Waste

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Chemistry

Kinds of Waste

  • agricultural waste
  • animal waste
  • food waste
  • green waste
  • hazardous waste
  • human waste
  • industrial waste
  • kitchen waste
  • mine waste
  • municipal solid waste
  • nuclear waste
  • organic waste
  • packaging waste
  • plastic waste
  • potato waste
  • processing waste
  • radioactive waste
  • solid waste
  • urban waste

  • Terms modified by Waste

  • waste biomass
  • waste collection
  • waste cooking oil
  • waste disposal
  • waste gase
  • waste generation
  • waste heat
  • waste input
  • waste management
  • waste management system
  • waste material
  • waste plastic
  • waste production
  • waste products
  • waste reduction
  • waste repository
  • waste site
  • waste slurry
  • waste storage
  • waste stream
  • waste treatment
  • waste water
  • waste water treatment

  • Selected Abstracts


    SUPERCRITICAL CO2/ETHANOL EXTRACTION OF ASTAXANTHIN FROM BLUE CRAB (CALLINECTES SAPIDUS) SHELL WASTE

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 2 2001
    LETICIA FÉLIX-VALENZUELA
    ABSTRACT Astaxanthin (AX) is the major naturally occurring carotenoid pigment in marine crustaceans and the flesh of salmonids. These organisms are unable to synthesize AX de novo and when farmed commercially, require it in their feed. The high cost of synthetic AX has promoted research into new natural sources of ihe pigment, such as crustacean wastes. In this work, AX from demineralized crab (Callinectes sapidusj shell waste was extracted with a mixture of supercritical C2 and ethanol as a cosolvent. The effect of total solids load, pressure and temperature was assessed by response surface methodology (RSM). Extracted AX was determined by HPLC. The experimental data were fined to a second order model whereby the conditions for maximum extraction yield were defined (, 34 MPa, 45C and solids load of 25 g). Pressure and solids load were the most important factors affecting AX extraction yields. [source]


    Using Kaizen to Reduce Waste and Prevent Pollution

    ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT, Issue 3 2002
    Conrad Soltero
    First page of article [source]


    Recovery of Components from Shrimp (Xiphopenaeus kroyeri) Processing Waste by Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 5 2006
    Helenice Duarte De Holanda
    ABSTRACT:, Industrial shrimp waste is a good source of protein, chitin, and carotenoids. In general, this waste is discarded with no attempt to use it, thus contributing to environmental pollution. This study was aimed at recovering the 3 main components of industrial shrimp waste, protein, chitin, and astaxanthin, using enzymatic treatment with Alcalase and pancreatin. An increase in the degree of hydrolysis (DH) from 6% to 12% resulted in 26% to 28% protein recovery. Alcalase was more efficient than pancreatin, increasing the recovery of protein from 57.5% to 64.6% and of astaxanthin from 4.7 to 5.7 mg astaxanthin/100 g of dry waste, at a DH of 12%. The enzymatic hydrolysis of the industrial waste from Xiphopenaeus kroyeri shrimp using Alcalase allowed for 65% protein recovery in the form of hydrolysates, in addition to providing suitable conditions for the recovery of astaxanthin and chitin. [source]


    Extraction of Anthocyanins and Polyphenolics from Blueberry Processing Waste

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 7 2004
    J. Lee
    ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of temperature, SO2, citric acid, and industrial juice-processing enzymes (n= 9) for producing extracts of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum, cv. Rubel) and blueberry skins that are rich in anthocyanins and polyphenolics were evaluated individually and/or in combination. Enzyme treatment had little effect on total monomeric anthocyanins and on total phenolics recovery. Various combinations of heat, SO2, and citric acid yielded extracts with higher concentrations of ACY and TP than the control. The distribution of anthocyanins and polyphenolics in ,Rubel' was also investigated. Anthocyanins existed almost exclusively in the skins, and polyphenolics were mostly in the skins with lesser amounts in flesh and seeds. Skins were also highest in antioxidant activity. All portions contained the same individual anthocyanins but in varying amounts. Cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonol-glycosides were found in the skins and seeds, whereas the flesh contained only cinnamic acids. [source]


