Water Temperature (water + temperature)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Water Temperature

  • ambient water temperature
  • high water temperature
  • increasing water temperature
  • low water temperature
  • surface water temperature

  • Selected Abstracts

    Influence of Water Temperature on Morphological Deformities in Cultured Larvae of Japanese Eel, Anguilla japonica, at Completion of Yolk Resorption

    Tadahide Kurokawa
    The occurrence of morphological deformities under different rearing water temperatures (18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, and 30 C) was examined in Japanese eel larvae. The rates of hatching and survival until yolk resorption at 22,26 C were higher than those at other water temperatures. Fertilized eggs never hatched at 18 and 30 C. The rates of occurrence of abnormal larvae reared at the water temperatures 24,28 C were lower than those at 20 or 22 C. Pericardial edema and lower jaw deformities occurred most frequently at lower temperatures (20 and 22 C). In contrast, the incubation temperature did not significantly affect the relative frequency of some neurocranial deformities and of spinal curvature. These results imply that the optimal temperatures for rearing Japanese eel eggs and embryos are 24,26 C from the viewpoints of survival and deformity. [source]

    Effect of Feeding Frequency, Water Temperature, and Stocking Density on the Growth of Tiger Puffer, Takifugu rubripes

    Kotaro Kikuchi
    Effects of daily feeding frequency, water temperature, and stocking density on the growth of tiger puffer, Takifugu rubripes, fry were examined to develop effective techniques to produce tiger puffer in a closed recirculation system. Fish of 4, 14, and 180 g in initial body weight were fed commercial pellet diets once to five times a day to apparent satiation each by hand for 8 or 12 wk at 20 C. Daily feeding frequency did not affect the growth of 14- and 180-g-size fish. However, the daily feed consumption and weight gain of the 4-g-size fish fed three and five times daily were significantly higher than those of fish fed once daily (P < 0.05). Fish of 4 and 50 g in initial body weight were reared with the pellet diet at 15,30 C for 8 wk. The weight gain of fish increased with increasing water temperature up to 25 C and decreased drastically at 30 C for both sizes. Similar trends were observed for feed efficiency, although 4-g fish had highest efficiency at 20 C. Effects of stocking density on growth were examined with fish of 8, 13, and 100 g in initial body weight. Fish were reared with the pellet diet for 8 or 16 wk at 20 C. Fish were placed in floating net cages in the culture tank, and the stocking density was determined based on the total weight of fish and volume of the net cage. Fish of 8 g in body weight grew up to 35,36 g during the 8-wk rearing period independent of the stocking density of 8, 15, and 31 kg/m3 at the end of rearing. Final biomass per cage reached 32, 60, and 115 kg/m3 for 13-g-size fish, and 10, 18, and 35 kg/m3 for 100-g-size fish, and the growth of the fish tended to decrease with increasing stocking density for both sizes. [source]

    Variability and Comparison of Hyporheic Water Temperatures and Seepage Fluxes in a Small Atlantic Salmon Stream,

    GROUND WATER, Issue 1 2003
    Matthew D. Alexander
    Ground water discharge is often a significant factor in the quality of fish spawning and rearing habitat and for highly biologically productive streams. In the present study, water temperatures (stream and hyporheic) and seepage fluxes were used to characterize shallow ground water discharge and recharge within the streambed of Catamaran Brook, a small Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) stream in central New Brunswick, Canada. Three study sites were instrumented using a total of 10 temperature sensors and 18 seepage meters. Highly variable mean seepage fluxes, ranging from 1.7 10,4 to 2.5 cm3 m,2 sec,1, and mean hyporheic water temperatures, ranging from 10.5 to 18.0C, at depths of 20 to 30 cm in the streambed were dependent on streambed location (left versus right stream bank and site location) and time during the summer sampling season. Temperature data were useful for determining if an area of the streambed was under discharge (positive flux), recharge (negative flux), or parallel flow (no flux) conditions and seepage meters were used to directly measure the quantity of water flux. Hyporheic water temperature measurements and specific conductance measurements of the seepage meter sample water, mean values ranging from 68.8 to 157.9 ,S/cm, provided additional data for determining flux sources. Three stream banks were consistently under discharge conditions, while the other three stream banks showed reversal from discharge to recharge conditions over the sampling season. Results indicate that the majority of the water collected in the seepage meters was composed of surface water. The data obtained suggests that even though a positive seepage flux is often interpreted as ground water discharge, this discharging water may be of stream water origin that has recently entered the hyporheic zone. The measurement of seepage flux in conjunction with hyporheic water temperature or other indicators of water origin should be considered when attempting to quantify the magnitude of exchange and the source of hyporheic water. [source]

    Sampling in the Great Lakes for pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and endocrine-disrupting substances using the passive polar organic chemical integrative sampler

