Weight Increase (weight + increase)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Weight Increase

  • body weight increase
  • molecular weight increase

  • Selected Abstracts

    Growth hormone secretagogue receptor antagonists as potential therapeutic agents for obesity

    Hongyu Zhao
    Abstract Safe and efficacious medicines for obesity treatment are greatly needed. As an endogenous ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R 1a), ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigen. Administration of ghrelin causes food intake and body weight increase in both rodents and humans, whereas inhibiting its actions by antibodies, peptide antagonists, and anti-sense oligonucleotides leads to decreased food intake and weight loss. Recent progress in developing nonpeptidyl small molecule GHS-R antagonists is reviewed in this article. Drug Dev. Res. 65:50,54, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Lower weight gain with the orally disintegrating olanzapine than with standard tablets in first-episode never treated psychotic patients

    B. Arranz
    Abstract Objective A post-hoc analysis of the data from a randomised clinical trial involving prescription of antipsychotic treatment to never treated first-onset psychotic patients was used to compare the weight change after 6-week olanzapine treatment (standard tablets vs. orally disintegrating formulation). Method In the subgroup of 38 patients randomised to olanzapine, standard olanzapine tablets were non-randomly and consecutively prescribed to the first 19 patients, with the orally disintegrating formulation being prescribed to the following 19 patients. Results After 6-week treatment with olanzapine, a significant higher increase in weight was noted in those patients on standard tablets (mean weight increase 6.3,±,1.9,Kg) as compared to those on orally disintegrating olanzapine (mean weight increase 3.3,±,3.2,Kg) (F,=,7.7; p,=,0.009). BMI increase was also significantly higher in the olanzapine tablet group (mean increase of 2.1,Kg/m2 as compared with 1.1,Kg/m2 in the orally disintegrating group) (F,=,4.7; p,=,0.036). Substantial weight gain (SWG) (,7% increase from baseline weight) was noted in 84.2% (n,=,16) of the olanzapine tablet patients and in 31.6% (n,=,6) of the orally disintegrating olanzapine patients, with the olanzapine tablet group showing a significant increase in the mean percentage of weight gain (F,=,4.0; p,=,0.014). Conclusions Partial sublingual absorption occurring with orally disintegrating olanzapine may bypass gastrointestinal metabolisation and hence lead to differences in metabolite versus parent compound ratios. However, the need arises to replicate the present study with a longer follow-up. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The Effect of Seed Vernalization and Irradiation on Growth and Photosynthesis of Field Bean Plants (Vicia faba L. minor) and on Nitrogenase Activity of Root Nodules

    W. Filek
    The effect of seed vernalization (2,3°C; 36 days) and irradiation intensity during vegetation of field bean upon growth and maximum leaf photosynthesis (Pmax) as well as specific (SNA) and total nitrogenase activity (TNA) of root nodules was investigated. The measurements were performed at the initial stage of pod development of varieties with undetermined (cv. Nadwi,a,ski) and determined (cv. Tibo) growth habit. In comparison with plants in shading, those which grew in full irradiation produced larger leaf area and more dry weight, achieving higher Pmax values. Stimulation of leaf area enlargement and dry weight increase, especially in respect to the dry weight of underground parts had a positive and significant effect upon TNA value. Accumulation of dry weight was higher in vernalized than non-vernalized plants, but only in the case of cv. Nadwi,la,ski, in full irradiation conditions. In the case of plants grown in poorer irradiation conditions TNA values were about 68 % (cv. Nadwi,la,ski) and 54 % (cv. Tibo) lower, due to significant limitation of root nodules. TNA value of vernalized cv. Nadwi,la,ski plants was 66 % higher in comparison with non-vernalized plants. However, the effect was visible only in full irradiation conditions, due to simultaneous greater intensity of root nodules production and higher SNA value. A positive effect of vernalization could also be observed in the decrease of a negative correlation between dry weight of root nodules and SNA in both varieties. Zusammenfassung Der Einfluss der Samenvernalisation (3,3°C; 36 Tage) und der Strahlungsintensität während der Vegetation von Fababohnen hinsichtlich des Wachstums und der maximalen Blattfotosynthese (Pmax) sowie der spezifischen (SNA) und Gesamtnitrogenaseaktivität (TNA) der Wurzelknöllchen wurde untersucht. Die Messungen wurden im ersten Stadium der Hülsenentwicklung an Sorten mit undeterminierten (cv. Nadwi,la,ski) und determinierten (cv. Tibo) Wachstumsstrukturen durchgeführt. Ein Vergleich von Pflanzen unter Beschattung mit Pflanzen unter voller Strahlung zeigte, dass beschattete Pflanzen eine gröiere Blattfläche und höheres Trockengewicht produzierten und damit höhere Pmax -Werte erreichten. Stimulation der Blattflächenvergröierung und der Trockenge wichtszunahme, insbesondere im Hinblick auf die Trockengewichte der unterirdischen Pflanzenteile hatte eine positive und signifikante Auswirkung auf den DNA-Wert. Die Akkumulation von Trockenmasse war in vernalisierten Pflanzen höher als in nicht vernalisierten; dies gilt nur für Sorte Nadwi,la,ski unter dem Einfluss voller Strahlung. Im Fall der Pflanzen, die unter geringer Strahlung wuchsen, waren die TNA-Werte ca. 68 % (cv.Nadwi,la,ski) und 54 % (cv. Tibo) geringer als Folge einer signifikanten Begrenzung des Wurzelknöllchenwachstums. TNA-Werte vernalisierter cv. Nadwi,la,ski-Pflanzen waren um 66 % höher im Vergleich mit nicht vernalisierten Pflanzen. Allerdings zeigte sich diese Wirkung nur unter voller Strahlung als Folge einer vergleichsweise gröieren Intensität der Wurzelknöllchenproduktion und höherer SNA-Werte. Der positive Effekt der Vernalisation konnte ebenfalls beobachtet werden bei einer Abnahme der negativen Korrelation zwischen dem Trockengewicht der Wurzelknöllchen und SNA in beiden Sorten. [source]