    Smart Labels for Waste and Resource Management

    JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
    An Integrated Assessment
    Summary This article explores the potential of RFID (radio frequency identification device) for improving the current waste and resource management system in Switzerland. It presents the following three possible options for utilizing RFID tags to support waste management processes: "at source automation" (using a "smart" trash can), "end of pipe I" (combination of the current system with an additional separation of recyclables before incineration), and "end of pipe II" (replacement of the current recycling infrastructure by sorting at the incineration plant). These options tackle the waste and resource management chain during different processes (i.e., waste generation, waste separation, and treatment). Based on an MFA (material flow analysis), we performed a multicriteria assessment of these options with experts from the waste management sector. The assessment of ten experts in the waste management field regarding the proposed options for batteries and electrical appliances showed that, from an ecological perspective, the implementation of RFID in waste management would be desirable and would lead to an improvement in the current recycling rate in Switzerland for the goods studied. From an economic perspective, new investments would be required in the range of 1 to 5 times the maintenance costs of the current separate collection system. From a social perspective, the utilization of RFID tags in the waste management process was ambiguous. In particular, the end of pipe II option would, on the one hand, significantly improve convenience for consumers. On the other hand, experts see privacy and, what is more, social responsibility as being under threat. The experts considered the ecological and social aspects to be more relevant than the economic ones, preferring the end of pipe I option over the other options and the status quo. [source]


    Reviews: Industrial Ecology: Environmental Chemistry and Hazardous Waste

    JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY, Issue 1 2001
    Article first published online: 8 FEB 200
    [source]


    Influence of Activation Temperature on Reaction Kinetics in Recycled Clay Waste,Calcium Hydroxide Systems

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Issue 12 2008
    Moisés Frías
    Obtaining pozzolanic materials from recycling of industrial waste and byproducts is a priority action of environmental policy all over the world. This paper describes the effect of activation conditions on the reaction kinetics in calcined clay waste (CCW)/calcium hydroxide systems. The CCW used in this work shows excellent qualities for use as supplementary cementing material in the manufacture of commercial blended cements. This research work presents an exhaustive study about the kinetics of a pozzolanic reaction in this cementing system. The results obtained by different techniques (DTA/TG, X-ray diffraction, and SEM/EDAX) confirm that the activation conditions (in the range 700°,800°C and 2,5 h of retention) have a direct effect on the formation and evolution of hydrated phases. Low activation temperatures favor the CSH gels' formation, while at higher temperatures aluminates (C4AH13) and aluminum silicate hydrates (C4ASH8, hydrotalcites) are predominant. [source]


    Evaluation of Brewer's Waste as Partial Replacement of Fish Meal Protein in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, Diets

    JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, Issue 4 2008
    Desale B. Zerai
    A 10-wk feeding trial experiment involving five different diets with increasing levels of brewer's waste (32% crude protein) was carried out to evaluate the use of brewer's waste in tilapia diets in place of fish meal. Growth performance was compared against a control diet formulated to have similar composition to a typical commercial diet. Four experimental diets replaced successively 25, 50, 75, and 100% of the fish meal protein with brewer's waste. The diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Results indicated that weight gain did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) with up to 50% replacement. Feed intake and utilization were depressed at high levels of brewer's waste. In addition, methionine of high replacement level diets was low. The results of the digestibility trial demonstrated that the brewer's waste used in this study has an apparent digestibility coefficient for protein of 70%. It was concluded that 50% of the fish meal protein in a typical commercial diet could be replaced with brewer's waste with no adverse effect on growth and feed utilization for tilapia. [source]


    Trophic state, fish community and intensive production of salmonids in Alicura Reservoir (Patagonia, Argentina)

    LAKES & RESERVOIRS: RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Issue 4 2001
    P. F. Temporetti
    Abstract The Governments of the Provinces located in Patagonia, Argentina, promote the intensive breeding of salmonids in the Andean Patagonian region. Although annual production is low (450 ton ha,1 year,1), some effects are significant. Waste produced by salmonid breeding (feed losses, faeces and excretion) increases nutrient and organic matter concentrations, which cause modifications of water quality, sediments and biota. A consequent risk is the elevation of eutrophication levels. Possible changes in water composition, sediments, algae and wild fish populations were studied. Sites affected by fish farming showed increased nutrient concentration, and phytoplankton and periphyton biomass. Chlorophyll a was similar at both sites (affected and unaffected by fish farm sites). Sediments clearly reflect fish farm waste inputs: total phosphorus and organic matter increased 12-fold and fourfold, respectively. The species present in the gill-net catches were the autochthonous Percichthys trucha, Odontesthes hatcheri, Diplomystes viedmensis, and the introduced salmonids Oncorhynchus mykiss, Salmo trutta, Salmo salar sebago and Salvelinus fontinalis. About 50% of the total catch was salmonids. A major portion of the catch per unit weight was composed of rainbow trout, followed by perch. The catch per unit weight obtained for this reservoir agrees with the range of values previously determined (Quiros 1990) for Patagonian reservoirs. Compared with previous studies by Freyre et al. (1991), a variation in catch composition exists. This consists mainly of an increase in the numbers and condition of O. mykiss and a decrease in P. trucha. Presence of fish that escaped from hatcheries, recognizable by their eroded fins, was observed; particularly in a sampling station near the fish cage systems. Variations in catches could be caused by cyclical changes in fish populations (Wooton 1991), by direct and indirect effects of intensive fish farming, or by a combination of both events, and can only be understood through long-term studies of catch variation. [source]


