Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Wales

  • central wale
  • north wale
  • south wale
  • southwest wale

  • Terms modified by Wales

  • wale hospital

  • Selected Abstracts


    PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 5 2007
    Abstract:, The modern study of fossil crinoids began with J. S. Miller who, in 1821, described specimens from southern England, nearby Wales and other regions, and named several common Early Carboniferous genera. Later, in 1950,60, James Wright monographed all known Early Carboniferous crinoids from the British Isles. In spite of such previous scrutiny, we recognize here two new genera among species already described: Glamorganocrinus gen. nov. (type species: Ophiurocrinus gowerensis Wright, 1960) from South Wales and Mendipocrinus gen. nov. (type species: Poteriocrinus latifrons Austin and Austin, 1847) from southern England. These new genera increase the number of advanced cladid genera in the Ivorian Substage of the Tournaisian in western Europe to 18, and the total number of crinoid genera to 36. A review of species assigned to Mespilocrinus has led to the recognition of M. granulifer De Koninck and LeHon, 1854 as a nomen dubium. A new species of Mespilocrinus, M. wrighti sp. nov., is described from the Ivorian of South Wales; this is the most highly derived species of the genus, as based on a phylogenetic analysis including ten species and 13 characters, with Pycnosaccus as the outgroup. A single, well-ordered tree resulted from this analysis. Interpretation of this tree suggests that the centre of evolution for Mespilocrinus was North America, where three species appeared during the Kinderhookian (early Tournaisian), rapidly achieving morphological disparity within the genus. This radiation event was part of the overall explosive radiation of crinoids following the Late Devonian mass extinction event when crinoid diversity was at a global minimum during the Frasnian. Recovery began during the Famennian, followed by an explosive radiation in the Tournaisian. [source]


    PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
    Abstract:, An exceptionally preserved fauna within dolomites of the Friars Point Limestone Formation includes the most diverse brachiopod assemblage yet described from the Tournaisian of the British Isles, and the first from Wales. Each of the 16 brachiopod genera includes a single species, of which four are new (Schellwienella cheuma, Schuchertella subcrona, Composita ptygmation, Fusella extrata). Associated fossils are corals (one species), bryozoans (two species) and crinoids (one species). Spiriferoideans and schizophorides are numerically dominant, indicative of level-bottom, inner mid-ramp biotopes. Biogeographical comparisons reflect the cosmopolitanism of early Carboniferous brachiopod generic assemblages. Taxonomic comparisons involve selection of lectotypes for Syringothyris exoleta North, 1920, Syringothyris cyrtorhyncha North, 1920, Tylothyris laminosa beta North, 1920, and Tylothyris laminosa gamma North, 1920. [source]


    The aim of this article is to identify causes and effects of public institutional change. Analysis is centred on those endogenous, not exogenous, sources of political change that account for the institutional metamorphosis of the Welsh Assembly in its engagement with UK-EU processes since 1999. The central research question addressed is to explain a qualitative shift in the logic of action of Assembly engagement, resulting in the conduct of a territorially sensitive ,parliamentary' EU scrutiny, but within a model of executive devolution. To capture agency and change, and to engage with sociological institutionalist debates, the article develops analytical tools of ,framing' and ,operationalizing' institutions to study the interplay between informal and formal processes of institution building since devolution. In so doing, we place refined sociological conceptions of institutions at the heart of analyses of political discontinuity and theorization of public institutional change. [source]

    Epidemiology of invasive and other pneumococcal disease in children in England and Wales 1996,1998

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 2000
    E Miller
    The results of enhanced national surveillance of pneumococcal disease in children <15y of age in England and Wales are reported for the period 1996,1998. Of the 1985 cases of laboratory-confirmed invasive disease (annual incidence 6.6 per 100000 overall and 39.7 per 100000 in infants <1 y of age), 485 (24%) were meningitis (annual incidence of 1.6 per 100000 overall and 15.7 per 100000 in infants <1 y of age). Fifty-nine deaths in children with invasive disease were identified-3% of the total reports. Thirty-one different serogroups/types were identified, with organisms in the 7-valent conjugate vaccine responsible for 69% of the infections in children <5 y of age; this rose to 77% and 82%, respectively, for the 9-and 11-valent vaccines. Resistance to penicillin varied from 2.3% to 6.2% in different years, but erythromycin resistance remained constant at 17%. The vast majority of resistant isolates were in vaccine serotype/groups. Computerized hospital admission records for all children <15 y of age with a discharge diagnosis code indicating probable pneumococcal disease were also analysed for 1997. The annual incidence for cases with a code specifically mentioning S. pneumoniae was 9.9 per 100000 compared with 71.2 per 100000 for lobar pneumonia; the mean duration of stay for both was < 1 wk. The incidence of admission for pneumococcal meningitis (1.9 overall and 19.6 for infants < 1 y of age) was similar to that derived from laboratory reports and resulted in an average duration of stay of 2 wk. Conclusion: This surveillance has confirmed the substantial burden of morbidity attributable to pneumococcal disease in British children and the potential public health benefits that could be achieved by the use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. [source]

