Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Weight

  • actual weight
  • adrenal weight
  • adult body weight
  • adult weight
  • animal weight
  • apparent molecular weight
  • appropriate weight
  • ash weight
  • average body weight
  • average initial weight
  • average molecular weight
  • average weight
  • baseline weight
  • birth weight
  • bladder weight
  • body fat weight
  • body weight
  • bone weight
  • brain weight
  • carcass weight
  • cell dry weight
  • cell weight
  • child weight
  • children weight
  • combination weight
  • constant weight
  • controlled molecular weight
  • current weight
  • decreased body weight
  • different molecular weight
  • different weight
  • disability weight
  • dry cell weight
  • dry weight
  • early weight
  • egg weight
  • entanglement molecular weight
  • equal weight
  • excess body weight
  • excess weight
  • experimental molecular weight
  • fat pad weight
  • fat weight
  • female body weight
  • female weight
  • fetal body weight
  • fetal weight
  • final body weight
  • final mean weight
  • final weight
  • fish weight
  • fresh weight
  • fruit weight
  • g body weight
  • g dry weight
  • g fresh weight
  • g initial weight
  • g wet weight
  • gland weight
  • gonad weight
  • graft weight
  • grain weight
  • greater weight
  • harvest weight
  • healthy weight
  • heart weight
  • high molecular weight
  • high-molecular weight
  • highest molecular weight
  • hot carcass weight
  • ideal body weight
  • increased body weight
  • increasing body weight
  • increasing molecular weight
  • individual fish weight
  • individual weight
  • infant birth weight
  • initial average weight
  • initial body weight
  • initial mean weight
  • initial weight
  • kda molecular weight
  • kernel weight
  • kg body weight
  • kg dry weight
  • kg live weight
  • kg weight
  • kg wet weight
  • kidney weight
  • kilogram body weight
  • larval weight
  • leaf weight
  • lean body weight
  • leave ventricular weight
  • light weight
  • live weight
  • liver weight
  • lose weight
  • low birth weight
  • low body weight
  • low molecular weight
  • low weight
  • lower birth weight
  • lower body weight
  • lower molecular weight
  • lower weight
  • lung weight
  • maternal weight
  • maximum weight
  • mean birth weight
  • mean body weight
  • mean dry weight
  • mean final weight
  • mean initial weight
  • mean weight
  • median birth weight
  • median weight
  • metabolic body weight
  • mg dry weight
  • mg kg body weight
  • moderate molecular weight
  • molecular weight
  • molecular weight molecular weight
  • muscle weight
  • normal body weight
  • normal weight
  • number average molecular weight
  • number-average molecular weight
  • optimal weight
  • organ weight
  • own weight
  • pad weight
  • patient body weight
  • patient weight
  • percentage weight
  • placental weight
  • plant weight
  • polymer molecular weight
  • pre-pregnancy weight
  • predictable molecular weight
  • predicted molecular weight
  • prostate weight
  • protein weight
  • pupal weight
  • recipient body weight
  • recipient weight
  • reduced body weight
  • regression weight
  • relative weight
  • root dry weight
  • same molecular weight
  • same weight
  • seed weight
  • shell weight
  • shoot dry weight
  • similar molecular weight
  • specific weight
  • spleen weight
  • statistical weight
  • stem weight
  • target weight
  • testicular weight
  • testis weight
  • theoretical molecular weight
  • thrombus weight
  • thymus weight
  • thyroid weight
  • tissue weight
  • total body weight
  • total weight
  • tumor weight
  • unit weight
  • uterine weight
  • various molecular weight
  • varying molecular weight
  • ventricular weight
  • very low birth weight
  • viscosity-average molecular weight
  • weaning weight
  • weight average molecular weight
  • weight molecular weight
  • weight-average molecular weight
  • weight-average molecular weight molecular weight
  • welfare weight
  • wet weight

  • Terms modified by Weight

  • weight adolescent
  • weight alone
  • weight average
  • weight average molecular weight
  • weight bands
  • weight basis
  • weight bearing
  • weight category
  • weight change
  • weight child
  • weight class
  • weight complex
  • weight compound
  • weight content
  • weight control
  • weight cut-off
  • weight daily
  • weight data
  • weight decrease
  • weight decreased
  • weight determination
  • weight development
  • weight diameter
  • weight difference
  • weight distribution
  • weight dna
  • weight estimate
  • weight estimation
  • weight fluctuation
  • weight fraction
  • weight function
  • weight gain
  • weight group
  • weight growth
  • weight heparin
  • weight increase
  • weight infant
  • weight inhibitor
  • weight limit
  • weight loss
  • weight loss intervention
  • weight loss measurement
  • weight loss temperature
  • weight maintenance
  • weight management
  • weight management intervention
  • weight matrix
  • weight measurement
  • weight molecular weight
  • weight organic acid
  • weight percent
  • weight percentage
  • weight percentile
  • weight perception
  • weight poly
  • weight polyethylene
  • weight polymer
  • weight problem
  • weight profile
  • weight protein
  • weight range
  • weight ratio
  • weight reduction
  • weight regression
  • weight regulation
  • weight relationship
  • weight relationships
  • weight species
  • weight status
  • weight substance
  • weight used
  • weight variation
  • weight vector
  • weight z score

  • Selected Abstracts

    Population biology of the red gurnard (Aspitrigla cuculus L.; Triglidae) in the inshore waters of Eastern Anglesey and Northwest Wales