    Nanofilled polyethersulfone as matrix for continuous glass fibers composites: Mechanical properties and solvent resistance,

    M. Aurilia
    Abstract Polyethersulfone (PES) is high performance thermoplastic polymer; however, its applications are limited by the poor resistance to several classes of solvents. Fumed silica and expanded graphite nanoparticles were used to prepare nanofilled PES by a melt-compounding technique with the view to improve the barrier properties. Solvent uptake at equilibrium and solvents resistance of nanofilled PES compounds were investigated by three different methodologies: (1) weight increase by methylene chloride absorption in a vapor-saturated atmosphere, (2) solvent uptake of acetone at equilibrium, and (3) decay of storage modulus induced by acetone diffusion. The storage modulus decay was measured by means of dynamic mechanical analysis on samples immersed in an acetone bath. The collected data were fitted to an ad hoc model to calculate the diffusion coefficient. The produced nanofilled PES showed a significant improvement in barrier properties and considerable reduction in acetone uptake at equilibrium, in comparison with the neat PES. Nanofilled PES compounds were also used to produce continuous glass fiber composites by the film-stacking manufacturing technique. The composites exhibited, by and large, improvements in flexural and shear strength. Their solvent resistance was evaluated by measuring the variation of mechanical properties after exposure to acetone for 1 and 5 days. These tests showed that the composites produced with the nanocomposite matrix did not exhibit higher solvent resistance than those prepared with neat PES, probably because of the deterioration of the fiber/nanocomposite-matrix interfacial bond in the wet state. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 29:146,160, 2010; View this article online at wileyonlinelibrary. DOI 10.1002/adv.20187 [source]

    An insulin-resistant hypertriglyceridaemic normotensive obese dog model: assessment of insulin resistance by the euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp in combination with the stable isotope technique

    E. Bailhache
    Summary Many studies have shown that in humans insulin resistance (IR) is associated with obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia. The aim of our study was to develop slowly dietary-induced obesity in dogs through long-term overfeeding of a high-fat diet, and to characterize this IR, hypertriglyceridaemic and normotensive model. Insulin resistance was assessed by the euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp technique. The contribution of hepatic glucose production during the clamp was evaluated using a constant stable-isotope-labelled glucose infusion. Overfeeding a high-fat diet for 7 months was associated with a 43 ± 5% body weight increase. Insulin resistance was characterized by hyperinsulinaemia in the unfed state (10 ± 1 vs. 24 ± 1 ,U/ml, in healthy and obese dogs, respectively, p < 0.02) and by a reduction of the insulin-mediated glucose uptake (28 ± 3 vs. 16 ± 1 mg/kg/min, p < 0.02). Hepatic glucose production suppression under insulin infusion allowed to conclude that this reduced glucose uptake resulted from a decrease of insulin sensitivity in obese dogs. Furthermore, animals remained normotensive and exhibited a marked hypertriglyceridaemia (0.26 ± 0.04 vs. 0.76 ± 0.15 mmol/l, in healthy and obese dogs, respectively, p < 0.02). Because hypertriglyceridaemia is the most common lipid abnormality in insulin-resistant humans, this dog with slowly induced obesity may constitute a good model to study the consequences of IR in lipid metabolism independently of vascular changes. [source]