    The development of a specialist hostel for the community management of personality disordered offenders

    Stephen Blumenthal
    Background,Since the late 1990s, in England and in Wales, there has been increasing interest in the particular challenges of managing offenders with personality disorder (PD). In 1999, a specialist hostel, managed by the probation service but with a high level of forensic mental health service input, was opened to high-risk PD offenders. Aims,To describe the first 93 high-risk residents with PD who were completing sentences under life licence, parole or probation, and their outcome. Methods,We investigated the nature of the offences residents had previously committed, their psychological profile in terms of personality patterns on the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III) and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), as well as staff commentary on their progress, to establish whether these factors related to outcome in terms of completion of stay in the hostel or premature discharge. Curfew failures and rearrest rates were also measured. Results,Of the 80 men who completed their residency within the two years of the study, the majority (50) left the hostel for positive reasons under mutual agreement. One-fifth were rearrested while resident, which is a lower rate than would be expected for such a group of offenders. PCL-R scores were predictive of outcome, but so was previous offending history. Self-defeating traits on the MCMI-III and negative comments written by hostel staff were also associated with failure. Conclusions,The hostel development demonstrated that probation and health services can work together to manage violent offenders with high levels of psychological dysfunction, and the evaluation provided some indications of how such arrangements might be enhanced. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Psychology brings justice: the science of forensic psychology,

    Gisli H. Gudjonsson Professor of Forensic Psychology
    In this paper the focus is on one aspect of forensic psychology: the development of psychological instruments, a social psychological model and assessment procedures for evaluating the credibility of witnesses and police detainees during interviewing. Clinically grounded case work and research has impacted on police interviewing and practice, the admissibility of expert psychological testimony and the outcome of cases of miscarriage of justice. After describing the research that laid the foundations for advancement of scientific knowledge in this area, a brief review is presented of 22 high-profile murder cases where convictions based on confession evidence have been quashed on appeal between 1989 and 2001, often primarily on the basis of psychological evidence. The review of the cases demonstrates that psychological research and expert testimony in cases of disputed confessions have had a profound influence on the practice and ruling of the Court of Appeal for England and Wales and the British House of Lords. The cases presented in this paper show that it is wrong to assume that only persons with learning disability or those who are mentally ill make unreliable or false confessions. Personality factors, such as suggestibility, compliance, high trait anxiety and antisocial personality traits, are often important in rendering a confession unreliable. Future research needs to focus more on the role of personality factors in rendering the evidence of witnesses and suspects potentially unreliable. Copyright © 2003 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    Changes in patterns of excessive alcohol consumption in 25 years of high security hospital admissions from England and Wales

    Celia McMahon
    Background It is now generally acknowledged that alcohol abuse increases the risk of violence among people with major mental disorder. Studies in the 1980s and earlier, however, tended to report an inverse relationship between their alcohol use and violence. Aims A study was undertaken to test a hypothesis that among people with major mental disorder considered to pose a serious risk to others the likelihood of excessive alcohol consumption in a period leading up to a violent or dangerous act has increased over time. Methods Analysis was made of annual high security hospital admission cohort case register data of 1 January 1975 to 31 December 1999; alcohol use data were taken from interview and records, and problem drinking defined as consumption of alcohol in excess of 21 units per week during the 12 months prior to the index offence or act. Results There was a linear increase in the proportion of patients in five-year admission cohorts who had engaged in excessive alcohol consumption during the year prior to their index offence or act. The increase was steeper among women than men, but cut across all diagnosis and offending groups. It was strongly associated with increasing tendency to abuse illicit drugs. Conclusions The greater proportion of patients affected by excessive alcohol consumption occurred in spite of a reduction over the same period in admission of people in the diagnostic groups most likely to be implicated in substance misuse (personality disorder). This increased trend may simply reflect similar trends in the general population, but may also be associated with a lack of services or current consensus on appropriate treatment for patients whose mental illness is complicated by excessive alcohol use. Regardless, the trend suggests a growing need for ,dual diagnosis' services within and outside high security hospital. Copyright © 2003 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    Ten years on: medical services to prisoners in England and Wales