    Hongxia Li
    Abstract The passive polar organic chemical integrative sampler in the pharmaceutical configuration (i.e., pharmaceutical-POCIS) was calibrated for sampling at water temperatures of 5, 15 and 25C to determine the influence of temperature on chemical-specific sampling rates (RS), thus providing more robust estimates of the time-weighted average concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine-disrupting substances (EDS) in surface water. The effect of water temperature and flow on the RS of these analytes was evaluated in the laboratory with a static system. The loss of the test compounds from water by uptake into POCIS was linear over an 8-d period, and these experimental data yielded RS values in the range of 0.07 to 2.46 L/d across the temperature range for the 30 compounds tested. Water temperature and flow influenced POCIS uptake rates, but these effects were relatively small, which is consistent with the theory for uptake into POCIS samplers. Therefore, under a narrow range of water temperatures and flows, it may not be necessary to adjust the RS for POCIS. Except for acidic drugs and sulfonamide antibiotics, RS values were positively correlated with octanol,water partition coefficients (log KOW) of the test compounds. A linear relationship was also observed between RS and chromatographic retention times on a C18 reversed-phase column. These observations may provide a rapid method for estimating the RS of additional chemicals in the POCIS. The application of the RS to POCIS deployed for one month in Lake Ontario, Canada, during the summers of 2006 and 2008 yielded estimates of PPCP and EDS concentrations that are consistent with conventional concentration measurements of these compounds in Lake Ontario surface water. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:751,762. 2009 SETAC [source]

    Freshwater crayfish farming technology in the 1990s: a European and global perspective

    FISH AND FISHERIES, Issue 4 2000
    H.E.G. Ackefors
    This paper aims to describe the state of crayfish farming technology in the USA, Australia and Europe, and to discuss some of the prerequisites for this industry. Data from Europe are partly based on replies from a questionnaire sent out to scientists in all European countries. For other parts of the world, the crayfish literature has been reviewed and data from the August 2000 meeting of the International Association of Astacology are also included. Issues addressed in this review are cultivated species, production and productivity figures, production technique with regard to enclosures, reproduction and feed items, disease problems, predators, pond vegetation and water quality. Fewer than a dozen crayfish species are cultivated. The most attractive ones for culture and stocking in natural waters have been transferred to more than one continent. Pond rearing techniques predominate in all countries, and the technology required to achieve the spawning and rearing of juveniles is relatively simple. Pieces of fish, carrots and potatoes are frequent supplementary feed items; plants, cereals, pieces of meat, zooplankton and pellets are also common. Diseases are not usually a major concern, except in Europe where the American plague fungus, Aphanomyces astaci, has eradicated many European crayfish populations. Predators identified as common include insects and amphibians, as well as fishes, birds and mammals. Many water macrophytes are common in crayfish farms. These may either serve a useful function or cause problems for the crayfish farmer. Water temperature is the crucial factor for crayfish production. Water parameters such as pH and certain inorganic ion concentrations may also be of concern. Acidic waters that occur in some areas are generally detrimental to crayfish. The total yield from crayfish production from farming and fishery is in the order of 120 000,150 000 tonnes, more than four times the quantity given by FAO statistics. The largest crayfish producer is the Peoples' Republic of China, followed by the USA (70 000 and 50 000 tonnes in 1999, respectively). Of the quantity produced in the USA in 1999, about 35 000 tonnes was farmed. The yield in Europe was about 4500 tonnes in 1994, and of this quantity only 160 tonnes came from aquaculture. There are no official statistics for crayfish fishery production in Australia, but about 400 tonnes came from aquaculture in 1999. [source]

    Temperature dependence of stream benthic respiration in an Alpine river network under global warming

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 10 2008
    V. ACUA
    Summary 1. Global warming has increased the mean surface temperature of the Earth by 0.6 C in the past century, and temperature is probably to increase by an additional 3 C by 2100. Water temperature has also increased, which in turn can affect metabolic rate in rivers. Such an increase in metabolic rate could alter the role of river networks in the global C cycle, because the fraction of allochthonous organic C that is respired may increase. 2. Laboratory-based incubations at increasing water temperature were used to estimate the temperature dependence of benthic respiration in streams. These experiments were performed on stones taken from seven reaches with different thermal conditions (mean temperature ranging 8,19 C) within the pre-alpine Thur River network in Switzerland, June,October 2007. 3. The activation energy of respiration in different reaches along the river network (0.53 0.12 eV, n = 94) was similar, indicating that respiration was constrained by the activation energy of the respiratory complex (E = 0.62 eV). Water temperature and the thickness of the benthic biofilm influence the temperature dependence of respiration and our results suggest that an increase of 2.5 C will increase river respiration by an average of 20 1.6%. [source]

    Pelagic and benthic net production of dissolved inorganic carbon in an unproductive subarctic lake

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
    Summary 1. Both the pelagic and benthic net dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) productions were measured in situ on four occasions from June to September 2004, in the unproductive Lake Diktar-Erik in subarctic Sweden. The stable isotopic signal (,13C) of respired organic material was estimated from hypolimnion water data and data from a laboratory incubation using epilimnion water. 2. Both pelagic and benthic habitats were net heterotrophic during the study period, with a total net DIC production of 416 mg C m,2 day,1, of which the pelagic habitat contributed approximately 85%. The net DIC production decreased with depth both in the pelagic water and in the sediments, and most of the net DIC production occurred in the upper water column. 3. Temporal variations in both pelagic and benthic DIC production were small, although we observed a significant decrease in pelagic net DIC production after the autumn turnover. Water temperature was the single most important factor explaining temporal and vertical variations in pelagic DIC production. No single factor explained more than 10% of the benthic net DIC production, which probably was regulated by several interacting factors. 4. Pelagic DIC production, and thus most of the whole-lake net production of DIC, was mainly due to the respiration of allochthonous organic carbon. Stable isotope data inferred that nearly 100% of accumulated DIC in the hypolimnion water had an allochthonous carbon source. Similarly, in the laboratory incubation using epilimnion water, c. 85% of accumulated DIC was indicated to have an allochthonous organic carbon source. [source]