    The importance of honeydew as food for larvae of Chrysoperla carnea in the presence of aphids

    P. A. M. Hogervorst
    Abstract Larvae of the common green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea are predacious and feed on a wide range of small, soft-bodied arthropods. In addition to their feeding on prey arthropods to cover their nutritional requirements for growth and development, the consumption of non-prey foods such as honeydew has been reported. It is commonly believed that these food supplements are primarily exploited by the larvae when prey is scarce or of low nutritional quality. Here, we assess whether C. carnea larvae also use honeydew when high-quality aphid prey are readily available. In a choice experiment, the feeding behaviour of C. carnea larvae was observed in the presence of both aphids and honeydew. The larvae were starved, aphid-fed, or honeydew-fed prior to the experiment. The time spent feeding on honeydew compared with feeding on aphids was highest for starved larvae and lowest for honeydew-fed larvae. Among the three treatments, the aphid-fed larvae spent the most time resting and the least time searching. In an additional experiment food intake was assessed in terms of weight change when larvae were provided with an ad libitum supply of either aphids or honeydew. Larvae yielded a significant lower relative weight increase on honeydew compared with aphids. The reduced weight increase on honeydew was compensated when larvae were subsequently provided with aphids, but not when honeydew was provided again. This study showed that (i) prior honeydew feeding reduces overall aphid consumption, and (ii) larvae do consume honeydew even after they have been given ad libitum access to aphids. The fact that larvae of C. carnea still use honeydew as a food source in the presence of suitable prey underlines the importance of carbohydrates as foods. [source]

    Laboratory and field evaluations of extracts from Rhododendron molle flowers as insect growth regulator to imported cabbage worm, Pieris rapae L. (Lepidoptera:Pieridae)

    G. H. Zhong
    The insect growth regulating properties of rhodojaponin-III (Abbr. R-III) and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract from Rhododendron molle G. Don flowers against imported cabbage worm, Pieris rapae L., were determined under laboratory and field conditions. The values of IC50 (the median of concentration for inhibiting weight increase) for R-III and EtOAc extract were 6.78 p.p.m. and 70.29 p.p.m. against 3rd instar larvae and 13.72 p.p.m. and 346.00 p.p.m. against 5th instar larvae, respectively. R-III and EtOAc extract also could reduce pupating rate, pupal weight, emergence rate and extend the duration of development. Thus development of insects was inhibited significantly and development index decreased. R-III would be superior to toosendanin as insect growth regulator. EtOAc extract 1000 p.p.m. mixture with molosultap 500 p.p.m. could achieve an effective control rate of 87.34% against P. rapae in field trials when adjusted cumulative insect-days were used as index. [source]

    The effect of long-term streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (STZ-DM) on cynomolgus (Macaca Fascicularis) monkeys

    D. Wu
    Abstract Background, This study aimed to retrospectively analyze the effect of long-term streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (STZ-DM) on adolescent cynomolgus monkeys. Methods, A total of 12 monkeys (six STZ-DM and six controls) were monitored for fasting glucose levels and locomotor activities, tested for hematological and serum parameters, measured for body weight and somatometric values. Results, Fasting glucose was maintained at high levels in STZ-DM monkeys. At the age when normal adolescent monkeys dramatically increased their weight, STZ-DM led to the retardation of weight increase in diabetic monkeys. Moreover, STZ-DM monkeys showed abnormal lipid levels and somatometric measurements. In locomotor activity test, STZ-DM monkeys were more active than control ones. Conclusions, Long-term STZ-DM disrupts the normal growth of young monkeys and interferes with some aspects of hormone, lipid metabolism and physical activities. Mean plasma glucose (MPG) appeared to be an important factor in physical activity abnormalities of STZ-DM monkeys. [source]

    Titanium-mediated [CpTiCl2(OEt)] ring-opening polymerization of lactides: A novel route to well-defined polylactide-based complex macromolecular architectures