    John V. Basson
    First page of article [source]

    Trials update in wales

    CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 2007
    A. Fiander
    Three ongoing studies will be presented and discussed. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Infection in a South Wales Screening population Methods: A total of 10 000 consecutive, anonymous liquid based cytology screening samples were collected over a five month period in 2004. Age, cytology result and social deprivation score was provided for each specimen. The methodology was chosen to ensure inclusion of all women attending routine cervical screening, avoiding potential constraints associated with obtaining individual informed consent. The liquid based cytology samples were processed and reported by the receiving cytology laboratory and the residual specimens sent to the HPV Research Laboratory, Wales College of Medicine, where they were processed and stored at -80°C until analysis. High risk and low risk HPV Typing was undertaken using PCR , EIA (Jacobs et al 1997). Full high risk typing was performed on HPV positive specimens. Results: The study population had a mean age of 38 years with 92% negative, 5% borderline and 3% dyskaryotic cytology. The average social deprivation score was 17.4 (based upon the Welsh Index of multiple deprivation). The following results will be presented: HPV prevalence by age. HPV prevalence by cytology result. Type specific HPV prevalence in single and multiple infection. Conclusion: This study represents the largest type specific HPV Prevalence Study in the UK to date. As such it will form a useful base line against which to access performance of marketed HPV tests and evaluating the impact following implementation of HPV vaccination. [Funded by Welsh Office for Research and Development] CRISP , 1 Study (Cervical Randomized Intervention Study Protocol -1) Background: Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and Diindolylmethane (DIM) are found in cruciferous vegetables and have been identified as compounds that could potentially prevent or halt carcinogenesis. I3C spontaneously forms DIM in vivo during acid digestion. I3C has been shown to prevent the development of cervical cancer in HPV 16 transgenic mice and both I3C and DIM have been shown to promote cell death in cervical cancer cell models. DIM is the major active bi-product of I3C and preliminary data indicate that DIM is active in cervical dysplasia and may be better tolerated than I3C. Aim: To investigate chemoprevention of high grade cervical neoplasia using Diindolylmethane (DIM) supplementation in women with low grade cytological abnormalities on cervical cytology. Objectives: To observe any reduction in the prevalence of histological proven high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) after 6 months of supplementation. ,,To observe any reduction in the prevalence of cytological abnormalities. ,,To observe any changes in the clinical appearance of the cervix. To assess acceptability and monitor any side effects of DIM supplementation. ,,To assess whether any benefit is seen in relation to Human Papillomavirus (HPV) status including HPV Type, Viral load and integration. Methods: This is a double blind randomized placebo-controlled trial involving 600,700 women with low grade cytological abnormalities on a cervical smear. Randomization is in the ratio of 2 : 1 in favour of active medication. Women with first mildly dyskaryotic smear or second borderline smear are eligible. They are asked to take two capsules daily for 6 months. At the end of 6 months they undergo repeat cervical cytology, HPV testing and colposcopy. Results: A progress report will be given for this ongoing study. [Funded: - Cancer Research UK] Type Specific HPV Infection in Welsh Cervical Cancers Background: Whilst there have been numerous studies of HPV infection associated with cervical cancer and on prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in diverse populations there have been no studies of these variables in the same population. Against a background of prophylactic HPV vaccination it is important to assess potential protection against cervical cancer within a given population. The most comprehensive analysis of HPV type specific cervical cancer is a meta-analysis published by the IARC in 2003. This however included only three UK based studies, totalling 118 cases, 75 of which were only investigated by HPV type PCR for four high risk types. None of this data was presented with associated population based prevalence data. Therefore, the research objectives for this study in combination with the first study above, are as follows: To determine the frequency of specific HPV types in cervical cancers in Wales. To compare the distribution of specific HPV types amongst cervical cancers with their prevalence in the general population. This will allow accurate delineation of the relationship between prevalence of specific HPV types in the general population and their association with clinically relevant disease. This information is a pre-requisite to assess the potential impact of prophylactic vaccination against HPV infection in Wales. Methods: Welsh Cervical Cancer specimens from 2000,2005 will be identified from pathology departments within Wales. The pathology of each tumour will be reviewed by a single Gynaecological Pathologist. The age of the patient and pathological features of the tumour will be noted. DNA will be extracted from the paraffin sections and HPV typed by PCR-EIA. Results: A progress report will be given for this ongoing study. [Funded by Welsh Office for Research and Development] [source]