    Water temperature determines strength of top-down control in a stream food web

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 8 2005
    Summary 1. We examined effects of water temperature on the community structure of a three trophic level food chain (predatory fish, herbivorous caddisfly larvae and periphyton) in boreal streams. We used laboratory experiments to examine (i) the effects of water temperature on feeding activities of fish and caddisfly larvae and on periphyton productivity, to evaluate the thermal effects on each trophic level (species-level experiment), and (ii) the effects of water temperature on predation pressure of fish on abundance of the lower trophic levels, to evaluate how temperature affects top-down control by fish (community-level experiment). 2. In the species-level experiment, feeding activity of fish was high at 12 C, which coincides with the mean summer temperature in forested streams of Hokkaido, Japan, but was depressed at 3 C, which coincides with the mean winter temperature, and also above 18 C, which coincides with the near maximum summer temperatures. Periphyton productivity increased over the range of water temperatures. 3. In the community-level experiments, a top-down effect of fish on the abundance of caddisfly larvae and periphyton was clear at 12 C. This effect was not observed at 3 and 21 C because of low predation pressure of fish at these temperatures. 4. These experiments revealed that trophic cascading effects may vary with temperature even in the presence of abundant predators. Physiological depression of predators because of thermal stress can alter top-down control and lead to changes in community structure. 5. We suggest that thermal habitat alteration can change food web structure via combinations of direct and indirect trophic interactions. [source]

    Is water temperature an adequate predictor of recruitment success in cyprinid fish populations in lowland rivers?

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
    A. D. Nunn
    SUMMARY 1. Higher than average ambient water temperature in the first year of life may be responsible for strong cohorts of adult cyprinid fish. Whilst temperature explains much of the variation in year-class strength (YCS), however, it is not the only influential factor as high temperature does not inevitably yield strong year-classes. Furthermore, years in which a strong year-class is prevalent in one species do not necessarily result in strong year-classes in other coexisting species, suggesting other biotic and abiotic factors are important in regulating recruitment success. 2. The relationships between water temperature, river discharge, the position of the Gulf Stream, 0-group fish growth and recruitment success (YCS) were examined in three cyprinid fish species in an English lowland river, using a 15-year data set. 3. Mean length of 0-group fish at the end of the summer was positively correlated with water temperature (cumulative degree-days >12 C) and negatively correlated with river discharge (cumulative discharge-days above basal discharge rate). Water temperature was negatively correlated with river discharge. 4. YCS was positively correlated with mean 0-group fish length at the end of the summer and with the position of the North Wall of the Gulf Stream. 5. 'Critical periods' (i.e. periods in the first summer of life when fish may be more susceptible to increases in river discharge) were difficult to discern because of interannual variations in river discharge relative to the timing of fish hatching. YCS of roach and chub was most strongly correlated with discharge in the period from June to September inclusive, while YCS of dace was most significantly correlated with discharge in August. 6. River discharge (rather than water temperature) may be the key factor in determining YCS, either directly (through discharge-induced mortality) or indirectly (via reduced growth at lower water temperatures, discharge-associated increases in energy expenditure or reduced food availability). It could be that, in effect, water temperature determines potential YCS while discharge determines realised YCS. [source]

    Reproductive strategies of Gammarus lacustris (Crustacea: Amphipoda) along an elevation gradient

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2000
    Wilhelm F. M.
    Abstract 1.,The number of eggs, their size, mass and development time, and the starvation time of newly hatched young, was examined in four populations of Gammarus lacustris along an elevation gradient from prairie to alpine lakes (730 m to > 2300 m above sea level). Water temperature and ice-free season decreased with increasing altitude. 2.,Females in the alpine lake produced fewer but larger and heavier eggs than females in the prairie lake. Eggs produced by females in montane and subalpine lakes were intermediate in size, mass and number. Within populations, egg size was not related to the number of eggs or female size. 3.,The development time of eggs declined with an increase in incubation temperature. At all incubation temperatures, large eggs had a longer incubation time than small eggs. All eggs incubated at 4 C failed to produce young. Young from large eggs were larger in size than young from small eggs. 4.,The starvation time of newly hatched young increased with decreasing temperature. However, slopes of regressions relating starvation time to temperature differed among populations. At 4 C young from large eggs survived longer than young from small eggs. 5.,The high phenotypic plasticity in reproductive traits contributes to the success of G. lacustris in a wide range of aquatic habitats. It is predicted that in response to climate-induced warming, populations in currently cold montane and alpine lakes would shift their reproduction to produce more eggs of smaller size. However, the accurate prediction of the fate of populations between ecoregions will require knowledge of the extent to which these traits are under genetic control. [source]

    Climatic effects on the phenology of lake processes

    GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 11 2004
    Monika Winder
    Abstract Populations living in seasonal environments are exposed to systematic changes in physical conditions that restrict the growth and reproduction of many species to only a short time window of the annual cycle. Several studies have shown that climate changes over the latter part of the 20th century affected the phenology and population dynamics of single species. However, the key limitation to forecasting the effects of changing climate on ecosystems lies in understanding how it will affect interactions among species. We investigated the effects of climatic and biotic drivers on physical and biological lake processes, using a historical dataset of 40 years from Lake Washington, USA, and dynamic time-series models to explain changes in the phenological patterns among physical and biological components of pelagic ecosystems. Long-term climate warming and variability because of large-scale climatic patterns like Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) and El Nio,southern oscillation (ENSO) extended the duration of the stratification period by 25 days over the last 40 years. This change was due mainly to earlier spring stratification (16 days) and less to later stratification termination in fall (9 days). The phytoplankton spring bloom advanced roughly in parallel to stratification onset and in 2002 it occurred about 19 days earlier than it did in 1962, indicating the tight connection of spring phytoplankton growth to turbulent conditions. In contrast, the timing of the clear-water phase showed high variability and was mainly driven by biotic factors. Among the zooplankton species, the timing of spring peaks in the rotifer Keratella advanced strongly, whereas Leptodiaptomus and Daphnia showed slight or no changes. These changes have generated a growing time lag between the spring phytoplankton peak and zooplankton peak, which can be especially critical for the cladoceran Daphnia. Water temperature, PDO, and food availability affected the timing of the spring peak in zooplankton. Overall, the impact of PDO on the phenological processes were stronger compared with ENSO. Our results highlight that climate affects physical and biological processes differently, which can interrupt energy flow among trophic levels, making ecosystem responses to climate change difficult to forecast. [source]

