups of patients with different apoptosis rates using the TTM and AgNOR values. We conclude that, with the progression of the disease, together with the increase of tumor mass and proliferation rate, there is a decrease in the suceptibility to apoptosis. Cytometry (Comm. Clin. Cytometry) 46:329,335, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Human immunodeficiency virus gag and pol-specific CD8 T cells in perinatal HIV infection

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 5 2001
    Thomas W. McCloskey
    Abstract Background: Binding of fluorochrome-conjugated MHC class I tetramers is a powerful means to detect antigen-specific CD8 T lymphocytes. In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, cellular immune response is essential in curtailing HIV disease progression but gaps persist in our understanding of HIV-specific cells during the disease course. In this study, we evaluated tetramer binding HIV-specific CD8 T cells in HIV-infected children. Methods: Fluorescently labeled tetramers for HIV gag and pol were utilized to quantify antigen-specific cells by flow cytometry using a whole blood labeling method in a cohort of 19 HLA-A2+ HIV- infected children (age range 1 month to 17 years). Results: Fourteen children had detectable gag (median 0.4%) and pol (median 0.1%) binding CD8 T cells, three children had gag binding cells only, and two had neither. Numbers of gag and pol binding cells correlated with each other and each correlated independently with total CD8 T cells and total CD4 T cells. Conclusions: HIV gag and pol-specific CD8 T cells are maintained during the chronic phase of HIV infection in children and CD4 lymphocytes appear to be important for sustaining their levels. Cytometry (Comm. Clin. Cytometry) 46:265,270, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Use of automated microscopy for the detection of disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow samples

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 4 2001
    Elin Borgen
    Abstract The use of automated microscopy has reached the maturity necessary for its routine use in the clinical pathology laboratory. In the following study we compared the performance of an automated microscope system (MDSÔ) with manual method for the detection and analysis of disseminated tumor cells present in bone marrow preparations from breast carcinoma patients. The MDS System detected rare disseminated tumor cells among bone marrow mononuclear cells with higher sensitivity than standard manual microscopy. Automated microscopy also proved to be a method of high reproducibility and precision, the advantage of which was clearly illustrated by problems of variability in manual screening. Accumulated results from two pathologists who had screened 120 clinical slides from breast cancer patients both by manual microscopy and by use of the MDS System revealed only two (3.8%) missed by the automatic procedure, whereas as many as 20 out of 52 positive samples (38%) were missed by manual screening. Cytometry (Comm. Clin. Cytometry) 46:215,221, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Optimizing flow cytometric DNA ploidy and S-phase fraction as independent prognostic markers for node-negative breast cancer specimens

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 3 2001
    C.B. Bagwell
    Abstract Developing a reliable and quantitative assessment of the potential virulence of a malignancy has been a long-standing goal in clinical cytometry. DNA histogram analysis provides valuable information on the cycling activity of a tumor population through S-phase estimates; it also identifies nondiploid populations, a possible indicator of genetic instability and subsequent predisposition to metastasis. Because of conflicting studies in the literature, the clinical relevance of both of these potential prognostic markers has been questioned for the management of breast cancer patients. The purposes of this study are to present a set of 10 adjustments derived from a single large study that optimizes the prognostic strength of both DNA ploidy and S-phase and to test the validity of this approach on two other large multicenter studies. Ten adjustments to both DNA ploidy and S-phase were developed from a single node-negative breast cancer database from Baylor College (n = 961 cases). Seven of the adjustments were used to reclassify histograms into low-risk and high-risk ploidy patterns based on aneuploid fraction and DNA index optimum thresholds resulting in prognostic P values changing from little (P < 0.02) or no significance to P < 0.000005. Other databases from Sweden (n = 210 cases) and France (n = 220 cases) demonstrated similar improvement of DNA ploidy prognostic significance, P < 0.02 to P < 0.0009 and P < 0.12 to P < 0.002, respectively. Three other adjustments were applied to diploid and aneuploid S-phases. These adjustments eliminated a spurious correlation between DNA ploidy and S-phase and enabled them to combine independently into a powerful prognostic model capable of stratifying patients into low, intermediate, and high-risk groups (P < 0.000005). When the Baylor prognostic model was applied to the Sweden and French databases, similar significant patient stratifications were observed (P < 0.0003 and P < 0.00001, respectively). The successful transference of the Baylor prognostic model to other studies suggests that the proposed adjustments may play an important role in standardizing this test and provide valuable prognostic information to those involved in the management of breast cancer patients. Cytometry (Comm. Clin. Cytometry) 46:121,135, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The actin gene family: Function follows isoform,

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 10 2010
    Benjamin J. Perrin
    Although actin is often thought of as a single protein, in mammals it actually consists of six different isoforms encoded by separate genes. Each isoform is remarkably similar to every other isoform, with only slight variations in amino acid sequence. Nevertheless, recent work indicates that actin isoforms carry out unique cellular functions. Here, we review evidence drawn from localization studies, mouse models, and biochemical characterization to suggest a model for how in vivo mixing of actin isoforms may influence cytoskeletal function in cells. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Force propagation and force generation in cells,

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 9 2010
    Oliver Jonas
    Abstract Determining how forces are produced by and propagated through the cytoskeleton (CSK) of the cell is of great interest as dynamic processes of the CSK are intimately correlated with many molecular signaling pathways. We are presenting a novel approach for integrating measurements on cell elasticity, transcellular force propagation, and cellular force generation to obtain a comprehensive description of dynamic and mechanical properties of the CSK under force loading. This approach uses a combination of scanning force microscopy (SFM) and Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. We apply well-defined loading schemes onto the apical cell membrane of fibroblasts using the SFM and simultaneously use TIRF microscopy to image the topography of the basal cell membrane. The locally distinct changes of shape and depth of the cytoskeletal imprints onto the basal membrane are interpreted as results of force propagation through the cytoplasm. This observation provides evidence for the tensegrity model and demonstrates the usefulness of our approach that does not depend on potentially disturbing marker compounds. We confirm that the actin network greatly determines cell stiffness and represents the substrate that mediates force transduction through the cytoplasm of the cell. The latter is an essential feature of tensegrity. Most importantly, our new finding that, both intact actin and microtubule networks are required for enabling the cell to produce work, can only be understood within the framework of the tensegrity model. We also provide, for the first time, a direct measurement of the cell's mechanical power output under compression at two femtowatts. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Delayed embryonic development and impaired cell growth and survival in Actg1 null mice,

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 9 2010
    Tina M. Bunnell
    Abstract Actins are among the most highly expressed proteins in eukaryotes and play a central role in nearly all aspects of cell biology. While the intricate process of development undoubtedly requires a properly regulated actin cytoskeleton, little is known about the contributions of different actin isoforms during embryogenesis. Of the six actin isoforms, only the two cytoplasmic actins, ,cyto - and ,cyto -actin, are ubiquitously expressed. We found that ,cyto -actin null (Actg1,/,) mice were fully viable during embryonic development, but most died within 48 h of birth due to respiratory failure and cannibalization by the parents. While no morphogenetic defects were identified, Actg1,/, mice exhibited stunted growth during embryonic and postnatal development as well as delayed cardiac outflow tract formation that resolved by birth. Using primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we confirm that ,cyto -actin is not required for cell migration. The Actg1,/, cells, however, exhibited growth impairment and reduced cell viability, defects which perhaps contribute to the stunted growth and developmental delays observed in Actg1,/, embryos. Since the total amount of actin protein was maintained in Actg1,/, cells, our data suggests a distinct requirement for ,cyto -actin in cell growth and survival. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]