    Cervical screening in England and Wales: its effect has been underestimated

    CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 6 2000
    A. Herbert
    Opinions about cervical screening in the UK tend to follow one of two negative lines of thought. The first is that cervical cancer is a rare disease, and too much time and effort are spent on screening. The second is that it has been relatively ineffective, since incidence of invasive carcinoma did not fall until the NHS Cervical Screening Programme (NHSCSP) was introduced in 1988, although it fell by 40% since then. This paper presents publicly available data to demonstrate that neither of these views is true. Registrations of invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix and carcinoma in situ in England and Wales between 1971 and 1996 show that a substantially increased risk of disease in women born since 1940 has been reversed, almost certainly by greatly improved screening. Cervical carcinoma is now a rare disease because most cases are prevented before they become invasive, mostly by screening young women, aged 20,40, before the decade of life when symptomatic cervical carcinoma most frequently presents. [source]

    Sustainable Responsible Design: Insights from Wales (UK)

    Frank O'Connor
    As Frank O'Connor and Iain Cox share two cases to illustrate what Design Wales is doing to promote responsible design among SMEs, it is evident that several elements are needed to implement what turns out to be a complex mandate. Governments must support the agenda with appropriate policy. Companies must make the commitment to value-based brands. Designers have to contribute relevant expertise, and consumers must to be willing to buy. [source]

    Association of British Clinical Diabetologists (ABCD) and Diabetes-UK survey of specialist diabetes services in the UK, 2006.

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 6 2008

    Abstract Aims To identify the views and working practices of consultant diabetologists in the UK in 2006,2007, the current provision of specialist services, and to examine changes since 2000. Methods All 592 UK consultant diabetologists were invited to participate in an on-line survey. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of responses were undertaken. A composite ,well-resourced service score' was calculated. In addition to an analysis of all respondents, a sub-analysis was undertaken, comparing localities represented both in 2006/2007 and in 2000. Results In 2006/2007, a 49% response rate was achieved, representing 50% of acute National Health Service Trusts. Staffing levels had improved, but remained below recommendations made in 2000. Ten percent of specialist services were still provided by single-handed consultants, especially in Northern Ireland (in 50% of responses, P = 0.001 vs. other nations). Antenatal, joint adult,paediatric and ophthalmology sub-specialist diabetes services and availability of biochemical tests had improved since 2000, but access to psychology services had declined. Almost 90% of consultants had no clinical engagement in providing community diabetes services. The ,well-resourced service score' had not improved since 2000. There was continued evidence of disparity in resources between the nations (lowest in Wales and Northern Ireland, P = 0.007), between regions in England (lowest in the East Midlands and the Eastern regions, P = 0.028), and in centres with a single-handed consultant service (P = 0.001). Job satisfaction correlated with well-resourced service score (P = 0.001). The main concerns and threats to specialist services were deficiencies in psychology access, inadequate staffing, lack of progress in commissioning, and the detrimental impact of central policy on specialist services. Conclusions There are continued disparities in specialist service provision. Without effective commissioning and adequate specialist team staffing, integrated diabetes care will remain unattainable in many regions, regardless of reconfigurations and alternative service models. [source]

    The Audit Commission review of diabetes services in England and Wales, 1998,2001

    B. Fitzsimons
    Abstract Aims of the Audit Commission The Audit Commission has a statutory duty to promote the best use of public money. It does this through value for money studies, such as that reported in Testing Times[1]. This work has been followed with a review of innovative practice in commissioning. These initiatives aim to support the implementation of the diabetes national service framework. The Audit Commission also appoints external auditors to NHS organizations who assess probity and value for money in the NHS; the latter by applying national studies locally and by carrying out local studies. Methods Research for Testing Times consisted of structured visits to nine acute trusts, a telephone survey of 26 health authorities and a postal survey of 1400 people with diabetes and 250 general practitioners. Local audits used a subset of the original research tools. Case studies were identified through a cascade approach to contacts established during Testing Times and through self-nomination. Results Rising numbers of people with diabetes are placing increasing pressure on hospital services. Some health authorities and primary care organizations have reviewed patterns of service provision in the light of the increasing demands. These reviews show wide variations in patterns of routine care. In addition, there is a widespread lack of data on the delivery of structured care to people with diabetes. People with diabetes report delays in gaining access to services, and insufficient time with staff. There are insufficient arrangements in place for providing information and learning opportunities to support self-management. Conclusion As the number of people with diabetes continues to rise, the potential for providing more care in a primary care setting needs to be explored. This will enable specialist services to focus more effectively on those with the most complex needs. [source]

    Forensic psychiatry, ethics and protective sentencing: what are the limits of psychiatric participation in the criminal justice process?