    Waste and Virgin LDPE/PET Blends Compatibilized with an Ethylene-Butyl Acrylate-Glycidyl Methacrylate (EBAGMA) Terpolymer, 1

    MACROMOLECULAR MATERIALS & ENGINEERING, Issue 10 2005
    Mustapha Kaci
    Abstract Summary: This work is aimed at studying the morphology and the mechanical properties of blends of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) (10, 20, and 30 wt.-% of PET), obtained as both virgin polymers and urban plastic waste, and the effect of a terpolymer of ethylene-butyl acrylate-glycidyl methacrylate (EBAGMA) as a compatibilizer. LDPE and PET are blended in a single screw extruder twice; the first extrusion to homogenize the two components, and the second to improve the compatibilization degree when the EBAGMA terpolymer is applied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis shows that the fractured surface of both the virgin polymer and the waste binary blends is characterized by a gross phase segregation morphology that leads to the formation of large PET aggregates (10,50 µm). Furthermore, a sharp decrease in the elongation at break and impact strength is observed, which denotes the brittleness of the binary blends. The addition of the EBAGMA terpolymer to the binary LDPE/PET blends reduces the size of the PET inclusions to 1,5 µm with a finer dispersion, as a result of an improvement of the interfacial adhesion strength between LDPE and PET. Consequently, increases of the tensile properties and impact strength are observed. SEM micrographs of the fracture surface of a waste 70/30 LDPE/PET blend (R30) and of its blend with 15 pph of EBAGMA (R30C). Magnification,×,1,000. [source]


    An Experiment in (Toxic) Indian Capitalism?: The Skull Valley Goshutes, New Capitalism, and Nuclear Waste

    POLAR: POLITICAL AND LEGAL ANTHROPOLOGY REVIEW, Issue 2 2001
    Randel D. Hanson
    First page of article [source]


    An Application of Six Sigma to Reduce Waste

    QUALITY AND RELIABILITY ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL, Issue 6 2005
    Ricardo Bañuelas
    Abstract Six Sigma has been considered a powerful business strategy that employs a well-structured continuous improvement methodology to reduce process variability and drive out waste within the business processes using effective application of statistical tools and techniques. Although there is a wider acceptance of Six Sigma in many organizations today, there appears to be virtually no in-depth case study of Six Sigma in the existing literature. This involves how the Six Sigma methodology has been used, how Six Sigma tools and techniques have been applied and how the benefits have been generated. This paper presents a case study illustrating the effective use of Six Sigma to reduce waste in a coating process. It describes in detail how the project was selected and how the Six Sigma methodology was applied. It also shows how various tools and techniques within the Six Sigma methodology have been employed to achieve substantial financial benefits. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Residential vapor-intrusion evaluation: Long-duration passive sampling vs. short-duration active sampling