    Predicting river water temperatures using the equilibrium temperature concept with application on Miramichi River catchments (New Brunswick, Canada)

    Daniel Caissie
    Abstract Water temperature influences most of the physical, chemical and biological properties of rivers. It plays an important role in the distribution of fish and the growth rates of many aquatic organisms. Therefore, a better understanding of the thermal regime of rivers is essential for the management of important fisheries resources. This study deals with the modelling of river water temperature using a new and simplified model based on the equilibrium temperature concept. The equilibrium temperature concept is an approach where the net heat flux at the water surface can be expressed by a simple equation with fewer meteorological parameters than required with traditional models. This new water temperature model was applied on two watercourses of different size and thermal characteristics, but within a similar meteorological region, i.e., the Little Southwest Miramichi River and Catamaran Brook (New Brunswick, Canada). A study of the long-term thermal characteristics of these two rivers revealed that the greatest differences in water temperatures occurred during mid-summer peak temperatures. Data from 1992 to 1994 were used for the model calibration, while data from 1995 to 1999 were used for the model validation. Results showed a slightly better agreement between observed and predicted water temperatures for Catamaran Brook during the calibration period, with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 110 C (Nash coefficient, NTD = 095) compared to 145 C for the Little Southwest Miramichi River (NTD = 094). During the validation period, RMSEs were calculated at 131 C for Catamaran Brook and 155 C for the Little Southwest Miramichi River. Poorer model performances were generally observed early in the season (e.g., spring) for both rivers due to the influence of snowmelt conditions, while late summer to autumn modelling performances showed better results. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Partial compensatory growth in hybrid tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus O. niloticus following food deprivation

    Y. Wang
    Summary The capacity of hybrid tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus O. niloticus [23.2 0.2 g (mean SE)] to show compensatory growth was assessed in an 8-week experiment. Fish were deprived of feed for 1, 2 and 4 weeks, and then fed to satiation for 4 weeks; fish fed to satiation during the experiment served as control. Water temperature gradually declined from 28.1 to 25.5C throughout the experiment. Specific growth rate (SGR) decreased with progressive food deprivation. At the end of deprivation, body weight was lower in the deprived fish than in the control. Fish deprived for 4 weeks exhibited lower contents of lipids and energy in whole body, and higher moisture content and ratio of protein to energy (P/E) than those of the control; they also consumed feed faster than the control when normal feeding was resumed. All deprived fish showed higher food intake (FI) than that of the control during re-alimentation; however, enhanced SGR was only observed in the fish deprived for 4 weeks. There were no significant differences in digestibility of protein and energy, food efficiency (FE) or energy retention efficiency between the control and deprived fish. At the end of re-alimentation, deprived fish failed to catch up in body weight with the control, while content of moisture, lipids and energy, and P/E in whole body of the deprived fish did not significantly differ from that of the control. The results of the experiment revealed that the hybrid tilapia reared in freshwater showed partial capacity for compensatory growth following food deprivation of 4 weeks, and that growth compensation was due mainly to increased FI, rather than to improved FE. [source]

    Water temperature sampling by foraging Brnnich's Guillemots with bird-borne data loggers

    Yutaka Watanuki (correspondence)
    We describe the features of waters where seabirds were feeding by sampling vertical water temperature profiles with data loggers mounted on five Brnnich's Guillemots in Svalbard, Norway. The guillemots foraged in a cold water (,0.5,0.5C SST (sea surface temperature)) by making 1.8 dive bouts in short trips (32,257 min duration) as well as in moderate (0.5,2.0C SST) and warm waters (2.5,4.0C SST) by making 6.0 dive bouts during long trips (411,688 min duration). Judging from outbound flying time (15.7,24.4 min), time between dive bouts (23.9,43.3 min) and water types, the birds probably fed in fjord or coastal waters during short trips and in both coastal and offshore waters during long trips. Water temperature and diving behaviour can be simultaneously recorded by small data loggers, which therefore will provide useful information on marine features and foraging activity of top predators. [source]

    Effects of environmental variables on fish feeding ecology: implications for the performance of baited fishing gear and stock assessment