    A. L. Marriott
    Summary ICES has identified red gurnard Aspitrigla cuculus (L.) as a potential commercial species and recommended that monitoring programmes should be conducted to derive information on biological parameters for stock assessment purposes. In this paper, data on the population biology of red gurnard in the coastal waters of Northwest Wales and Eastern Anglesey are presented. Total length (TL) of fish sampled ranged from 15.4 to 35.0 cm (males) and 10.5 to 43.1 cm (females), with the majority of females between 20 and 30 cm TL (70.0%) and males between 20 and 30 cm TL (71.0%). TL/weight (W) relations were similar between immature and mature individuals for both sexes and between both sexes (all maturity stages combined), producing a combined data equation W = 0.005 TL3.19. Age of fish ranged from 1 to 7 years and 1 to 6 years, respectively, for females and males, with the majority of females age 3 (37%) and the majority of males age 2 (49%). The age structures of female and male red gurnards were significantly different, with the older age classes consisting predominantly of female fish. Both males and females exhibited similar asymptotic growth patterns; the combined von Bertalanffy growth function was . Instantaneous rates of total mortality were calculated as 1.13 year,1 for males and 0.98 year,1 for females. The size (L50) and age at first maturity (A50) were estimated to be 26.3 cm TL and 3.6 years for males, 28.1 cm TL and 3.5 years for females and 25.6 cm TL and 3.7 years for both sexes combined. [source]


    Soft drink consumption has been hypothesized as one of the major factors in the growing rates of obesity in the United States. Nearly two-thirds of all states currently tax soft drinks using excise taxes, sales taxes, or special exceptions to food exemptions from sales taxes to reduce consumption of this product, raise revenue, and improve public health. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of changes in state soft drink taxes on body mass index (BMI), obesity, and overweight. Our results suggest that soft drink taxes influence BMI, but that the impact is small in magnitude.(JEL I18, H75) [source]


    ABSTRACT Foods containing barley or oats are often marketed as healthy because of the dietary fiber (1,3) (1,4)-,-D-glucan. Processing conditions can affect the molecular structure of these dietary fibers, which in turn affect quality and properties of the products. In this study, the effect of puffing and jet cooking conditions on changes in the solubility and molecular weight of barley ,-glucans was investigated. Barley flour was processed in a pasta extruder to produce particles similar in size and shape to rice. These particles were puffed at 230, 250 and 270C for 6, 8 and 10 s in a rice cake machine. Solubility and molecular weight of barley ,-glucans were determined by using water extracts (25 or 65C). The amount of ,-glucan extracted in water at 25C increased from 41.1% in cakes puffed at 230C/6 s to 69.7% in cakes puffed at 270C/10 s. The amount of ,-glucan extracted in water at 65C increased from 63.6% in samples puffed at 230C/6 s to 99.1% in samples puffed at 270C/10 s. The molecular weight of ,-glucans in barley was reduced by puffing and jet cooking treatments. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
    Peggy Vauchel
    Alginates are natural polysaccharides that are extracted from brown seaweeds and widely used for their rheological properties. The central step in the extraction protocol used in the alginate industry is the alkaline extraction, which requires several hours. In this study, a significant decrease in alginate dynamic viscosity was observed after 2 h of alkaline treatment. Intrinsic viscosity and average molecular weight of alginates from alkaline extractions 1,4 h in duration were determined, indicating depolymerization of alginates: average molecular weight decreased significantly during the extraction, falling by a factor of 5 between 1 and 4 h of extraction. These results suggested that reducing extraction time could enable preserving the rheological properties of the extracted alginates. [source]


    If there is one thing to be learnt from watching people work in old traditional crafts it is this: The tools and the working procedures are never clumsy, never impractical (Hoffmann 1988) Summary Loom weights are common finds in archaeological excavations in Europe and the Near East. They represent the only remains of warp-weighted looms. The function of the warp-weighted loom is well known from ethnographic studies. The function of loom weights, however, has not been investigated and cannot be deduced directly from ethnographical data, since loom weights in antiquity were very different from those used in the twentieth century AD. This paper reviews the functional elements of a loom weight. The weight and thickness of loom weights are established as the defining functional parameters for the operation of the warp-weighted loom. A series of systematic tests demonstrated that the weight of a loom weight defines what yarn to use and the thread density. The thickness of a loom weight, and thus the width of the row of loom weights hanging closely together, defines the width of a fabric and , together with the weight of the loom weight , the thread count and density of the fabric. This new knowledge provides the methodological framework for archaeologists to calculate textile production possibilities from any given loom weight, as long as the weight and thickness are preserved. Furthermore, it allows scholars to assess textile production on sites where no textiles are preserved. [source]


    Summary. This report analyses the 16 stone balance weights and fragments recovered in 1994 from the ninth-century BC Tomb 79 in the Toumba cemetery at Lefkandi, Euboea, the tomb of the ,Warrior Trader'. In material, shapes, and mass standards, the weights are for the most part virtual duplicates of common LBA balance weights from Cyprus and the Levant and attest to (a) the long-term continuity of maritime trading across the Bronze/Iron Age divide in the Cypro-Levantine world, and (b) the active participation of Euboeans in this commercial sphere no later than the early ninth century. Discussed also is the relationship between some of these weights and the later Euboeic weight standard. [source]

    The role of weight for age and disease stage in poor psychomotor outcome of HIV-infected children in Kilifi, Kenya

    Aim, We aimed to investigate the contribution of disease stage and weight for age to the variability in psychomotor outcome observed among children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Method, This cross-sectional study involved 48 Kenyan children (20 females, 28 males) aged 6 to 35 months (mean 19.9mo SD 8.9) exposed prenatally to HIV. Two subgroups of HIV-exposed children were seen: those who were HIV-infected and those who were uninfected. The reference population was composed of 319 children (159 females, 160 males) aged 6,35 months, (mean age = 19 months, SD=8.43) randomly selected from the community. Disease stage varied from stage 1 to stage 3, reflecting progression from primary HIV infection to advanced HIV infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. A locally developed and validated measure, the Kilifi Developmental Inventory, was used to assess psychomotor development. Result, Using age-corrected psychomotor scores, a significant main effect of HIV status was observed (F(2,38.01)=7.89, p<0.001). Children in the HIV-infected group had lower mean psychomotor scores than the HIV-exposed children and the reference group. In the HIV-infected group, disease stage was a negative predictor and weight for age a positive predictor of psychomotor outcome. Interpretation, Weight for age and disease stage provide viable, easily measurable benchmarks to specify when frequent developmental monitoring and psychomotor rehabilitation are required. Nutritional intervention and other measures aimed at slowing disease progression may delay the onset and severity of psychomotor impairment in the paediatric HIV population in Africa. [source]