    Nikolaos Petzetakis
    Abstract Among three cyclopentadienyl titanium complexes studied, CpTiCl2(OEt), containing a 5% excess CpTiCl3, has proven to be a very efficient catalyst for the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of L -lactide (LLA) in toluene at 130 °C. Kinetic studies revealed that the polymerization yield (up to 100%) and the molecular weight increase linearly with time, leading to well-defined PLLA with narrow molecular weight distributions (Mw/Mn , 1.1). Based on the above results, PS- b -PLLA, PI- b -PLLA, PEO- b -PLLA block copolymers, and a PS- b -PI- b -PLLA triblock terpolymer were synthesized. The synthetic strategy involved: (a) the preparation of OH-end-functionalized homopolymers or diblock copolymers by anionic polymerization, (b) the reaction of the OH-functionalized polymers with CpTiCl3 to give the corresponding Ti-macrocatalyst, and (c) the ROP of LLA to afford the final block copolymers. PMMA- g -PLLA [PMMA: poly(methyl methacrylate)] was also synthesized by: (a) the reaction of CpTiCl3 with 2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate, HEMA, to give the Ti-HEMA-catalyst, (b) the ROP of LLA to afford a PLLA methacrylic-macromonomer, and (c) the copolymerization (conventional and ATRP) of the macromonomer with MMA to afford the final graft copolymer. Intermediate and final products were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography, equipped with refractive index and two-angle laser light scattering detectors. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 48: 1092,1103, 2010 [source]

    Dietary effects on growth, plasma lipid and tissues of rats fed with non-conventional oil of Telfairia occidentalis

    Ibironke A Ajayi
    Abstract The nutritional value of Telfairia occidentalis seed and seed oil available in local market was studied in rats. The average values of the proximate analysis on dry matter basis were 203 g kg,1 crude protein, 536.3 g kg,1 fat, 39 g kg,1 ash, 95 g kg,1 crude fibre and 43.7 g kg,1 carbohydrate, while the moisture content was 75 g kg,1. The mineral analyses showed that T occidentalis seeds contain potassium (3280 mg kg,1), sodium (1230 mg kg,1), magnesium (60.8 mg kg,1), calcium (60.8 mg kg,1) and iron (13.0 mg kg,1). The oil extracted from the seed sample showed physicochemical properties that suggest its suitability for edible and industrial uses. The oil contained high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, oleic and linoleic, which accounted for 63.22% of total fatty acids recovered, while palmitic acid (27.4% of the oil by weight) was the most prevalent saturated fatty acid in the oil. No trace of eleostearic acid was detected in the oil. The effect on physical appearance, weight gain, organ weight, tissue and plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels was determined in rats fed a diet containing 5% T occidentalis oil. These were compared with those of rats fed a control diet (0% T occidentalis oil) over an 8 week study period. Weekly monitoring of the rats showed good physical appearance and steady weight increase. The test rats were not anaemic and no mortality was recorded. While there was a significantly higher (p < 0.05) level of cholesterol in the heart of test rats compared with the control, there was a significantly lower (p < 0.05) plasma cholesterol level, suggesting that T occidentalis seed oil can be used to lower plasma levels of cholesterol. Histological examination of the sections of the heart, liver, kidney and spleen of the test rats revealed varying degrees of pathology. These include artherosclerotic changes in the walls of vasa vasori and lymphatics in the heart and hyaline degeneration of myofibrils, fatty infiltration of hepatocytes, and glomerular and tubular degeneration in the kidneys. These lesions may have been due to the effect of fatty acids, especially erucic acid, in the seed oil, which at 1.24% (less that the 5% conventional allowable limit for edible oils) may be intolerable for rats and may be unsuitable for human consumption. The seed oil may be used for industrial purposes such as soap making, lubrication and cosmetics for which it is well suited. Copyright © 2004 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Methacryloxyethyl phosphate-grafted expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membranes for biomedical applications

    Edeline Wentrup-Byrne
    Abstract Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes were modified by graft copolymerization with methacryloxyethyl phosphate (MOEP) in methanol and 2-butanone (methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)) at ambient temperature using gamma irradiation. The effect of dose rate (0.46 and 4.6 kGy h,1), monomer concentration (1,40 %) and solvent were studied and the modified membranes were characterized by weight increase, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XPS was used to determine the % degree of surface coverage using the CF (ePTFE membrane) and the CC (MOEP graft copolymer) peaks. Grafting yield, as well as surface coverage, were found to increase with increasing monomer concentration and were significantly higher for samples grafted in MEK than in methanol solution. SEM images showed distinctly different surface morphologies for the membranes grafted in methanol (smooth) and MEK (globular), hence indicating phase separation of the homopolymer in MEK. We propose that in our system, the non-solvent properties of MEK for the homopolymer play a more important role than solvent chain transfer reactions in determining grafting outcomes. Copyright © 2005 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Glutamine deamidation of a recombinant monoclonal antibody