    REMEDIATION, Issue 4 2008
    Joseph E. Odencrantz
    Sampling indoor air for potential vapor-intrusion impacts using current standard 24-hour sample collection methods may not adequately account for temporal variability and detect contamination best represented by long-term sampling periods. Henry Schuver of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Solid Waste stated at the September 2007 Air & Waste Management Association vapor-intrusion conference that the US EPA may consider recommending longer-term vapor sampling to achieve more accurate time-weighted-average detections. In November 2007, indoor air at four residences was sampled to measure trichloroethene (TCE) concentrations over short- and long-duration intervals. A carefully designed investigation was conducted consisting of triplicate samplers for three different investigatory methods: dedicated 6-liter Summa canisters (US EPA Method TO-15), pump/sorbent tubes (US EPA Method TO-17), and passive diffusion samplers (MDHS 80). The first two methods collected samples simultaneously for a 24-hour period, and the third method collected samples for two weeks. Data collected using Methods TO-15 (canisters) and TO-17 (tubes) provided reliable short-duration TCE concentrations that agree with prior 24-hour sampling events in each of the residences; however, the passive diffusion samplers may provide a more representative time-weighted measurement. The ratio of measured TCE concentrations between the canisters and tubes are consistent with previous results and as much as 28.0 ,g/m3 were measured. A comparison of the sampling procedures, and findings of the three methods used in this study will be presented. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    A deterministic approach to evaluate and implement monitored natural attenuation for chlorinated solvents

    REMEDIATION, Issue 4 2007
    Michael J. Truex
    A US EPA directive and related technical protocol outline the information needed to determine if monitored natural attenuation (MNA) for chlorinated solvents is a suitable remedy for a site. For some sites, conditions such as complex hydrology or perturbation of the contaminant plume caused by an existing remediation technology (e.g., pump-and-treat) make evaluation of MNA using only field data difficult. In these cases, a deterministic approach using reactive transport modeling can provide a technical basis to estimate how the plume will change and whether it can be expected to stabilize in the future and meet remediation goals. This type of approach was applied at the Petro-Processors Inc. Brooklawn site near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, to evaluate and implement MNA. This site consists of a multicomponent nonaqueous-phase source area creating a dissolved groundwater contamination plume in alluvial material near the Mississippi River. The hydraulic gradient of the groundwater varies seasonally with changes in the river stage. Due to the transient nature of the hydraulic gradient and the impact of a hydraulic containment system operated at the site for six years, direct field measurements could not be used to estimate natural attenuation processes. Reactive transport of contaminants were modeled using the RT3D code to estimate whether MNA has the potential to meet the site-specific remediation goals and the requirements of the US EPA Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Directive 9200.4-17P. Modeling results were incorporated into the long-term monitoring plan as a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the MNA remedy. As part of the long-term monitoring plan, monitoring data will be compared to predictive simulation results to evaluate whether the plume is changing over time as predicted and can be expected to stabilize and meet remediation goals. This deterministic approach was used to support acceptance of MNA as a remedy. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    Not a Waste of Time: Scientific Psychological Experts in the Courtroom

    ANALYSES OF SOCIAL ISSUES & PUBLIC POLICY, Issue 1 2008
    Article first published online: 18 MAR 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Recycling the Waste: The Development of a Catalytic Wittig Reaction,

    ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE, Issue 37 2009
    Christopher
    Ringelreigen: 3-Methyl-1-phenylphospholan-1-oxid (4,10,Mol-%) und ein als Reduktionsmittel fungierendes Organosilan sind die Hauptbestandteile der ersten bezüglich des Phosphans katalytischen Wittig-Reaktion. Das Verfahren bewährte sich auch in größerem Maßstab: Bei einem 30-mmol-Ansatz wurden 3.39,g Produkt erhalten, was einer Ausbeute von 67,% entspricht. [source]


    Empfehlungen des Arbeitskreises 6.1 "Geotechnik der Deponiebauwerke" der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geotechnik e. V. (DGGT)

    BAUTECHNIK, Issue 9 2009
    Karl Josef Witt Univ.-Prof.
    Der Arbeitskreis "Geotechnik der Deponiebauwerke" hat in 5 Themengruppen bisher 76 Empfehlungen zur Planung, zum Bau und zur Qualitätsüberwachung von Abfalldeponien veröffentlicht. Der diesjährige Bericht zu den Arbeitsergebnissen stellt den Bezug zwischen der im Juli in Kraft getretenen Verordnung zur Vereinfachung des Deponierechts und den GDA-Empfehlungen her. Recommendations of the DGGT Committee "Geotechnics of Landfill Structures". The Technical Committee "Geotechnics of Landfill Structures" of the German Geotechnical Society published up to now 76 recommendations (GDA-Geotechnical Landfill Recommendations) structured in 5 main issues. This report on the recent results of the working group delivers the link between the requirements of the new German Directive on the Landfilling of Waste and the detailed technical standard described in the GDA-Recommendations. [source]