    A. W. Stoner
    The effectiveness of baited fishing gear ultimately depends upon behaviour of the target species , activity rhythms, feeding motivation, and sensory and locomotory abilities. While any environmental parameter that mediates feeding or locomotion can have an important influence on the active space presented by the bait and fish catchability, few biologists have considered how such variation in behaviour might affect catch per unit effort (CPUE) and the resultant stock abundance estimates or population parameters. This review reveals that environment-related variation in feeding behaviour can act through four different mechanisms: metabolic processes, sensory limitations, social interactions and direct impacts. Water temperature, light level, current velocity and ambient prey density are likely to have largest effects on fish catchability, potentially affecting variation in CPUE by a factor of ten. Feeding behaviour is also density-dependent, with both positive and negative effects. Over time and geographic space a target species can occupy wide ranges of environmental conditions, and in certain cases, spatial and temporal variation in feeding biology could have a larger impact on CPUE than patterns of abundance. Temperature, light and current can be measured with relative facility and corrections to stock assessment models are feasible. Making corrections for biological variables such as prey density and bait competitors will be more difficult because the measurements are often not practical and relationships to feeding catchability are more complex and poorly understood. There is a critical need for greater understanding of how environmental variables affect feeding-related performance of baited fishing gear. A combination of field observations and laboratory experiments will be necessary to parameterize stock assessment models that are improved to accommodate variation in fish behaviour. Otherwise, survey data could reveal more about variation in behaviour than abundance trends. [source]

    The emergence period of sea trout fry in a Lake District stream correlates with the North Atlantic Oscillation

    J.M. Elliott
    The date of fry emergence over 30 years in a sea trout nursery stream, predicted by an individual-based model, correlated significantly (r=0660, P<0001) with an index of the North Atlantic Oscillation. Water temperature is the main driving variable in the model and stream temperature also correlated significantly (r=0662, P<0001) with the index, providing a probable causal link. Therefore, the inter-annual variations in emergence may not be unique to this one stream, but may be typical of other trout streams with similar climatic conditions. [source]

    Temperature Influences the Ontogenetic Expression of Aromatase and Oestrogen Receptor mRNA in the Developing Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) Brain

    C. -L.
    Abstract Water temperature has a differential influence on the development of central neurotransmitter systems according to the developmental period in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Aromatase and oestrogen receptors (ERs) represent important components of the mechanism of brain differentiation. Gene expression of aromatase and ERs is modulated by neurotransmitters in the developing brain. In the present study, the quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method was used to investigate the effects of temperature on the ontogenetic expression of aromatase and ERs in the developing tilapia brain. Before day 10 posthatching, exposure to a higher temperature (32 C) resulted in a significant increase in the expression of brain aromatase; conversely, a lower temperature (20 C) resulted in a decrease. ER, expression was depressed in accordance with the decrease of temperature, but ER, was unaffected by temperature. Between days 10 and 20, neither brain aromatase nor ER, expression was altered by temperature, whereas ER, expression was significantly enhanced by exposure to 32 C. Between days 20 and 30, brain aromatase significantly increased at the higher temperature and decreased at 20 C, but neither ER, nor ER, was affected by temperature. The expression of both brain aromatase and ERs, differentially regulated according to the temperature and to the developmental period, could be related to brain,sex differentiation. [source]

    Sustained, Natural Spawning of Southern Flounder Paralichthys lethostigma Under an Extended Photothermal Regime

    Wade O. Watanabe
    Hormone-induced spawning of southern flounder Paralichthys lethostigma has produced substantial numbers of viable eggs, but wide variations in fertilization and hatch rates have been reported. Recently, sustained natural spawning of southern flounder broodstock, without hormone induction, has been achieved in our laboratory. Adults (average weight = 1.12 kg; N= 25), including 6 captured as juveniles in 1993 and 19 captured as adults during September 1998, were stocked in two 4.8-m3 controlled-environment tanks in October 1998 and held under natural photothermal conditions until January 1999, when an artificial winter photo-period of 10 L:14 D was initiated and then maintained through April 1999. Sex ratio was approximately 13 females:8 males:7 unknown. Natural spawning was observed in early December 1998 and increased in frequency to a peak in March 1999, before declining in late April. Water temperature ranged from 13.9 to 24.5 C during the spawning period. Natural spawnings over 142 d produced a total of 18.3 106 eggs, with a mean fertilization rate of 28.0% (range = 0,100%), yielding 4.94 106 fertilized eggs. The mean percentage of eggs that remained buoyant in full-strength seawater (34 ppt) was 41.3% (0,98%), while hatching rate of buoyant eggs was 37.3% (0,99%) and survival of yolksac larvae to the first-feeding stage was 30.2% (0,100%). Gonadal biopsies in late April identified six females from both tanks as probable spawners. A preliminary comparison suggests that natural spawning produced much larger numbers of viable eggs per female, with higher egg quality (i.e., fertilization and hatching success) than hormone-induced spawning. In contrast to natural spawning, hormone-induced strip-spawning enabled timing of spawnings to be more precisely controlled. These results suggest that a combination of both natural and hormone-induced spawning of photothermally conditioned fish will help produce the large numbers of eggs required to support commercial production. [source]

    Effects of Larval Stocking Density on Laboratory-Scale and Commercial-Scale Production of Summer Flounder Paraliehthys dentatus