    Hongcheng Liu
    Deamidation of glutamine (Gln) proceeds at a much slower rate than deamidation of asparagine (Asn) residues at peptide level. However, deamidation of Gln residues in native proteins may occur faster because of the impact of protein structure and thus plays a significant role in affecting protein stability. Gln deamidation of a recombinant monoclonal IgG1 antibody was investigated in the current study. Deamidation was determined by a molecular weight increase of 1,Da, a retention time shift on reversed-phase chromatography and tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) analysis of the peptides. As expected, Gln residues at different locations in the three-dimensional structure had different susceptibilities to deamidation. Gln deamidation was highly pH dependent with the highest level detected in the sample incubated at pH 9, and lowest level at pH 6 in the pH range from 5 to 9. The detection of significant levels of Gln deamidation suggested that it may play an important role in affecting heterogeneity and stability of recombinant monoclonal antibodies. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Effects of rapeseed oil replacement in fish feed on lipid composition and self-selection by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Abstract Increased use of plant oils with different origins and quality in fish feed needs to be approached from a food safety and fish welfare point of view. Plant oils contain a number of bioactive minor lipid compounds that may affect the fish's metabolism and taste perception. This study focuses on the effect of replacing fish oil (FO) with different levels of cold-pressed rapeseed oil (RO) on the lipid composition in muscle and liver as well as on the preference by the fish. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed diets with a FO : RO ratio of 100 : 0, 75 : 25, 50 : 50 and 25 : 75 until twofold weight increase. In self-selecting feed trials of single rainbow trout, fish preferred the diet composed of only FO compared with the diets with RO but did not discriminate between different levels of RO. Plant sterols and their metabolites were found in liver of the fish fed RO diets, suggesting an effect on the sterol metabolism different from fish fed a 100% FO diet. The largest effects were seen in the fatty acid composition of the edible tissue of the fish with a decrease in 22:6n-3 and 20:5n-3 and an increase in 18:2n-6 and 18:1n-9. [source]

    Supplementation of dietary minerals during the early seawater phase increase vertebral strength and reduce the prevalence of vertebral deformities in fast-growing under-yearling Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolt

    Abstract An earlier study demonstrated that under-yearling (0+) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolt had a lower vertebral mineral content and mechanical strength and higher prevalence of vertebral deformities than 1+ smolt during the early seawater (SW) phase. The present study aimed to examine if commercial extruded high-energy diets need to be supplemented additional minerals for proper bone mineralization and prevention of bone deformities in fast growing 0 + smolts. We studied vertebral morphology with radiology, and bone mineral content and mechanical strength in 60 g 0+ smolt fed diets with a normal (NM) or elevated (HM) bone mineral (P and Ca) contents from SW transfer (week 0) until 10 times weight increase at week 17. Thereafter, both groups were fed a commercial diet until a mean slaughter weight of 4100 g after 57 week. There were no differences in body weight and length between the dietary groups during the study, while the condition factor differed significantly at the final sampling (NM 1.40; HM 1.29). The most common bone deformity observed was compressions in the tail region of the vertebral column. Lower incidences of vertebral deformities (percent individuals with one or more deformed vertebrae) was observed in the HM group in week 17 (HM 20%; NM 47%) and week 57 (HM 37%; NM 73%), also reflected by higher vertebral length/dorso-ventral diameter ratio in weeks 17 (HM 0.99; MN 0.92) and 57 (HM 0.97; NM 0.88). The HM group had significantly higher vertebral mineral content (HM 550 g kg,1; NM 480 g kg,1) and mechanical strength (HM 9050 g mm,1; NM 4600 g mm,1) than the NM group after 8 week feeding. Plasma levels of Ca, P and D-vitamin metabolites recorded in week 8 reflected changes in P homeostasis, but could not explain the preventive effect of the HM diet on development of bone deformities. The results suggest that elevated dietary mineral content during the early SW phase may reduce the prevalence of vertebral deformities in fast growing 0 + salmon smolts. [source]

    Determination of physical behaviour of feed pellets in Mediterranean water

    Paolo Vassallo
    Abstract Settled uneaten feed causes the most intense impact under sea cages, and settling velocity of the feed pellets represents a key parameter for waste dispersion models. Even if some data about physical properties of feed pellets have been published in the framework of salmonid rearing, there is a complete lack of information related to the Mediterranean Sea, as regards typical values of temperature, salinity and feed composition for Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.) and Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). In this study we try to fill this lack, determining dimensions, water adsorption properties, floating times and settling velocities of a typical growing sequence of pellets for the species mentioned above, under defined laboratory conditions reproducing Mediterranean Sea water. The settling velocity increases with pellet size from 0.087, for the smallest pellet (3 mm), to 0.144 m s,1, for the 5 mm pellet. The biggest extruded pellet (6 mm) falls slower (0.088 m s,1). The floating time before pellet's fall is found to be a critical parameter in determining settling velocity. The latter depends on pellet's size, water temperature and salinity. The examined pellets reach a 42% of weight increase after 10 min of immersion, while no appreciable dimension change is observed. Our results are in part different from previous ones and could play a role in evaluating and modelling Mediterranean aquaculture environmental impact. [source]