    Waste: A source of bioactive compounds

    BIOTECHNOLOGY JOURNAL, Issue 7 2008
    Article first published online: 15 JUL 200
    Cover illustration: Waste: A source of bioactive compounds. From waste such as the compost depicted, a surprising number of bioactive compounds can be discovered. This special issue of Biotechnology Journal shows how this can be achieved, in spite of the fact that it is not a priori scientifically attractive to dig into the garbage. Image © Jürgen Chyla [source]


    Biological Conversion of Anglesite (PbSO4) and Lead Waste from Spent Car Batteries to Galena (PbS)

    BIOTECHNOLOGY PROGRESS, Issue 4 2002
    Jan Weijma
    Lead paste, a solid mixture containing PbSO4, PbO2, PbO/Pb(OH)2precipitate, and elemental Pb, is one of the main waste fractions from spent car batteries. Biological sulfidation represents a new process for recovery of lead from this waste. In this process the lead salts in lead paste are converted to galena (PbS) by sulfate-reducing bacteria. This paper investigates a continuous process for sulfidation of anglesite (PbSO4), the main constituent of lead paste, and lead paste, consisting of a laboratory-scale gas-lift bioreactor to which a slurry of anglesite or lead paste was supplied. Sulfate or elemental sulfur was added as an additional sulfur source. Hydrogen gas served as an electron donor for the biological reduction of sulfate and elemental sulfur to sulfide by sulfate- and sulfur-reducing bacteria. Anglesite was almost completely converted to galena at a loading rate of 19 kg of PbSO4m,3day,1, producing a sludge of which the crystalline lead phases consisted of >98% PbS (galena) and 1,2% elemental Pb. With lead paste, stable sulfidation rates of up to 17 kg of lead paste m,3day,1were demonstrated, producing a sludge of which the crystalline lead phases consisted of an estimated >96% PbS, 1,2% elemental Pb, and 1,2% PbO2. [source]


    Acid Mine Drainage and Heavy Metal Pollution from Solid Waste in the Tongling Mines, China

    ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 1 2008
    XU Xiaochun
    Abstract: Based on investigation of the characteristics of solid waste of two different mines, the Fenghuangshan copper mine and the Xinqiao pyrite mine in Tongling, Anhui province in central-east China, the possibility and the differences of acid mine drainage (AMD) of the tailings and the waste rocks are discussed, and the modes of occurrence of heavy metal elements in the mine solid waste are also studied. The Fenghuangshan copper mine hardly produces AMD, whereas the Xinqiao pyrite mine does and there are also differences in the modes of occurrence of heavy metal elements in the tailings. For the former, toxic heavy metals such as Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, As and Hg exist mostly in the slag mode, as compared to the latter, where the deoxidization mode has a much higher content, indicating that large amounts minerals in the waste rocks have begun to oxidize at the earth surface. AMD is proved to promote the migration and spread of the heavy metals in mining waste rocks and lead to environmental pollution of the surroundings of the mine area. [source]


    Chemical Recycling and Kinetics of Aqueous Alkaline Depolymerization of Poly(Butylene Terephthalate) Waste

    CHEMICAL ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (CET), Issue 7 2004
    A.S. Goje
    Abstract Depolymerization reactions of poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) waste in aqueous sodium hydroxide solution were carried out in a batch reactor at 80,140,°C at atmospheric pressure by varying PBT particle size in the range of 50,512.5,,m. Reaction time was also varied from 10,110,min to understand the influence of PBT particle size and reaction time on the batch reactor performance. Agitator speed, particle size of PBT and reaction time required were optimized. Disodium terephthalate (salt) and 1,4-butanediol (BD) remain in the liquid phase. BD was recovered by the salting-out method. Disodium terephthalate was separated by acidification to obtain solid terephthalic acid (TPA). The produced monomeric products (TPA and BD) and PBT were analyzed. The yields of TPA and BD were in agreement with PBT conversion. The depolymerization reaction rate was first order to PBT concentration as well as first order to sodium hydroxide concentration. The acid value of TPA changes with the reaction time as well as particle size of PBT. This indicates that PBT molecules get fragmented and hydrolyze simultaneously with aqueous sodium hydroxide to produce BD and disodium terephthalate. Activation energy, Arrhenius constant, equilibrium constant, Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy were determined. The dependence of the hydrolysis rate constant on reaction temperature was correlated by the Arrhenius plot, which shows an activation energy of 25,kJ/mol and an Arrhenius constant of 438,L/min/cm2. [source]