    Improved cardiovascular health following a progressive walking and dietary intervention for type 2 diabetes

    S. T. Johnson
    Aim: To examine the impact of two different lifestyle programmes on cardiovascular health and glycaemic control among people with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A two-phase 24-week randomized trial. During the first phase, participants were to increase daily steps using a pedometer. At week 12, participants were randomly allocated to either an enhanced lifestyle programme (ELP) targeting walking speed or a basic lifestyle programme (BLP) targeting total daily steps. Both programmes focused on increasing the intake of low glycaemic index foods but utilized different goal setting strategies. Clinical measurements were completed at baseline, week 12 and week 24. Principal outcomes were change in resting pulse rate (PR) and glycated haemoglobin A1c (A1c) between week 12 and week 24 compared between groups using analysis of covariance. Results: Forty-one participants [mean ± s.d. : age = 56.5 ± 7.2 years, body mass index (BMI) = 32.7 ± 6.1 kg/m2] were randomized. After 12 weeks, we observed an increase in average total daily steps of 1562 (95% confidence interval: 303,2821, p = 0.02). Weight, BMI and systolic and diastolic blood pressure improved (p < 0.01 for all). No changes were observed for energy intake. At week 24, those in the ELP had a lower resting PR (71 ± 12 b.p.m.) compared with those in the BLP (78 ± 12 b.p.m.) (adjusted p = 0.03), while no group differences for total daily steps or glycaemic control were observed. Conclusions: Improvements in cardiovascular health can be expected following a pedometer-based lifestyle modification programme that progresses from walking more to walking faster. [source]

    HbA1c levels in non-diabetic Dutch children aged 8,9 years: the PIAMA birth cohort study

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 2 2009
    H. Jansen
    Abstract Aim, Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is considered the best index of glycaemic control in established diabetes. It may also be useful in the diagnosis of diabetes and as a screening tool. Little is known about the distribution of HbA1c in healthy children and its predictors. The aim of this study is to describe the distribution of HbA1c in non-diabetic Dutch children aged 8,9 years and to investigate potential associations of HbA1c in this group. Methods HbA1c was measured in 788 non-diabetic children aged 8,9 years participating in the PIAMA birth cohort study. Data on parents and children were collected prospectively by questionnaires. Weight, height and waist and hip circumference of the children were measured when blood samples were taken. Results, Mean (sd) HbA1c was 4.9 ± 0.33%, range 3.5,6.0%. HbA1c was significantly higher in boys (4.9 ± 0.31 vs. 4.9 ± 0.33%) and in children of mothers with gestational diabetes (5.0 ± 0.37 vs. 4.9 ± 0.32%). We found a significant inverse association between HbA1c and haemoglobin (regression coefficient: ,0.169 (95% CI ,0.221 to ,0.118), P < 0.001). HbA1c was not significantly associated with age, body mass index, waist circumference, parental diabetes or maternal body mass index. Conclusions, We found no significant relation between known risk factors for Type 2 diabetes and HbA1c at age 8,9 years. Moreover, there was a significant inverse association between haemoglobin and HbA1c. These results suggest that HbA1c may not only reflect the preceding blood glucose levels, but seems to be determined by other factors as well. [source]

    Comparison of the effect of a cornstarch thickened formula and strengthened regular formula on regurgitation, gastric emptying and weight gain in infantile regurgitation

    H.-C. Chao
    SUMMARY., The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a specially selected cornstarch-supplemented formula on clinical symptoms, gastric emptying and weight gain in infants with regurgitation. We performed a prospective randomised trial evaluating the therapeutic efficacy of two different formula feedings (cornstarch-thickened formula, group A; 25% strengthened formula, group B) in 81 young infants with regurgitation/vomiting , 3 times/day. A Tc-99 m milk scintigraphy was performed at inclusion and after 2 months to quantify gastric emptying time; all studied infants underwent a 2-month period of clinical follow-up evaluating regurgitation and body weight gain. At inclusion, group A and B had a similar age and weight. After the 2-month period of intervention, regurgitation and vomiting had both greater decrease (both P < 0.001 at 1 and 2 months) in group A (from a score of 4.19 ± 1.71 to 0.93 ± 0.42) than in group B (from a score of 4.15 ± 1.68 to 2.89 ± 1.16). Non-regurgitation symptoms (irritability, cough, choking, night-waking) decreased (P = 0.045 at 1 month and 0.017 at 2 months) in group A (from a score of 18 at baseline to 3 after 8 weeks) as compared to group B (from a score of 18 at baseline to 11 after 8 weeks). Weight increased more in group A (29.1 ± 3.9 g/day over 8 weeks) versus group B (23.6 ± 3.5 g/day over 8 weeks) (P < 0.01 at 1 and 2 months) Gastric emptying improved significantly in group A as compared with group B (all P < 0.001 for T1/2, and residual volume at 60 and 90 min). Ingested feeding volume was significantly larger in the group receiving cornstarch-thickened formula, both at 4 weeks (109.4 ± 24.5 vs. 98.5 ± 23.6 mL/meal) (P: 0.042) and at 8 weeks (137.6 ± 27.9 vs. 115.7 ± 26.5 mL/meal) (P < 0.001). Cornstarch-thickened formula feeding decreases the frequency of regurgitation/vomiting, provides better body weight gain and has an accelerated gastric emptying in comparison to a 25% strengthened regular formula in infants with regurgitation. [source]