    Nicholas J. King
    Experiments 1 and 2 at commercial scale tested the densities of 10 and 60 larvae/L, and 10, 20, and 30/L, respectively. The laboratory scale experiment tested the densities of 10, 20, 30, and 40 larvae/L. Experiments were carried out in two separate filtered, flow-through seawater systems at URI Narragansett Bay Campus (laboratory-scale), and at GreatBay Aquafarms, Inc. (commercial-scale). At both locations, the larvae were raised in a "greenwater" culture environment, and fed rotifers and brine shrimp nauplii according to feeding regimes established for each location. Water temperature was maintained at 21C ( 2) and 19C ( 1) for the duration of laboratory and commercial experiments, respectively. Experiments 1 and 2 at the commercial location were terminated at 42 and 37 d post hatch (dph), respectively, and the laboratory experiment lasted 34 DPH. Larvae initially stocked at 10/L grew to an average length of 14.3 and 14.4 mm, and were significantly larger (P < 0.05) than those stocked at 30/L (13.1 mm) and 60/L (11.7 mm) in commercial scale experiments I and 2, respectively. At laboratory scale, no significant differences in length were detected, although mean total length tended to decrease with increasing stocking density (average length of 14.2, 13.3, 12.7, and 12.7 mm for treatments of 10, 20, 30, and 40/L, respectively). Final survival percentage was not affected by stocking density in either commercial experiment, and was 61 and 40% for treatments of 10 and 60/L in Experiment 1, respectively, and 62, 59, and 56% for Experiment 2, respectively. Similarly, there was no significant difference in final survival percentage among treatments in the laboratory experiment, which averaged 59, 55, 56, and 37% for treatments of 10, 20, 30, and 40L. respectively. Since larval length was not different between the intermediate densities (20 and 30 Iarvae/L), and because high-density rearing can produce a much greater numerical yield per tank, we recommend a density of 30 larvaen as an optimal stocking density for the hatchery production of summer flounder. [source]

    Estimation of dietary biotin requirement of Japanese seabass, Lateolabrax japonicus C.

    J. LI
    Abstract A 9-week feeding experiment was conducted to determine the dietary biotin requirement of Japanese seabass, Lateolabrax japonicus C. Six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic purified diets (Diets 1,6) containing 0, 0.01, 0.049, 0.247, 1.238 and 6.222 mg biotin kg,1 diet were fed twice daily to triplicate groups (30 fish per group) of fish (initial average weight 2.26 0.03 g) in 18 fibreglass tanks (300 L) filled with 250 L of water in a flow-through system. Water flow rate through each tank was 2 L min,1. Water temperature ranged from 25.0 to 28.0 C, salinity from 28.0 to 29.5 g L,1, pH from 8.0 to 8.1 and dissolved oxygen content was approximately 7 mg L,1 during the experiment. After the feeding experiment, fish fed Diet 1 developed severe biotin deficiency syndromes characterized by anorexia, poor growth, dark skin colour, atrophy and high mortality. Significant lower survival (73.3%) was observed in the treatment of deficient biotin. The final weight and weight gain of fish significantly increased with increasing dietary biotin up to 0.049 mg kg,1 diet (P < 0.05), and then slightly decreased. Both feed efficiency ratio and protein efficiency ratio showed a very similar change pattern to that of weight gain. Dietary treatments did not significantly affect carcass crude protein, crude lipid, moisture and ash content. However, liver biotin concentration (0,6.1 ,g g,1) significantly increased with the supplementation of dietary biotin (P < 0.05), and no tissue saturation was found within the supplementation scope of biotin. Broken-line regression analysis of weight gain showed that juvenile Japanese seabass require a minimum of 0.046 mg kg,1 biotin for maximal growth. [source]

    Carbohydrate utilization by juvenile silver perch, Bidyanus bidyanus (Mitchell).


    Abstract The ability of silver perch (Bidyanus bidyanus) to digest and utilize dietary starch or starch breakdown products was investigated. For experiment 1 the ability of silver perch (2.7 0.01 g) to digest wheat starch at two dietary inclusion levels (30% or 60%), each at four levels of gelatinization (0%, 25%, 50% or 80%), was investigated over a 31-day period. For experiment 2, the ability of silver perch (15.9 0.25 g) to digest wheat starch, dextrin (at three levels of dextrinization), maltose, glucose and pea starch, all at the 30% inclusion level, was investigated over a 41-day period. Water temperature for both experiments was 25 1 C. Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for starch, dry matter (DM) and energy were affected by both degree of gelatinization (80% > 50% > 25% = 0%) and inclusion level (30% > 60%). Specific growth rate (SGR) was unaffected by the inclusion of 30% starch; however, it was reduced at the 60% starch content level. Degree of gelatinization had no effect on SGR. For experiment 2, there were significant differences between carbohydrate and DM ADCs for the test ingredients. The carbohydrate, DM and energy ADCs were ranked as follows: dextrin (Fieldose 9) = dextrin (Fieldose 17) = dextrin (Fieldose 30) = gelatinized wheat starch = maltose = glucose > raw wheat starch > raw pea starch. The protein ADC of the diets, postprandial plasma glucose concentration and SGR were all unaffected by ingredient type. For both experiments, HSI tended to increase with carbohydrate inclusion. Liver glycogen concentrations were also elevated, but muscle glycogen and liver and muscle triacylglycerol concentrations were unaffected. Digestibility of starch by silver perch is clearly affected by inclusion content and processing. [source]

    The effect of environmental factors, depth and position on the growth and mortality of raft-cultured blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.)