    S. N. Verdun-Jones
    As clinicians, psychiatrists are unequivocally dedicated to relieving the suffering of those who are afflicted with mental disorders. However, the public and those individuals, who are assessed, find it difficult to draw a distinction between forensic psychiatrists acting in a clinical role and the very same professionals acting in an evaluative role, on behalf of the state. This paper examines the ethical issues raised by psychiatric involvement in the sentencing process. It rejects the view that a forensic psychiatrist, who undertakes an evaluation for the state, is to be considered as an advocate of justice who is not bound by conventional ethical duties to the individual whom he or she assesses. It contends that the forensic psychiatrist has an important role to play in presenting evidence that may result in the mitigation of the sentence that may be imposed on a person who is mentally disordered. The paper will focus on these issues in the particular context of the situation in England and Wales, Canada and the United States. [source]

    Risk assessment for nonindigenous pests: 1.

    Mapping the outputs of phenology models to assess the likelihood of establishment
    Abstract This paper demonstrates the use of phenology models mapped over the landscape as a tool in support of risk assessments for nonindigenous plant pests. Drawing on the relationship between pest development and temperature, the approach uses gridded sequential interpolated temperatures at a resolution of 1 km, linked with phenology models, to predict the potential for a pest to develop throughout the landscape. The potential for establishment of Colorado beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) in England and Wales was used as an illustration. The likelihood of the pest completing a single generation during a 30-year period (1961,90) was computed. Summaries of phenology, based firstly upon point temperature series from weather stations and secondly upon temperatures interpolated across the landscape, were compared. The results revealed that the use of point data led to a 70% likelihood of over-estimating the area at risk from year to year. In the case of average long-term risk however, the point-based and landscape-wide distributions of establishment potential were similar. We demonstrate how the use of phenology models running on a daily time scale provides date based results, so allowing outputs to be tied in with periods in the cropping cycle. The application of daily data in computing the phenological results, unlike the main body of published work on pest risk assessment which uses averaged monthly data, reflects more fully the underlying variability and degrees of sensitivity of the pest to changes in weather. [source]

    Risk assessment for nonindigenous pests: 2.

    Accounting for interyear climate variability
    Abstract The paper firstly discusses the importance of accounting for interyear variability when assessing the likelihood of establishment of an alien pest. The potential establishment of Colorado beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) is used as an illustration within the geographical context of England and Wales. An aggregate risk index is introduced as a probabilistic representation of the likelihood that a pest might complete a single generation over a 30-year period (1961,90). Data for individual years were used to compute, objectively, the interyear distribution of risk across the landscape. The standard deviation in area at risk (26 800 km2) was high relative to the average proportion of the landscape potentially at risk (95 700 km2). In 40% of years, the area at risk was estimated to be higher than ,average'. Secondly, the paper demonstrates multiple indices of risk that reflect different aspects of pest risk assessment. Viewing risk from a variety of perspectives provides a means of gauging the consistency and therefore reliability of the results. This contrasts with current practice, where a single mapped output is commonly presented to decision makers. Modelling using a daily time step allowed the use of indices to investigate the long-term probabilities of biotic and abiotic events of short duration. These indices include estimates of pest activity and flight potential. [source]

    Characteristics and dynamics of multiple intertidal bars, north Lincolnshire, England