    ChemInform Abstract: Polarity and Chirality in Uranyl Borates: Insights into Understanding the Vitrification of Nuclear Waste and the Development of Nonlinear Optical Materials.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 33 2010
    Shuao Wang
    Abstract The compounds (IV,VII) and (IX,XII) are synthesized with various Na(Tl):U:B molar ratios using H3BO3 as a reactive flux, and their structures are determined by single crystal XRD. [source]


    ChemInform Abstract: Recycling the Waste: The Development of a Catalytic Wittig Reaction.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 2 2010
    Christopher J. O'Brien
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]


    Adsorption of Transition Metals in Aqueous Solutions by Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalisHook f),Waste

    CHEMISTRY & BIODIVERSITY, Issue 9 2005
    Michael Horsfall Jr.
    The adsorption of some divalent transition metal (Hg, Rh, Pt, and Pd) ions in aqueous solution onto fluted pumpkin waste biomass has been investigated. The data were discussed in terms of ionic radii, surface area, and the hard,soft acid,base (HSAB) concept. The monolayer sorption capacities as obtained by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model were determined to be ca. 9.89,mg/g, 9.81,mg/g, 10.59,mg/g, and 6.84,mg/g for for HgII, RhII, PtII, and PdII, respectively. The results are relevant for the optimal design of a wastewater treatment plant and for prediction of model parameters of sorbate,sorbent interactions. [source]


    From Cradle to Grave: Extended Producer Responsibility for Household Hazardous Wastes in British Columbia

    JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2001
    Ronald J. Driedger
    Summary Household hazardous wastes (HHWs), the discarded pesticides, solvents, paints, lubricating oil, and similar products common to residences throughout the industrial world, create problems for governments charged with managing solid waste. When disposed of improperly in landfills or incinerators or if dumped illegally, HHW may contribute to soil and water contamination. A most common management tool for HHW is a special collection effort that segregates HHW from normal trash and disposes of it in an approved manner, all at a higher cost to the governmental jurisdiction. The Canadian province of British Columbia (BC) has undertaken a different approach, based on the use of extended producer responsibility (EPR). BC's efforts began in 1992 with adoption of a regulation on used lubricating oil (lube oil). More than 40 million liters (L) of used lube oil have been collected annually through the EPR system established under this regulation. A regulation establishing producer responsibility for postconsumer paints followed in 1994. BC enacted an additional regulation establishing EPR in 1997 for solvents/flammable liquids, domestic pesticides, gasoline, and pharmaceuticals. As a result of the application of EPR to HHW, local government costs for managing HHW and the amount of HHW identified in municipal waste have declined. Although the regulations appear to have mixed success in prompting consumers to avoid products that result in HHW, there are indications that they may be more effective than conventional management efforts. Based on BC's experience with EPR, key factors for successful implementation include maintaining flexibility in program design, creating viable funding alternatives, aggressive enforcement to provide a level playing field, and adopting policies that maximize diversion of HHW from landfills, while minimizing waste generation, setting targets for reuse and recycling, promoting consumer awareness and convenience, involving local government jurisdictions, and monitoring outcomes. [source]


    Performance of Juvenile Coho Salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch Fed Diets Containing Meals from Fish Wastes, Deboned Fish Wastes, or Skin-and-Bone By-Product as the Protein Ingredient

    JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, Issue 1 2001
    Cindra K. Rathbone
    The suitability of meals derived from fish processing wastes as the protein fraction in practical diets for hatchery-reared coho salmon was investigated. The study compared the performance of coho salmon fed diets containing three products: a skin-and-bone meal (SB), a deboned meal (DM), and a whole-fish meal (WM) made directly from the fish wastes. A commercial trout diet (CO) was fed to a fourth treatment group. Diets were fed at 3% of body weight per day to juvenile coho salmon for 12 wk. Survival (> 94%) was not significantly different among treatment groups. Average fish weight, feed conversion ratio, whole body proximate and mineral composition, and protein and phosphorus retention were compared. There were no significant differences after 12 wk of feeding in fish weight between WM, DM, and CO, but SB had significantly lower weight and whole body lipid, and significantly higher ash. Compared to WM, DM had a significantly lower feed conversion ratio and higher retention of protein and phosphorus, but these indices were not significantly different from CO. It is concluded that DM is a potentially superior protein ingredient compared to WM, while specific characteristics of SB will limit its use as a protein source in feeds for salmonids. However, SB may prove to be a suitable mineral supplement when added at a low level. Utilization of fish processing wastes in salmonid diets could be a commercially viable alternative to direct disposal of processing wastes. [source]