    S Karaycel
    Abstract One-year-old rope grown blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) were grown in experimental lantern nets at two depths (2 and 6 m below the surface) in two different positions (inflow and outflow) off a raft in Loch Etive on the west coast of Scotland. Shell and tissue growth, and mortality were recorded. Water temperature, salinity and food availability were also monitored over the experimental period. There were no significant differences in the length, live weight, wet meat weight, dry meat weight and ash-free dry meat weight between depths (P >,0.05). However, position had a significant effect on these parameters as mussels located at the inflow of the raft differed significantly from those at the outflow of the raft (P <,0.05). Particulate organic matter (POM) and chlorophyll a (Ch a) were significantly higher at the inflow than the outflow of the raft (P <,0.05), but depth had no effect on POM and Ch a (P >,0.05). The results show that food concentration was higher in the inflow of the raft than the outflow. In the light of these results, recommendations for better management of Scottish raft mussel cultivation are discussed. [source]

    Relationships between water temperatures and upstream migration, cold water refuge use, and spawning of adult bull trout from the Lostine River, Oregon, USA

    P. J. Howell
    Howell PJ, Dunham JB, Sankovich PM. Relationships between water temperatures and upstream migration, cold water refuge use, and spawning of adult bull trout from the Lostine River, Oregon, USA. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 2010: 19: 96,106. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA Abstract,,, Understanding thermal habitat use by migratory fish has been limited by difficulties in matching fish locations with water temperatures. To describe spatial and temporal patterns of thermal habitat use by migratory adult bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus, that spawn in the Lostine River, Oregon, we employed a combination of archival temperature tags, radio tags, and thermographs. We also compared temperatures of the tagged fish to ambient water temperatures to determine if the fish were using thermal refuges. The timing and temperatures at which fish moved upstream from overwintering areas to spawning locations varied considerably among individuals. The annual maximum 7-day average daily maximum (7DADM) temperatures of tagged fish were 16,18 C and potentially as high as 21 C. Maximum 7DADM ambient water temperatures within the range of tagged fish during summer were 18,25 C. However, there was no evidence of the tagged fish using localized cold water refuges. Tagged fish appeared to spawn at 7DADM temperatures of 7,14 C. Maximum 7DADM temperatures of tagged fish and ambient temperatures at the onset of the spawning period in late August were 11,18 C. Water temperatures in most of the upper Lostine River used for spawning and rearing appear to be largely natural since there has been little development, whereas downstream reaches used by migratory bull trout are heavily diverted for irrigation. Although the population effects of these temperatures are unknown, summer temperatures and the higher temperatures observed for spawning fish appear to be at or above the upper range of suitability reported for the species. [source]

    Effects of catch and release angling on Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., of the Conne River, Newfoundland

    The effects of catch and release angling on survival of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., at Conne River, Newfoundland, were investigated by retaining angled (n=49; experimental group) and trap-caught (n=20; control group) fish in holding cages for up to 40 days. Samples were obtained from 8 June to 4 July, 2000, and partitioned among four water temperature strata. Apart from not being angled, control fish were handled, tagged, and transferred to holding cages in a manner similar to angled salmon. Water temperatures and discharge were monitored throughout the duration of the study. Overall, 8.2% of salmon caught and released died, but 12% died among salmon angled in water temperatures , 17.9 C. No control fish died. There were no significant differences in time associated with angling, exposure to air, tagging, transfer to holding cages, nor total handling time between salmon that survived vs. those that died. Results of the study should encourage managers to continue to use catch and release as a viable tool in the management of Atlantic salmon stocks. [source]

    Thermal habitat experienced by Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) kelts in coastal Newfoundland waters

    David G. Reddin
    Abstract Thermal habitat was recorded by data storage tags (DSTs) applied to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) kelts during their seaward migration in the spring of 1998 at enumeration facilities in Highlands River, Humber River, Western Arm Brook, and Campbellton River, Newfoundland. In total, 139 DSTs were applied and data were downloaded from eleven of the recovered tags. The recovered tags had been applied at Highlands, Campbellton and Western Arm rivers and recovered in the coastal waters of Newfoundland and Qubec and at the enumeration facilities at Highlands and Campbellton rivers. Water temperatures experienced by the fish were recorded for periods of 62,118 days at resolutions of 15,30 min. The data from the sea record on the DSTs were analysed for temperature patterns in relation to migration behaviour and diurnal movement of the fish. A variety of patterns were exhibited on the temperature records suggesting that the fish were behaving in various ways at different times. For Campbellton and Highlands fish over the course of some 24 h periods, night-time temperatures changed little and were among the highest daily temperatures experienced by the fish, whereas daytime temperatures often showed dramatic and frequent shifts in temperature presumably as the fish rapidly and frequently changed depth. For the Western Arm Brook fish, rapid fluctuations in temperature occurred sometimes during the day and night without a consistent diurnal pattern. We also considered large-scale aspects of the data by examining oceanographic conditions in relation to the temperatures recorded by the tags. [source]

    Will northern fish populations be in hot water because of climate change?

    GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 10 2007
    Abstract Predicted increases in water temperature in response to climate change will have large implications for aquatic ecosystems, such as altering thermal habitat and potential range expansion of fish species. Warmwater fish species, such as smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu, may have access to additional favourable thermal habitat under increased surface-water temperatures, thereby shifting the northern limit of the distribution of the species further north in Canada and potentially negatively impacting native fish communities. We assembled a database of summer surface-water temperatures for over 13 000 lakes across Canada. The database consists of lakes with a variety of physical, chemical and biological properties. We used general linear models to develop a nation-wide maximum lake surface-water temperature model. The model was extended to predict surface-water temperatures suitable to smallmouth bass and under climate-change scenarios. Air temperature, latitude, longitude and sampling time were good predictors of present-day maximum surface-water temperature. We predicted lake surface-water temperatures for July 2100 using three climate-change scenarios. Water temperatures were predicted to increase by as much as 18 C by 2100, with the greatest increase in northern Canada. Lakes with maximum surface-water temperatures suitable for smallmouth bass populations were spatially identified. Under several climate-change scenarios, we were able to identify lakes that will contain suitable thermal habitat and, therefore, are vulnerable to invasion by smallmouth bass in 2100. This included lakes in the Arctic that were predicted to have suitable thermal habitat by 2100. [source]