    Early intervention with second-generation antipsychotics in first-episode psychosis: results of an 8-week naturalistic study

    Richard C. Josiassen
    Abstract Objective: The objective was to compare short-term effectiveness of aripiprazole with three other second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) in the treatment of first-episode psychosis. Method: In a naturalistic, ,single-blind' design, 60 subjects experiencing their first psychotic episode were treated for 8 weeks with aripiprazole (n = 19), risperidone (n = 16), olanzapine (n = 14) or quetiapine (n = 11). Medication and dosing decisions were made by treating psychiatrists, constrained to once-a-day dosing, low initial doses and no clozapine. Weekly ratings were obtained using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Simpson-Angus Rating Scale and Barnes Akathasia Rating Scale. Weight and vital signs were also collected weekly. Results: The group presented with severe psychotic symptoms (mean baseline PANSS total score of 105.2), which were reduced rapidly (P < 0.0005). The between-group and group by time interaction terms were non-significant. Similar reductions were seen across all PANSS sub-scales. At Week 1 the mean PANSS Activation Scale score was reduced more with olanzapine than in the other groups (P < 0.002). Few instances of extrapyramidal symptoms occurred; all were sporadic and did not require treatment. Group body weight increased by 7.3% over the study. Vital signs remained unchanged. Conclusions: Early intervention with low doses of four SGAs led to rapid symptom reduction in first-episode psychotic patients with severe psychopathology. Although no clear medication advantages were observed in the short term, longer duration studies with larger samples will be required for determining efficacy, rates of compliance, relapse prevention and diminished incidence of extrapyramidal signs and symptoms. [source]

    Influence of salinity on the bioaccumulation and photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene to an estuarine shrimp and oligochaete

    John E. Weinstein
    Abstract The effect of salinity on the photoinduced toxicity of waterborne fluoranthene to larvae of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugto) and tubificid oligochaete worms (Monopylephorus rubrontveus) was studied in a laboratory system under simulated sunlight. In the grass shrimp toxicity tests, five concentrations of fluoranthene (0, 3.6, 7.3, 13.8, and 29.0 ,g/L) and four salinities (6.9, 14.5, 21.2, and 28.6,) were achieved. In the oligochaete toxicity tests, five concentrations of fluoranthene (0, 0.8, 1.4, 3.3, and 7.7 ,g/L) and four salinities (7.1, 13.3, 20.5, and 27.6,) were achieved. Salinity had no effect on either the photoinduced toxicity or the bioaccumulation of fluoranthene in the grass shrimp. However, the highest level of salinity decreased the median lethal time for the oligochaete. Bioaccumulation of fluoranthene was inversely related to salinity for the oligochaete. Additional experiments demonstrated an inverse relationship between salinity and short-term osmotic weight change in the oligochaete. Weight of the grass shrimp larvae was not affected by salinity. These findings show that salinity can influence the toxicity and bioaccumulation of fluoranthene in some estuarine organisms. The influence of salinity on these populations may be related to physiological responses associated with internal osmotic volume changes. Thus, salinity needs to be taken into account when assessing the risk of photoactivated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) to at least some estuarine species. [source]

    A Modified Atkins Diet Is Effective for the Treatment of Intractable Pediatric Epilepsy

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 2 2006
    Eric H. Kossoff
    Summary:,Purpose: The Atkins diet may induce ketosis as does the ketogenic diet, without restrictions on calories, fluids, protein, or need for an inpatient fast and admission. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a modified Atkins diet for intractable childhood epilepsy. Methods: Twenty children were treated prospectively in a hospital-based ambulatory clinic from September 2003 to May 2005. Children aged 3,18 years, with at least three seizures per week, who had been treated with at least two anticonvulsants, were enrolled and received the diet over a 6-month period. Carbohydrates were initially limited to 10 g/day, and fats were encouraged. Parents measured urinary ketones semiweekly and recorded seizures daily. All children received vitamin and calcium supplementation. Results: In all children, at least moderate urinary ketosis developed within 4 days (mean, 1.9). Sixteen (80%) completed the 6-month study; 14 chose to remain on the diet afterward. At 6 months, 13 (65%) had >50% improvement, and seven (35%) had >90% improvement (four were seizure free). Mean seizure frequency after 6 months was 40 per week (p = 0.005). Over a 6-month period, mean serum blood urea nitrogen increased from 12 to 17 mg/dl (p = 0.01); creatinine was unchanged. Cholesterol increased from 192 to 221 mg/dl, (p = 0.06). Weight did not change significantly (34.0,33.7 kg); only six children lost weight. A stable body mass index over time correlated with >90% improvement (p = 0.004). Conclusions: A modified Atkins diet is an effective and well-tolerated therapy for intractable pediatric epilepsy. [source]

    Influence of Molecular Weight on the Performance of Organic Solar Cells Based on a Fluorene Derivative

    Christian Müller
    Abstract The performance of organic photovoltaic (OPV) bulk-heterojunction blends comprising a liquid-crystalline fluorene derivative and a small-molecular fullerene is found to increase asymptotically with the degree of polymerization of the former. Similar to various thermodynamic transition temperatures as well as the light absorbance of the fluorene moiety, the photocurrent extracted from OPV devices is found to strongly vary with increasing oligomer size up to a number average molecular weight, Mn,,,10,kg,mol,1, but is rendered less chain-length dependent for higher Mn as the fluorene derivative gradually adopts polymeric behavior. [source]