    Selma van Houwelingen
    Abstract Multiple intertidal bars and troughs, often referred to as ,ridges and runnels', are significant features on many macrotidal sandy beaches. Along the coastline of England and Wales, they are particularly prevalent in the vicinity of estuaries, where the nearshore gradient is gentle and a large surplus of sediment is generally present. This paper examines the dynamics of such bar systems along the north Lincolnshire coast. A digital elevation model of the intertidal morphology obtained using LIDAR demonstrates that three to five intertidal bars are consistently present with a spacing of approximately 100 m. The largest and most pronounced bars (height = 0·5,0·8 m) are found around mean sea level, whereas the least developed bars (height = 0·2,0·5 m) occur in the lower intertidal zone. Annual aerial photographs of the intertidal bar morphology were inspected to try to track individual bars from year to year to derive bar migration rates; however, there is little resemblance between concurrent photographs, and ,resetting' of the intertidal profile occurs on an annual basis. Three-dimensional beach surveys were conducted monthly at three locations along the north Lincolnshire coast over a one-year period. The intertidal bar morphology responds strongly to the seasonal variation in the forcing conditions, and bars are least numerous and flattest during the more energetic winter months. Morphological changes over the monthly time scale are strongly affected by longshore sediment transport processes and the intertidal bar morphology can migrate along the beach at rates of up to 30 m per month. The behaviour of intertidal bars is complex and varies over a range of spatial and temporal scales in response to a combination of forcing factors (e.g. incident wave energy, different types of wave processes, longshore and cross-shore sediment transport), relaxation time and morphodynamic feedback. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Selection for discontinuous life-history traits along a continuous thermal gradient in the butterfly Aricia agestis

    Steve Burke
    Abstract., 1.,Voltinism may be conceptualised as the product of development rate and the timing of diapause , two components that together translate gradual environmental variation, through periods of growth and development, into ,generational units'. This may result in very different selection pressures on diapause induction and development time in populations with different numbers of generations per year. 2.,Developmental data from univoltine and bivoltine populations of the butterfly Aricia agestis (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) in North Wales were used to examine larval development time and the timing of diapause, and their contribution towards voltinism in populations that occur at the same latitude and in geographic proximity to one another along a thermal gradient. 3.,The critical photoperiod for diapause induction in univoltines and bivoltines from the same latitude differed by more than 1.5 h. 4.,Development time also differed significantly between these populations, in line with predictions that bivoltines would need to exhibit shorter development times in order to achieve two complete generations per year. Shorter development times for bivoltines result in lower pupal weights, suggesting a trade-off exists between generation number and body size that may dictate the position of the transition zone between the two life-history strategies. Analysis of development times in a third population, from southern England, with greater thermal availability than those from North Wales, further supports this hypothesised trade-off. 5.,To achieve the conversion of a continuous thermal gradient into the binary biological response from univoltism to bivoltism, bivoltines speed up development, reduce adult body size and shift their diapause induction response. [source]

    Identifying the poor in the 1870s and 1880s1

    Poverty lines devised throughout England and Wales in the 1870s and 1880s defined ,the poor', a new class not recognized by the poor law. This article provides an account of the poverty lines adopted, mainly by school boards, in about 40 different places; the context in which they were developed; and what has been retrieved of the reasons determining the adoption of specific poverty lines. In particular, it examines the principal controversies surrounding them, and the challenge they posed to the poor law; and, incidentally, compares them to the poverty lines proposed, many years later, by Booth and Rowntree. [source]

    The production and consumption of bar iron in early modern England and Wales

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The production and consumption of bar iron in early modern England and Wales

    Errata. The Economic History Review 59: 1, 64 The production and consumption of bar iron in early modern England and Wales. An estimate made of the bar iron production in England shows two periods when production grew rapidly, 1540-1620 and 1785-1810. Both of these were related to the adoption of new technology-the finery forge in the first case, and potting and stamping and then puddling in the second. Imports of iron from Spain declined sharply after 1540, but those from Sweden became significant from the mid-seventeenth century, and those from Russia after 1730. Consumption grew rapidly in the late sixteenth century, and again during the eighteenth. Hence, the industrial revolution was the culmination of a long period of growth. [source]

    Measuring the national wealth in seventeenth-century England

    This article discusses William Petty's 1665 estimate of the wealth of England and Wales,the first set of national accounts,and compares it with Gregory King's (1696), which is shown to be heavily influenced by it. There are conclusions about the methodology of the first political arithmeticians, the kinds of national resources which could be measured for the first time in the seventeenth century, and the lacunae which made it likely that Petty and King underestimated per caput and aggregate incomes. An appendix prints a contemporary analysis of hearth tax returns for every county. [source]