    A randomized, placebo- and active-controlled study of paliperidone extended release for the treatment of acute manic and mixed episodes of bipolar I disorder

    BIPOLAR DISORDERS, Issue 3 2010
    Eduard Vieta
    Vieta E, Nuamah IF, Lim P, Yuen EC, Palumbo JM, Hough DW, Berwaerts J. A randomized, placebo- and active-controlled study of paliperidone extended release for the treatment of acute manic and mixed episodes of bipolar I disorder. Bipolar Disord 2010: 12: 230,243. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Objectives:, To evaluate the antimanic efficacy and safety of paliperidone extended-release (ER) tablets in patients with bipolar I disorder. Methods:, This study included a 3-week, double-blind, acute treatment phase (paliperidone ER versus placebo, with quetiapine as control), and a 9-week, double-blind, maintenance phase (paliperidone ER versus quetiapine). Patients [n = 493; Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) score , 20] were randomized (2:2:1) to flexibly dosed paliperidone ER (3,12 mg/day), quetiapine (400,800 mg/day), or placebo for the acute treatment phase. During the maintenance phase, patients assigned to placebo were switched to paliperidone ER but not included in analysis of efficacy. Results:, Paliperidone ER was superior to placebo at the 3-week endpoint {primary outcome; least-squares mean difference in change from baseline in YMRS scores [95% confidence interval (CI)]: ,5.5 (,7.57; ,3.35); p < 0.001} and noninferior to quetiapine at the 12-week endpoint [least-squares mean difference (95% CI): 1.7 (,0.47; 3.96)]. The median mode dose during the 12-week treatment period was 9 mg for paliperidone ER and 600 mg for quetiapine. The most common (, 10%) treatment-emergent adverse events during the 12-week period were: headache (16%), somnolence (10%), and akathisia (10%) for paliperidone ER; somnolence (21%), sedation and dry mouth (17% each), headache (14%), and dizziness (13%) for quetiapine. Body weight increase , 7% from baseline to 12-week endpoint was 8% with paliperidone ER and 17% with quetiapine. A higher percentage of paliperidone ER (13.9%) versus quetiapine patients (7.5%) ,switched to depression' at the12-week endpoint. Conclusions:, Paliperidone ER (3,12 mg/day) was efficacious and tolerable in the treatment of acute mania. [source]

    Influence of temperature on corneas stored in culture medium.

    A comparative study using functional, morphological methods
    Abstract. Purpose:, To investigate the influence of storage temperature on corneal swelling and on endothelial morphology in cultured corneas. Material and methods:, Forty-eight rabbit corneas were separated into four groups of 12. The corneas were stored in culture medium at 37 ° (group 37), 34 ° (group 34), 31 ° (group 31) and 23 ° (room temperature) (group 23), respectively. All the corneas were monitored by weight recordings on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7. On day 7, corneas were prepared for scanning electron microscopy and endothelial cell counts were performed. Results:, Lowering the temperature of the culture medium resulted in less swelling. Both temperature and storage time had significant effects on corneal swelling (p < 0.001). On day 7, the observed mean weight increase was 131.2%, 143.0%, 172.5% and 199.7% in groups 23, 31, 34 and 37, respectively. The estimated mean daily weight increase for the corneas were 2.6%, 4.0%, 9.1% and 16.0% in groups 23, 31, 34 and 37, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy showed an intact endothelial layer in all groups after 7 days and there were no statistically significant differences in endothelial counts between groups 23, 31 and 34. In group 37, the cell borders were difficult to distinguish after 7 days and no meaningful count could be performed. Conclusions:, The swelling rate of cultured corneas is significantly less at 23 ° and 31 ° than it is at 34 ° and 37 ° during the first week. This is most likely the result of a greatly increased barrier effect at lower temperatures. Whereas weight recording revealed profound differences between the groups, scanning electron microscopy and endothelial cell counting did not. The results support the hypothesis that storage at 37 ° is not optimal in culturing corneas. Lowering the temperature below body temperature, and even lower than 31 °, results in less corneal swelling. [source]