    Physical fitness in children with haemophilia and the effect of overweight

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 2 2009
    Summary., Although children with haemophilia are advised to participate in physical activities, their physical fitness has not been studied in a large group. In addition, children with haemophilia may be at increased risk for becoming overweight as a result of inactivity because of joint bleedings or because of overprotection. This study aimed to assess physical fitness (aerobic capacity), joint status, muscle strength, quality of life (QoL), self-reported motor competence and also prevalence of overweight and its association with physical parameters. Weight and height were measured. Skin folds were measured unilaterally at biceps, triceps, subscapular and supra-iliac sites. Aerobic capacity was determined on a cycle ergometer or with a 6-min walk test (6MWT). Muscle strength and active range of motion of elbows, knees and ankle joints were measured. Self-reported motor competence was measured with the ,Competentie BelevingsSchaal voor Kinderen'. Joint pain was scored on a Visual Analogue Scale. The Haemo-QoL Index was used to measure QoL. In 158 Dutch boys with haemophilia, with a mean age of 12.7 years (SD 2.9), normal aerobic capacity and muscle strength were found. Joint pain was reported by 16% of the participants. The prevalence of overweight (16%) was slightly increased when compared with healthy Dutch boys (13.5%). Being overweight had a negative association with the 6MWT and QoL. Dutch children with haemophilia have normal aerobic exercise capacity and muscle strength. The majority also has normal joint mobility. Prevalence of overweight is slightly increased. [source]

    The use of near infrared interactance in hemodialysis

    N. Sarhill
    Forty-one consecutive admissions to a hemodialysis center were evaluated. Demographic information including age, gender, race, and diagnosis was collected. Patients, >18 years old, with end stage renal disease and on hemodialysis for at least one year were included. Those with edema or known ascites were excluded. Weight was measured before and after hemodialysis (HD) using a standard scale and by considering the amount of fluid loss by the hemodialysis machine. Body composition including total body water (TBW) was calculated before and after HD using near infrared interactance (NIR). All measurements were completed during half hour before and after HD. Forty-one patients included: men (n = 26), women (n = 15); median age 58 (range 28,88 years). Twenty-eight were African American and the rest Caucasians. The amount of intravascular fluid taken after HD (assessed by weight reduction) ranged 0,5 L with median 2.2 L. NIR analysis for the same patients at the same time showed different total body water measurements in 91% of cases (P > 0.05). Moreover, NIR analysis showed increase in total body water in 24% of patients even though the hemodialysis machine showed a loss of total body water; median of 1.3 (range: 0,3L). The error in measuring body composition with NIR was both large and varied (random and not systematic error). We conclude that NIR analysis cannot be considered as a reliable method to evaluate body composition, especially total body water, amongst patients with end stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis. [source]

    Safety and efficacy of high dose of venlafaxine XL in treatment resistant major depression

    P. MbayaArticle first published online: 24 SEP 200
    Abstract Aim The aim of the study was to look at efficacy and the safety profile of high dose (450,600,mg) venlafaxine XL in five patients with treatment resistant major depressive illness. Methods Five patients with treatment resistant depression were treated with high dose venlafaxine XL. Efficacy was evaluated using the Montgomery,Asberg depression rating scale (MADRS), the 21-item Hamilton rating scale for depression (HAM-D-21) and the clinical global impressions (CGI) scale. Level of functioning was evaluated by social adaptation self-evaluation scale (SASS). Body weight, supine pulse and blood pressure were recorded. Results The response rate was based on a 50% decrease in MADRS and HAM-D scores between weeks 1 and 24. There was a more than 50% decrease in MADRS scores in 3 of 5 patients and 4 of 5 patients in HAM-D scores. There was a trend to improvement of SASS scores in three of the study patients and in two of them the mean scores were within the normal range. Supine pulse and blood pressure remained stable in four patients, except in one patient where there was a slight increase although the final reading at week 24 was normal. Weight was relatively stable in all three patients where it was recorded, but in one patient there was a slight increase which may have been due to an atypical neuroleptic the patient was taking at the time. Conclusion High dose venlafaxine was safe, well tolerated and effective in this small number of severe treatment resistant patients with major depression and it also improved social functioning. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Bias against overweight job applicants: Further explorations of when and why

    Lisa M. Finkelstein
    We investigated the impact of job candidate weight (average or overweight) on several job-related ratings following a videotaped mock interview. In ad-dition to weight, we manipulated the race of the applicant, level of job qual-ifications, and type of job (e.g., public or private contact). We also measured the effect of rater race and negative affect on multiple work-relevant ratings. Weight, applicant race, job qualifications, and job type each had a modest but significant impact on ratings of hireability, performance capacity, adapt-ability, and interpersonal skills, in varying combinations. The implications of these results for practice and future research are provided. © 2007 Wiley Pe-riodicals, Inc. [source]

    DXA scanning in women over 50 years with distal forearm fracture shows osteoporosis is infrequent until age 65 years

    H. Lashin
    Summary Aims:, Women with distal forearm fracture (DFF) may have low bone mineral density (BMD) and merit Dual Energy Xray (DXA) scanning. However patient age at fracture and the database for ,healthy' subjects may influence how many have osteoporosis and require DXA scans. Osteoporosis prevalence in DFF patients by age was investigated using local or nHanes III databases for BMD. Methods:, A total of 186 women over 50 years consecutively referred with DFF over 1 year were audited without exclusion criteria. BMD of L2,4 and femoral neck (Hologic QDR4500A) was measured and T - and Z -scores calculated from a local database or nHanes III. Results:, Of 90 patients aged 50,64 years, 21.1% had femoral neck T -score < ,2.5 and 7.7% < ,3.0 (local) and 8.8% and 4.4% respectively (nHanes III). Patients aged 65,74 years (n = 61) included 19.7% with T -score < ,2.5 (nHanes III = 10%). 41.2% (nHanes III = 28.6%) of patients > 75 years had femoral neck osteoporosis. Including patients with spine T < ,2.5 increased the proportion to 31.1% (50,64 years) and 34.4% (65,74 years) with no extra over 75 years. Weight predicted low BMD ineffectively (area under ROC = 70%). Conclusion:, Osteoporosis is infrequent in women with DFF below 65 years. As fracture prevention treatment yields significant fracture reduction only in patients with T -score < ,2.5, DXA scanning below 65 years is not justified. After 65 years scanning is justified at all ages, as even in the elderly patients osteoporosis is present in < 50% of patients with DFF. Using nHanes III limits the number of DFF patients warranting treatment. Low body weight is unreliable for identifying osteoporosis. [source]