    Petroleum Industry Effluents and Other Oxygen-Demanding Wastes in Niger Delta, Nigeria

    CHEMISTRY & BIODIVERSITY, Issue 7 2006

    Abstract In this article, we review the fundamental phenomenon of oxygenation within the overriding context of petroleum-industry effluents and the other oxygen demanding wastes in Niger Delta, Nigeria. Drill cuttings, drilling mud (fluids used to stimulate the production processes), and accidental discharges of crude petroleum constitute serious land and water pollution in the oil-bearing province. Effluents from other industrial establishments such as distilleries, pulp and paper mills, fertilizer plants, and breweries, as well as thermal effluents, plant nutrients (such as nitrates and phosphates), and eroded sediments have also contributed to the pollution of their surrounding environment. Since these wastes are oxygen-demanding in nature, their impact on the recipient environment can be reversed by the direct application of simple chemistry. The wastes can be reduced, particularly in natural bodies of water, by direct oxidation,reduction processes or simple chemical combinations, acid,base reactions, and solubility equilibria; these are pH- and temperature-dependent. A shift in pH and alkalinity affects the solubility equilibria of Na+, Cl,, SO2,, NO, HCO, and PO, and other ions and compounds. [source]


    Food Waste Management by Life Cycle Assessment of the Food Chain

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 3 2004
    THOMAS OHLSSON
    ABSTRACT: In the past, environmental activities in the food industry used to be focused on meeting the requirements set by authorities on waste and sewage disposal and, more recently, regarding emissions to air. Today environmental issues are considered an essential part of the corporate image in progressive food industries. To avoid sub-optimization, food waste management should involve assessing the environmental impact of the whole food chain. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an ISO-standardized method to assess the environmental impact of a food product. It evaluates the resources used to perform the different activities through the chain of production from raw material to the user step. It also summarizes the emission/waste to air, water, and land from the same activities throughout the chain. These emissions are then related to the major environmental concerns such as eutrophication, acidification, and ecotoxicity, the factors most relevant for the food sector. The food industry uses the LCAs to identify the steps in the food chain that have the largest impact on the environment in order to target the improvement efforts. It is then used to choose among alternatives in the selection of raw materials, packaging material, and other inputs as well as waste management strategies. A large number of food production chains have been assessed by LCAs over the years. This will be exemplified by a comparison of the environmental impact of ecologically grown raw materials to those conventionally grown. Today LCA is often integrated into process and product development, for example, in a project for reduction of water usage and waste valorization in a diversified dairy. [source]


    A 3-D Graphical Database System for Landfill Operations Using GPS

    COMPUTER-AIDED CIVIL AND INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING, Issue 5 2002
    H. Ping Tserng
    Landfill space is an important commodity for landfill companies. It is desirable to develop an efficient tool to assist space management and monitor space consumption. When recyclable wastes or particular waste materials need to be retrieved from the landfill site, the excavation operations become more difficult without an efficient tool to provide waste information (i.e., location and type). In this paper, a methodology and several algorithms are proposed to develop a 3-D graphical database system (GDS) for landfill operations. A 3-D GDS not only monitors the space consumption of a landfill site, but can also provide exact locations and types of compacted waste that would later benefit the landfill excavation operations or recycling programs after the waste is covered. [source]


    Commercializing bycatch can push a fishery beyond economic extinction

    CONSERVATION LETTERS, Issue 4 2010
    Aaron Savio Lobo
    Abstract Tropical bottom trawling is among the most destructive fishing practices, catching large quantities of bycatch, which are usually discarded. We used questionnaire surveys of trawl fishers to look at changes in catches over the last 30 years (1978,2008) along India's Coromandel Coast. We show that catches and income from target species have declined sharply over the last two decades. Meanwhile, costs of fishing have increased substantially and now almost exceed income from target species. Over the same period, bycatch (which was traditionally discarded) has now become increasingly marketable, being sold for local consumption, and as fish meal to supply the region's rapidly growing poultry industry. Without this income from bycatch, the fishery would scarcely be economically viable. While such a change in the use of bycatch is good news in terms of reducing waste and improving livelihoods, it is also responsible for pushing the Indian bottom trawl fishery beyond the economic extinction of its target species. [source]