    Migration within England and Wales and the Housing Market

    ECONOMIC OUTLOOK, Issue 3 2005
    Article first published online: 27 JUL 200
    Economic conditions exert a strong influence on regional migration. On the one hand, strong labour market conditions, as exemplified by low unemployment rates and high earnings, draw migrants into regions. On the other hand, strong housing market conditions can prevent movement since commuting may often be an alternative to migration. This can be thought of as giving rise to a migration equilibrium where high house prices choke off migration caused by strong labour market conditions. Expected capital gains in housing, however, can offset high levels of house prices, an effect ignored in previous literature. Migration can also be influenced more directly by the availability of housing relative to population without this being mediated through prices. This paper, by Gavin Cameron, John Muellbauer and Anthony Murphy, presents evidence on inter-regional net and gross migration between the regions of England and Wales that is broadly in accord with these expectations. [source]

    The Returns to the Quantity and Quality of Education: Evidence for Men in England and Wales

    ECONOMICA, Issue 265 2000
    Colm Harmon
    Until the late 1960s, state schooling in England and Wales was determined by an ability test of pupils at age 11 which had an effect on both the quantity and quality of education. By estimating the relationship between earnings and earlier schooling during a period when school areas changed from selective to non-selective education, we consider how the returns to the quantity of education are confounded by differences in the quality of schooling and whether the effects of quality are confounded by its correlation with quantity. Our results confirm recent evidence that returns to education quantity are large and quality effects are small. [source]

    If cannabis caused schizophrenia,how many cannabis users may need to be prevented in order to prevent one case of schizophrenia?

    ADDICTION, Issue 11 2009
    England, Wales calculations
    ABSTRACT Background We consider how many cannabis users may need to be prevented in order to prevent one case of schizophrenia or psychosis [defined as number needed to prevent (NNP)]. Method Calculation for England and Wales using best available estimates of: incidence of schizophrenia; rates of heavy and light cannabis use; and risk that cannabis causes schizophrenia. Results In men the annual mean NNP for heavy cannabis and schizophrenia ranged from 2800 [90% confidence interval (CI) 2018,4530] in those aged 20,24 years to 4700 (90% CI 3114,8416) in those aged 35,39. In women, mean NNP for heavy cannabis use and schizophrenia ranged from 5470 (90% CI 3640,9839) in those aged 25,29 to 10 870 (90% CI 6786,22 732) in 35,39-year-olds. Equivalent mean NNP for heavy cannabis use and psychosis were lower, from 1360 (90% CI 1007,2124) in men aged 20,24 and 2480 (90% CI 1408,3518) in women aged 16,19. The mean and median number of light cannabis users that would need to be prevented in order to prevent one case of schizophrenia or psychosis per year are four to five times greater than among heavy users. Conclusions The number of young people who need to be exposed to an intervention to generate NNP and prevent one case of schizophrenia will be even larger. The public health importance of preventing cannabis to reduce schizophrenia or psychosis remains uncertain. More attention should be given to testing the hypothesis that cannabis is related causally to psychotic outcomes, and to considering what strategies will be the most effective in reducing heavy cannabis use among young people. [source]

    Changes in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure over a 20-year period: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses

    ADDICTION, Issue 3 2009
    Barbara J. Jefferis
    ABSTRACT Aims To examine long-term changes in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in British men between 1978 and 2000, using serum cotinine. Design Prospective cohort: British Regional Heart Study. Setting General practices in 24 towns in England, Wales and Scotland. Participants Non-smoking men: 2125 studied at baseline [questionnaire (Q1): 1978,80, aged 40,59 years], 3046 studied 20 years later (Q20: 1998,2000, aged 60,79 years) and 1208 studied at both times. Non-smokers were men reporting no current smoking with cotinine < 15 ng/ml at Q1 and/or Q20. Measurements Serum cotinine to assess ETS exposure. Findings In cross-sectional analysis, geometric mean cotinine level declined from 1.36 ng/ml [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31, 1.42] at Q1 to 0.19 ng/ml (95% CI: 0.18, 0.19) at Q20. The prevalence of cotinine levels , 0.7 ng/ml [associated with low coronary heart disease (CHD) risk] rose from 27.1% at Q1 to 83.3% at Q20. Manual social class and northern region of residence were associated with higher mean cotinine levels both at Q1 and Q20; older age was associated with lower cotinine level at Q20 only. Among 1208 persistent non-smokers, cotinine fell by 1.47 ng/ml (95% CI: 1.37, 1.57), 86% decline. Absolute falls in cotinine were greater in manual occupational groups, in the Midlands and Scotland compared to southern England, although percentage decline was very similar across groups. Conclusions A marked decline in ETS exposure occurred in Britain between 1978 and 2000, which is likely to have reduced ETS-related disease risks appreciably before the introduction of legislation banning smoking in public places. [source]