    Evaluation of glargine group-start sessions in patients with type 2 diabetes as a strategy to deliver the service

    A. A. Tahrani
    Summary Improving glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes reduces microvascular complications. The national service framework for diabetes and the new general medical service contract have been aiming to direct more focus on improving HbA1c. These measures have resulted in increasing number of patients being initiated on insulin therapy, which increases the workload of diabetes specialist nurses (DSNs). Initiating insulin on a one-to-one basis is time consuming. As a result DSN-led insulin group-start sessions were introduced. To evaluate DSN-led glargine group-start and self-titration as a strategy of providing service. We assessed the impact of this method on the use of DSNs time, HbA1c and on patients' satisfaction. A prospective audit in a district general hospital. Groups of 5,7 patients received two 2-h sessions at weeks 0 and 2. During these sessions, patients were initiated on insulin glargine and received an educational package and a self-titration protocol. DSNs did not see patients after week 2. Patients were able to phone the DSNs for advice till the end of the titration period. Patients completed Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ) at baseline, week 2 and 12 months. Weight and HbA1c were assessed at base line and 12 months later. Twenty-nine consecutive patients were included. Baseline HbA1c improved at 6 months and remained stable at 12 months (medians 10.0, 8.7 and 8.9 respectively, p < 0.001). DTSQ score improved between week 0 and 2 and this was maintained at 12 months (medians 26, 35 and 34 respectively, p < 0.001). After week 2, the DSNs spent a median of 21 min advising patients by phone during the titration period. Weight did not increase significantly. In our centre, DSN-led insulin group-start sessions and self-titration improved glycaemic control. Patients were satisfied with this method of starting insulin. This was achieved with minimal DSNs time and input and proved to be effective, yet less time consuming. [source]

    Exploring the nutrition and lifestyle knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of student home economics teachers: baseline findings from a 4-year longitudinal study

    Mary Isobelle Mullaney
    Abstract It is widely acknowledged that obesity linked with reduced exercise contributes to health problems, and that, conversely, individuals who embark on weight reducing diets may become deficient in key nutrients. It is often advocated that these problems, which can be grouped together as poor dietary practice, be tackled through education. This study attempts to examine the relationship between nutrition education and lifestyle behaviours in a select group of third level students. The Irish Home Economics curriculum aims to teach secondary school pupils about nutrition and lifestyle practices conducive to health. However, the attitudes and lifestyle practices of those teaching this subject have never been examined in Ireland. The purpose of the present 4-year longitudinal study, whose first year findings are presented here, is to investigate the nutrition and lifestyle knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of a cohort of Irish student home economics teachers over the 4 years of their Bachelor of Education (Home Economics) degree course. The study was designed to explore possible changes in knowledge, attitudes and practices over the course of their professional education. Nutritional knowledge was measured using a 220-question adapted version of the test devised by Parmenter and Wardle. Attitudes were measured using a questionnaire adapted from the Pan-EU Survey on Consumer Attitudes to Physical Activity, Body-weight and Health. Food, alcohol consumption and exercise were measured using a 7-day reported dietary/exercise diary. Nutrient intake data were determined using dietary analysis. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated. When starting college, student home economics teachers have broadly similar anthropometric, dietary and lifestyle characteristics to those of their contemporaries. Mean BMI was identical [24.4 kg/m2 (SD 4.3)] to that reported in the North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey (NSIFCS) for those aged 18,35 years, although energy intakes were significantly higher in the cohort of student teachers (P = 0.000). Thirty-eight per cent were overweight or obese vs. 33.6% in the NSIFCS. Only 17% (n = 6) of students achieved an intake of 300 µg/day of folate as recommended by the Food Safety Authority of Ireland and only one the recommended intake of non-starch polysaccharides (18 g/day). One in three students in this study smoke (16 of 48) and alcohol consumption was high. Only one student was very active. Students scored a mean of 55% (SD 8%) on the knowledge test, with similar scores attained for specific aspects of nutritional knowledge (i.e. food groups, constituents of foods, current dietary advice, nutrients, lifestyle practices). However, knowledge of nutrition definitions was weaker with a mean score of 31% (SD 8.6%). Students had a positive attitude towards food choice, the link between food and health and control over their own diet. Similar attitudes towards exercise, smoking and alcohol consumption were displayed despite students perceiving themselves as not having a balanced diet, having insufficient exercise and having regretted something done as a result of consuming alcohol. They appear to display optimistic bias in relation to health risks. These findings provide baseline data for the longitudinal study and indicate that those choosing to pursue a career as a home economics teacher in Ireland have similar nutritional and lifestyle characteristics to those of their contemporaries. [source]

    Study of selected quality and agronomic characteristics and their interrelationship in Kabuli-type chickpea genotypes (Cicer arietinum L.)