    Metabolic profiles of fat and glucose differ by gender in healthy 8-year-olds

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 1 2010
    Susanne Eriksson
    Abstract Objective:, The aim was to investigate if metabolic markers were associated with anthropometry and weight increase in healthy 8-year-olds. Methods:, Ninety-seven healthy children, 66 of whom had been examined at the age of 4 years, were investigated. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed to determine fat (FM) and lean body mass (LBM). Plasma glucose and serum levels of insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, adiponectin and leptin were analysed and HOMA-indices were calculated. Results:, Despite similar anthropometry, metabolic markers differed by gender. Sixteen % of the children were overweight or obese. Body mass index (BMI) was strongly correlated to FM. Anthropometric measures except LBM correlated to metabolic markers in the girls. Boys had higher concentrations of plasma glucose than girls. In overweight children, insulin was negatively associated with LBM. Leptin and the ratio between leptin and adiponectin, but not adiponectin, were significantly associated with HOMA-IR and body composition. Conclusion:, The metabolic profile of plasma glucose, serum leptin, fasting insulin and related HOMA indices differed by gender, despite no difference in BMI or FM. LBM, but not FM correlated to the insulin concentration in the overweight children. Leptin was the best marker of overweight. [source]

    Generalized lymphedema in a sirolimus-treated renal transplant patient

    Carmine De Bartolomeis
    Abstract:, Generalized lymphedema is an extremely rare effect of sirolimus therapy in renal transplant recipients. We describe the development of this complication in a 56-yr-old woman, who was given an experimental protocol with cyclosporine, sirolimus, steroids, and basiliximab. Following the protocol, after one month, the patient was randomized to the "sirolimus only" group, while cyclosporine was completely suspended and the oral steroids were continued. Three months later, the patient was admitted for severe lymphedema of the lower limbs, with significant weight increase, massive ascites and dyspnea, but excellent renal function. A chest radiography and an ultrasound study of the heart showed a moderate pleural and pericardial effusion. An abdominal ultrasound scan showed two small lymphoceles next to the transplanted kidney, confirmed with a CT scan. After sirolimus discontinuation the generalized lymphedema started to improve and three months later all the symptoms had disappeared. [source]

    Atypical antipsychotics and weightgain , a systematic review

    D. M. Taylor
    Objective: To review systematically data relating to weight changes with atypical antipsychotics. Method: We conducted a Medline search on October 29 1999 and covered the period 1980,99. All recovered papers were examined for further relevant reports. In addition, we wrote to pharmaceutical manufacturers and 10 practising clinicians to ask them to provide other relevant reports known to them. Results: Eighty reports mentioning change in body weight were retrieved. Data relating to weight changes were of variable quality. Weight changes were indicated by a variety of measures. The majority of reports related to short-term changes. Conclusion: All atypical drugs, with the exception of ziprasidone, have been associated with weight increases. Clozapine seems to have the highest risk of weight gain, followed by olanzapine and quetiapine. There is probably a lower risk with risperidone, sertindole and zotepine and a still lower risk with amisulpride. Ziprasidone appears not to be associated with weight gain. In the absence of more compelling data, these rankings must be considered approximate and preliminary. Longer, more robust trials are needed. [source]

    Hormone Replacement Therapy Dissociates Fat Mass and Bone Mass, and Tends to Reduce Weight Gain in Early Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled 5-Year Clinical Trial of the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study,

    LB Jensen MD
    Abstract The aim of this study was to study the influence of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on weight changes, body composition, and bone mass in early postmenopausal women in a partly randomized comprehensive cohort study design. A total of 2016 women ages 45,58 years from 3 months to 2 years past last menstrual bleeding were included. One thousand were randomly assigned to HRT or no HRT in an open trial, whereas the others were allocated according to their preferences. All were followed for 5 years for body weight, bone mass, and body composition measurements. Body weight increased less over the 5 years in women randomized to HRT (1.94 ± 4.86 kg) than in women randomized to no HRT (2.57 ± 4.63, p = 0.046). A similar pattern was seen in the group receiving HRT or not by their own choice. The smaller weight gain in women on HRT was almost entirely caused by a lesser gain in fat. The main determinant of the weight gain was a decline in physical fitness. Women opting for HRT had a significantly lower body weight at inclusion than the other participants, but the results in the self-selected part of the study followed the pattern found in the randomized part. The change in fat mass was the strongest predictor of bone changes in untreated women, whereas the change in lean body mass was the strongest predictor when HRT was given. Body weight increases after the menopause. The gain in weight is related to a decrease in working capacity. HRT is associated with a smaller increase in fat mass after menopause. Fat gain protects against bone loss in untreated women but not in HRT-treated women. The data suggest that women's attitudes to HRT are more positive if they have low body weight, but there is no evidence that the conclusions in this study are skewed by selection bias. [source]