    Drug use and perceived treatment need among newly sentenced prisoners in England and Wales

    ADDICTION, Issue 2 2009
    Duncan Stewart
    ABSTRACT Aims To investigate pre-custody levels of drug use among newly sentenced prisoners and factors associated with perceived drug treatment need. Design, setting and participants A sample of 1457 prisoners was recruited to a general purpose longitudinal survey of convicted prisoners starting a new sentence. Measurements Data were collected by structured interviews on reception to prison. Measures were taken of illicit drug use, drug treatment history, current treatment needs, psychological health and a range of social problems. Findings Life-time use of heroin, crack cocaine, cocaine powder, amphetamines or cannabis was reported by 79% of prisoners. Cannabis was the drug reported most commonly, but approximately a third had used heroin or crack cocaine during the year before custody. Nearly half of recent drug users reported wanting help or support with a drug problem during their sentence. Dependence on heroin and cocaine, previous drug treatment, employment, accommodation and psychological health problems were all associated positively with perceived treatment need. Conclusions The prevalence of pre-custody drug use among this sample of newly sentenced prisoners was high. Because treatment need was associated with a range of drug, health and social factors, assessment and referral to appropriate interventions should occur as soon as possible on reception. Treatment should be coordinated with other services and support. [source]

    The impact of grassland management on archaeal community structure in upland pasture rhizosphere soil

    Graeme W. Nicol
    Summary The community structure of rhizosphere soil Archaea from three grassland types, associated with different management practices, was examined at a site in the Borders region of Scotland, by analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from 16S rDNA and from rRNA. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequence analysis of amplified products indicated high relative abundance within the archaeal community of two distinct lineages of non-thermophilic (group 1) Crenarchaeota. Grassland management practices influenced archaeal community structure, as characterized by both 16S rRNA- and 16S rDNA-derived DGGE profiles. One band dominated DGGE profiles in all three grassland types examined, and reproducible differences in the presence and intensity of bands were observed between profiles from managed and natural grassland sites. Analysis of 16S rRNA-derived amplicons from managed and natural grasslands at sites in the north of England and the north of Wales also indicated high relative abundance of non-thermophilic crenarchaeotes within the archaeal community. The band dominating the Scottish grassland site also dominated DGGE profiles from the English and Welsh sites, and similar differences were seen between profiles derived from soils subjected to different management regimes. The study indicates that grassland archaeal communities are dominated by Crenarchaeota, with closely related members of this lineage ubiquitous in distribution in UK upland pasture, and indicate that management practices influence the nature of the crenarchaeotal community. [source]

    New alternative and complementary environmental policy instruments and the implementation of the Water Framework Directive

    Andy Gouldson
    Abstract Based on a study conducted for the Environment Agency for England and Wales, we discuss the contribution that new alternative and complementary environmental policy instruments might make to the realization of the objectives of the EU's Water Framework Directive. Following a survey that identified nearly 100 examples where alternative and complementary instruments are currently being applied in the UK, we categorize such instruments as information-based approaches, private and voluntary regulation or support and capacity building measures. Examples are given of each category of instrument before further findings on the preconditions for the successful application of such measures are presented. These preconditions relate to levels of commitment from key groups, levels of stakeholder understanding, the role of the lead actor, the importance of timing, the need to deliver a clear message, the importance of enforcement, the role of the media and the importance of social capital in key networks. We conclude that alternative and complementary measures have significant potential to contribute to the realization of the Water Framework Directive's objectives, but only where these preconditions are met. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

    Wind power and ,the planning problem': the experience of Wales

    Richard Cowell
    Abstract Across Europe, spatial planning has acquired an important role in steering wind power to more socially acceptable locations. However, the tendency for planning decisions to become a focus of opposition has also led to planning being represented as ,a problem' in meeting renewable energy targets. Using Jessop's dialectical relationship between modes and objects of governance, this paper seeks to understand why certain states are inclined to resolve ,the planning problem' for wind through strengthened national control. The case study is the Welsh Assembly Government's 2005 planning guidance on renewable energy, which superimposes centrally-determined ,Strategic Search Areas' for large-scale, onshore wind farm development onto local decision-making processes. Motivations for adopting this approach reflect the UK's centralizing planning culture, and beliefs that local planning processes will not yield sufficient sites to meet targets for wind power expansion. Responses to this planning guidance suggest that it may stabilizing the regulatory conditions for large-scale wind investment in the short term, in some parts of Wales, but faces a number of points of vulnerability in the longer term. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]