    Amal Badshah Khattak
    Summary Impact of genotype on quality, agronomic characteristics and their interrelationship in Kabuli-type chickpea was investigated to provide significant feedback to breeder for selection/evolution of the most suitable varieties. Seven genotypes were studied for seventeen physical, chemical and agronomic characteristics. The effect of Kabuli-type chickpea genotype on the physicochemical parameters, cooking time and agronomic characteristics were significant. Maximum seed size and volume were recorded for CC98/99 (0.32 g and 0.26 mL seed,1, respectively), density and swelling index for the genotype FLIP97-179C (having minimum seed size and volume), while the rest of the genotypes were statistically the same. Weight, volume after hydration, hydration capacity and swelling capacity followed the same pattern. Maximum moisture, protein and mineral concentration were noted in CC98/99. Seed protein concentration for the remaining genotypes was statistically non-significant from one another. Longer period was taken by CM 2000 for flowering and maturity (130 and 181 days, respectively). Minimum time to flowering and maturity was taken by CC98/99. Genotype CC 98/99 outyielded all other genotypes (2107 kg ha,1). Seed size and seed volume were strongly and positively correlated with protein content, weight after hydration, volume after hydration, hydration and swelling capacities (r = 0.83,1.0). Strong correlation was also noted among different agronomic characters. [source]

    Ecological Differences in Weight, Length, and Weight for Length of Mexican American Children in the WIC Program

    Elizabeth Reifsnider PhD, WHNP
    PURPOSE.,Examine factors common in the environments of children who obtain services from a WIC program to determine if differences in ecological/environmental factors can be found in the children who differ in weight, length, and weight for length. DESIGN AND METHODS.,Cross-sectional study of 300 children, 100 each who were stunted, normal weight for length, or overweight. Instruments used were NCATS, ARSMA II, 24-hr diet recall, and Baecke Activity Questionnaire. RESULTS.,Significant differences were present in children's diet, parents' BMI, parents' generation in United States, parents' activity levels, and maternal,child relationship. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS.,Encourage parents to adopt family approaches to encourage normal body size in children. [source]

    Overweight and Obesity in Old Age Are Not Associated with Greater Dementia Risk

    (See editorial comments by Dr. David S. Knodman, 2350), pp 234
    OBJECTIVES: To describe the association between body mass index (BMI) and dementia risk in older persons. DESIGN: Prospective population-based study, with 8 years of follow-up. SETTING: The municipality of Lieto, Finland, 1990/91 and 1998/99. PARTICIPANTS: Six hundred five men and women without dementia aged 65 to 92 at baseline (mean age 70.8). MEASUREMENTS: Weight and height were measured at baseline and at the 8-year follow-up. Dementia was clinically assessed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria. RESULTS: Eighty-six persons were diagnosed with dementia. Cox regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, education, cardiovascular diseases, smoking, and alcohol use, indicated that, for each unit increase in BMI score, the risk of dementia decreased 8% (hazard ratio (HR)=0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.87,0.97). This association remained significant when individuals who developed dementia early during the first 4 years of follow-up were excluded from the analyses (HR=0.93, 95% CI=0.86,0.99). Women with high BMI scores had a lower dementia risk (HR=0.90, 95% CI=0.84,0.96). Men with high BMI scores also tended to have a lower dementia risk, although the association did not reach significance (HR=0.95, 95% CI=0.84,1.07). CONCLUSION: Older persons with higher BMI scores have less dementia risk than their counterparts with lower BMI scores. High BMI scores in late life should not necessarily be considered to be a risk factor for dementia. [source]

    Weight, Mortality, Years of Healthy Life, and Active Life Expectancy in Older Adults

    Paula Diehr PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether weight categories predict subsequent mortality and morbidity in older adults. DESIGN: Multistate life tables, using data from the Cardiovascular Health Study, a longitudinal population-based cohort of older adults. SETTING: Data were provided by community-dwelling seniors in four U.S. counties: Forsyth County, North Carolina; Sacramento County, California; Washington County, Maryland; and Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. PARTICIPANTS: Five thousand eight hundred eighty-eight adults aged 65 and older at baseline. MEASUREMENTS: The age- and sex-specific probabilities of transition from one health state to another and from one weight category to another were estimated. From these probabilities, future life expectancy, years of healthy life, active life expectancy, and the number of years spent in each weight and health category after age 65 were estimated. RESULTS: Women who are healthy and of normal weight at age 65 have a life expectancy of 22.1 years. Of that, they spend, on average, 9.6 years as overweight or obese and 5.3 years in fair or poor health. For both men and women, being underweight at age 65 was associated with worse outcomes than being normal weight, whereas being overweight or obese was rarely associated with worse outcomes than being normal weight and was sometimes associated with significantly better outcomes. CONCLUSION: Similar to middle-aged populations, older adults are likely to be or to become overweight or obese, but higher weight is not associated with worse health in this age group. Thus, the number of older adults at a "healthy" weight may be much higher than currently believed. [source]

    Diet and Its Relationship with Grip Strength in Community-Dwelling Older Men and Women: The Hertfordshire Cohort Study

    Sian M. Robinson PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To examine relationships between diet and grip strength in older men and women and to determine whether prenatal growth modifies these relationships. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Hertfordshire, United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: Two thousand nine hundred eighty-three men and women aged 59 to 73 who were born and still living in Hertfordshire, United Kingdom. MEASUREMENTS: Weight at birth recorded in Health Visitor ledgers; current food and nutrient intake assessed using an administered food frequency questionnaire; and grip strength measured using a handheld dynamometer. RESULTS: Grip strength was positively associated with height and weight at birth and inversely related to age (all P<.001). Of the dietary factors considered in relation to grip strength, the most important was fatty fish consumption. An increase in grip strength of 0.43 kg (95% confidence interval (CI)=0.13,0.74) in men (P=.005) and 0.48 kg (95% CI=0.24,0.72) in women (P<.001) was observed for each additional portion of fatty fish consumed per week. These relationships were independent of adult height, age, and birth weight, each of which had additive effects on grip strength. There was no evidence of interactive effects of weight at birth and adult diet on grip strength. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that fatty fish consumption can have an important influence on muscle function in older men and women. This raises the possibility that the antiinflammatory actions of omega-3 fatty acids may play a role in the prevention of sarcopenia. [source]