    Experience with model predictive control in the undergraduate laboratory

    Kenneth R. Muske
    Abstract A model predictive control experiment for an undergraduate senior laboratory course is outlined in this article. The process under study is a continuous stirred-tank heater and the control objective is to control the water temperature in the tank. A discrete, dynamic, physical model of this process is used in the controller. The model predictive control algorithm is a single-move, analytical controller that matches the model predicted temperature to a reference temperature trajectory at a single time in the future. A series of different control experiments using this algorithm are described and examples of each are presented. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 13: 40,47, 2005; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com); DOI 10.1002/cae.20028 [source]

    Effects of immersion water temperature on whole-body fluid distribution in humans

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2004
    J. M. Stocks
    Abstract Aim:, In this study, we quantified acute changes in the intracellular and extracellular fluid compartments during upright neutral- and cold-water immersion. We hypothesized that, during short-term cold immersion, fluid shifts would be wholly restricted to the extracellular space. Methods:, Seven males were immersed 30 days apart: control (33.3 SD 0.6 C); and cold (18.1 SD 0.3 C). Posture was controlled for 4 h prior to a 60-min seated immersion. Results:, Significant reductions in terminal oesophageal (36.9 0.1 ,36.3 0.1 C) and mean skin temperatures (30.3 0.3 ,23.0 0.3 C) were observed during the cold, but not the control immersion. Both immersions elicited a reduction in intracellular fluid [20.17 6.02 mL kg,1 (control) vs. 22.72 9.90 mL kg,1], while total body water (TBW) remained stable. However, significant plasma volume (PV) divergence was apparent between the trials at 60 min [12.5 1.0% (control) vs. 6.1 3.1%; P < 0.05], along with a significant haemodilution in the control state (P < 0.05). Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide concentration increased from 18.0 1.6 to 58.7 15.1 ng L,1 (P < 0.05) during cold immersion, consistent with its role in PV regulation. We observed that, regardless of the direction of the PV change, both upright immersions elicited reductions in intracellular fluid. Conclusion:, These observations have two implications. First, one cannot assume that PV changes reflect those of the entire extracellular compartment. Second, since immersion also increases interstitial fluid pressure, fluid leaving the interstitium must have been rapidly replaced by intracellular water. [source]

    Latitudinal patterns in abundance and life-history traits of the mole crab Emerita brasiliensis on South American sandy beaches

    Omar Defeo
    ABSTRACT Demographic and life-history attributes of the mole crab Emerita brasiliensis were analysed along 2700 km of the Atlantic coast of South America, including sandy beaches at the southernmost limit (Uruguay) and at the core of its geographical range (Brazil). Population features varied markedly within this range and exhibited systematic geographical patterns of variation. Abundance significantly increased from temperate to subtropical beaches, and the same held true for the asymptotic weight of males. Conversely, length at maturity and asymptotic weight of females increased from subtropical to temperate beaches, being inversely related to sea water temperature. Macroecological patterns in abundance and body weight showed the first large-scale evidence of scaling of population density to body size for a sandy beach population. Mortality rates (both sexes) followed a nonlinear increase from low-density temperate beaches to high-density subtropical beaches. The effect of habitat quality and availability could explain discontinuities in the species distribution within its range, and also differential responses in life-history attributes at a local scale. Asymmetries and converse latitudinal trends between sexes suggest that there is not a single general factor determining large-scale patterns in life-history traits of this species. Our results reinforce the view that density-dependent and environmental factors operating together regulate sandy beach populations. The need to develop macroecological studies in sandy beach ecology is highlighted, as knowledge acquired from local to large spatial scales throws light on population structure and regulation mechanisms. [source]

    Comparison of LiDAR waveform processing methods for very shallow water bathymetry using Raman, near-infrared and green signals

    Tristan Allouis
    Abstract Airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) bathymetry appears to be a useful technology for bed topography mapping of non-navigable areas, offering high data density and a high acquisition rate. However, few studies have focused on continental waters, in particular, on very shallow waters (<2,m) where it is difficult to extract the surface and bottom positions that are typically mixed in the green LiDAR signal. This paper proposes two new processing methods for depth extraction based on the use of different LiDAR signals [green, near-infrared (NIR), Raman] of the SHOALS-1000T sensor. They have been tested on a very shallow coastal area (Golfe du Morbihan, France) as an analogy to very shallow rivers. The first method is based on a combination of mathematical and heuristic methods using the green and the NIR LiDAR signals to cross validate the information delivered by each signal. The second method extracts water depths from the Raman signal using statistical methods such as principal components analysis (PCA) and classification and regression tree (CART) analysis. The obtained results are then compared to the reference depths, and the performances of the different methods, as well as their advantages/disadvantages are evaluated. The green/NIR method supplies 42% more points compared to the operator process, with an equivalent mean error (,42,cm verusu ,45,cm) and a smaller standard deviation (253,cm verusu 335,cm). The Raman processing method provides very scattered results (standard deviation of 403,cm) with the lowest mean error (,31,cm) and 40% more points. The minimum detectable depth is also improved by the two presented methods, being around 1,m for the green/NIR approach and 05,m for the statistical approach, compared to 15,m for the data processed by the operator. Despite its ability to measure other parameters like water temperature, the Raman method needed a large amount of reference data to provide reliable depth measurements, as opposed to the green/NIR method. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]