    Processing, Morphology, and Mechanical Properties of Liquid Pool Polypropylene with Different Molecular Weights

    Claudia Stern
    Abstract Summary: The processability, morphology, and resulting mechanical properties of novel polypropylene (PP) samples of varying molecular weight () were studied. A series of homopolymer PP in a wide range from 101,000 to 1,600,000 g,·,mol,1 was polymerised in a liquid pool (LP) under defined conditions. The LP-PP with a well-known polymerisation history was manufactured into micro dumbbell specimens by means of a micro injection-moulding process. The morphology and mechanical properties of the samples were studied by light microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and a quasi-static tensile test. Simulation of the filling behaviour of the molten polymer inside the mould shows that the shear rate increases as the molecular weight increases, up to a maximum shear rate of 750,000 s,1. In addition, the present crystallisation time of the high-molecular-weight PP samples is clearly lower than their retardation time; the long macromolecules do not have sufficient time to retard while cooling. As a result of the shear-induced crystallisation, a highly oriented crystalline structure is formed as a function of the acting shear rate. SEM and TEM investigations show the existence of an oriented shish kebab structure. The density of the shish kebab increases as the molecular weight increases. Evaluations of the shear rate and the morphological structure indicate a critical shear rate of about 300,000 s,1. Above this shear rate level, shish kebab structures are favourably formed. The shear-induced crystallisation and, therefore, the preferred formation of a highly oriented shish kebab structure lead, obviously, to unusual solid-state properties of the analysed LP-PP samples. With a tensile strength up to 100 N,·,mm,2 and an attainable strain at break of more than 30%, the mechanical performance is much higher than results ever reported in literature. True strain,stress behaviour of moulded the LP-PP samples of different molecular weight. [source]

    Synthesis and morphology transformation of amphiphilic diblock polyurethane copolymers in aqueous solution

    Qing Miao
    Abstract Amphiphilic block copolymers possess both hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties and can form versatile micellar structures in aqueous solution. The aim of the research presented was to prepare a series of non-ionic amphiphilic diblock polyurethane copolymers (PUn) based on isophorone diisocyanate, monoallyl-end-capped poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), followed by an investigation of their micellization properties and morphology transformation in aqueous solution. The PUn samples were synthesized by condensation polymerization. These polyurethanes exhibit surface tension as low as 33.7,37.0 mN m,1. There is an obvious decrease in critical micelle concentration as the hydrophobic PPO molecular weight increases. According to transmission electron microscopy, the morphology of aggregates of the copolymers can be tuned by varying the concentration in aqueous solution rather than organic solvent. For example, for PU7, large compound micelles are produced instead of vesicles. For PU17, the concentration can be used to control the size and thickness of vesicles. Vesicle size increases from 60 to 500 nm and vesicle thickness from 40 to 60 nm with concentration ranging from 0.003 to 0.03 wt%. The study shows that the copolymers in aqueous solution have excellent surface activities. In addition, they can self-assemble into large compound micelles or vesicles at certain concentrations. Moreover, the synthesis method described allows one to obtain a desired morphology of aggregates by adjusting the composition of hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments, which provides a novel and simple way to obtain particles on the nanometer scale. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    The growth and gonadal maturation of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) broodstock fed differently heated soybean-based diets

    Abstract An investigation was carried out to assess the growth and gonadal maturation of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) fed differently heated soybean diets in concrete tanks. Four hundred and eighty male and female C. gariepinus (182 ± 10 g for females and 208 ± 5 g for males) were randomly distributed in groups into hapa nets. Iso-nitrogenous (310 g kg,1 crude protein) and iso-caloric diets (355 Kcal kg,1) prepared from raw soybean (D0) and soybean autoclaved for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min labelled D0, D5, D10, D15, D20, D25 and D30, were fed to the fish for 84 days. The fish meal based diet tagged DFM served as control. The male and female broodfish fed the fish-meal-based diet and diet D25 had significantly higher (P < 0.05) growth performance, gonad maturation, gonadosomatic index, relative fecundity and percentage egg fertilization and hatchability than the fish fed the other diets. The females had significantly higher (P < 0.05) weight increases and healthier condition over their male counterparts fed the same diets. This study showed that diet D25 was found to be the best substitute for fish meal that provided adequate nutrients required for the formation of genital products that produced strong offspring in C. gariepinus broodstock culture. [source]