    Estimating Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Well-Functioning Older Adults: Treadmill Validation of the Long Distance Corridor Walk

    Eleanor M. Simonsick PhD
    Objectives: To determine criterion validity of the 400-m walk component of the Long Distance Corridor Walk (LDCW) and develop equations for estimating peak oxygen consumption (VO2) from 400-m time and factors intrinsic to test performance (e.g., heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) response) in older adults. Design: Cross-sectional validation study. Setting: Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland. Participants: Healthy volunteers (56 men and 46 women) aged 60 to 91 participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging between August 1999 and July 2000. Measurements: The LDCW, consisting of a 2-minute walk followed immediately by a 400-m walk "done as quickly as possible" over a 20-m course was administered the day after maximal treadmill testing. HR and SBP were measured before testing and at the end of the 400-m walk. Weight, height, activity level, perceived effort, and stride length were also acquired. Results: Peak VO2 ranged from 12.2 to 31.1 mL oxygen/kg per minute, and 400-m time ranged from 2 minutes 52 seconds to 6 minutes 18 seconds. Correlation between 400-m time and peak VO2 was ,0.79. The estimating equation from linear regression included 400-m time (partial coefficient of determination (R2)=0.625), long versus short stride (partial R2=0.090), ending SBP (partial R2=0.019), and a correction factor for fast 400-m time (<240 seconds; partial R2=0.020) and explained 75.5% of the variance in peak VO2 (correlation coefficient=0.87). Conclusion: A 400-m walk performed as part of the LDCW provides a valid estimate of peak VO2 in older adults. Incorporating low-cost, safe assessments of fitness in clinical and research settings can identify early evidence of physical decline and individuals who may benefit from therapeutic interventions. [source]

    Weight Change and Lower Body Disability in Older Mexican Americans

    Soham Al Snih MD
    Objectives: To examine the association between 2-year weight change and onset of lower body disability over time in older Mexican Americans. Design: Data were from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly (1993,2001). Weight change was examined by comparing baseline weight to weight at 2-year follow-up. Incidence of lower body disability was studied from the end of this period through an additional 5 years. Setting: Five southwestern states: Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and California. Participants: One thousand seven hundred thirty-seven noninstitutionalized Mexican-American men and women aged 65 and older who reported no limitation in activities of daily living (ADLs) and were able to perform the walk test at 2-year follow-up. Measurements: In-home interviews assessed sociodemographic factors, self-reported physician diagnoses of medical conditions (arthritis, diabetes mellitus, heart attack, stroke, hip fracture, and cancer), self-reported ADLs, depressive symptoms, and number of hospitalizations. Cognitive function, handgrip muscle strength, and body mass index (BMI) were obtained. The outcomes were any limitation of lower body ADL (walking across a small room, bathing, transferring from a bed to a chair, and using the toilet) and limitation on the walk test over subsequent 5-year follow-up period. General Estimation Equation (GEE) was used to estimate lower body disability over time. Results: Weight change of 5% or more occurred in 42.3% of the participants; 21.7% lost weight, 20.6% gained weight, and 57.7% had stable weight. Using GEE analysis, with stable weight as the reference, weight loss of 5% or more was associated with greater risk of any lower body ADL limitation (odds ratio (OR)=1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.06,1.95) and walking limitation (OR=1.35, 95% CI=1.03,1.76) after controlling for sociodemographic variables and BMI at baseline. Weight gain of 5% or more was associated with greater risk of any lower body ADL limitation (OR=1.39, 95% CI=1.02,1.89), after controlling for sociodemographic variables and BMI at baseline. When medical conditions, handgrip muscle strength, high depressive symptomatology, cognitive function, and hospitalization were added to the equation, the relationship between 2-year weight change (>5% loss or >5% gain) and lower body disability decreased. Conclusion: Health conditions and muscle strength partially mediate the association between weight loss or gain and future loss of ability to walk and independently perform ADLs. [source]

    Frailty in Older Mexican Americans

    Kenneth J. Ottenbacher PhD
    Objectives: To identify sociodemographic characteristics and health performance variables associated with frailty in older Mexican Americans. Design: A prospective population-based survey. Setting: Homes of older adults living in the southwest. Participants: Six hundred twenty-one noninstitutionalized Mexican-American men and women aged 70 and older included in the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly participated in a home-based interview. Measurements: Interviews included information on sociodemographics, self-reports of medical conditions (arthritis, diabetes mellitus, heart attack, hip fracture, cancer, and stroke) and functional status. Weight and measures of lower and upper extremity muscle strength were obtained along with information on activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living. A summary measure of frailty was created based on weight loss, exhaustion, grip strength, and walking speed. Multivariable linear regression identified variables associated with frailty at baseline. Logistic regression examined variables predicting frailty at 1-year follow-up. Results: Sex was associated with frailty at baseline (F=4.28, P=.03). Predictors of frailty in men included upper extremity strength, disability (activities of daily living), comorbidities, and mental status scores (Nagelkerke coefficient of determination (R2)=0.37). Predictors for women included lower extremity strength, disability (activities of daily living), and body mass index (Nagelkerke R2=0.29). At 1-year follow-up, 83% of men and 79% of women were correctly classified as frail. Conclusion: Different variables were identified as statistically significant predictors of frailty in Mexican-American men and women aged 70 and older. The prevention, development, and treatment of frailty in older Mexican Americans may require consideration of the unique characteristics of this population. [source]

    Weight Change in Depressed Nursing Home Patients on Mirtazapine

    Richard J. Goldberg MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]