Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Earth and Environmental Science

Kinds of Belt

  • chichibu belt
  • conveyor belt
  • corn belt
  • fault belt
  • fold belt
  • fold-and-thrust belt
  • fold-thrust belt
  • forest belt
  • limpopo belt
  • loess belt
  • metamorphic belt
  • mobile belt
  • mountain belt
  • northern chichibu belt
  • ogcheon belt
  • ophiolite belt
  • orogenic belt
  • sambagawa metamorphic belt
  • sanbagawa belt
  • seat belt
  • tectonic belt
  • thrust belt

  • Terms modified by Belt

  • belt use

  • Selected Abstracts


    ABSTRACT. At first glance the industrial city of Mishawaka, near the northern border of Indiana, appears to be ethnically homogeneous. Closer examination, however, reveals the rich ethnic heritage of Mishawaka, as it does in so many other Rust Belt cities from Pittsburgh to Chicago. One of the most fascinating of these immigrant stories is the rise of Belgian Town, on Mishawaka's southwest side. This study examines residential, commercial, and social patterns of this evolving ethnic community during the first three decades of the twentieth century. Although industrial jobs attracted immigrants to the city, creation of a Flemish Catholic church provided the foundation on which to build a tightly knit Belgian community. [source]


    Kellie B. Vach
    ABSTRACT: Simulated water quality resulting from three alternative future land-use scenarios for two agricultural watersheds in central Iowa was compared to water quality under current and historic land use/land cover to explore both the potential water quality impact of perpetuating current trends and potential benefits of major changes in agricultural practices in the U.S. Corn Belt. The Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to evaluate the effect of management practices on surface water discharge and annual loads of sediment and nitrate in these watersheds. The agricultural practices comprising Scenario 1, which assumes perpetuation of current trends (conversion to conservation tillage, increase in farm size and land in production, use of currently-employed Best Management Practices (BMPs)) result in simulated increased export of nitrate and decreased export of sediment relative to the present. However, simulations indicate that the substantial changes in agricultural practices envisioned in Scenarios 2 and 3 (conversion to conservation tillage, strip intercropping, rotational grazing, conservation set-asides and greatly extended use of best management practices (BMPs) such as riparian buffers, engineered wetlands, grassed waterways, filter strips and field borders) could potentially reduce current loadings of sediment by 37 to 67 percent and nutrients by 54 to 75 percent. Results from the study indicate that major improvements in water quality in these agricultural watersheds could be achieved if such environmentally-targeted agricultural practices were employed. Traditional approaches to water quality improvement through application of traditional BMPs will result in little or no change in nutrient export and minor decreases in sediment export from Corn Belt watersheds. [source]

    An environment for prosperity and quality living accommodating growth in the Thames Valley

    Hugh Howes
    The Thames Valley is seen as the powerhouse of the British economy, and one of the best performing regions in Europe. This economic base offers opportunities for expansion with the potential for it to become the knowledge capital of Europe. Business interests view the area as a highly desirable location, not only because of its markets, skills and proximity to the City and Heathrow but also because of its high quality environment. Companies, however, complain of skills shortages, traffic congestion, lack of suitable premises and housing that is affordable to the workforce. Much of the Thames Valley is either Green Belt or Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Furthermore, the availability of future water supplies, the maintenance of the quality of water in the rivers and managing flood risk are also likely to act as constraints on development in the future. How economic growth is to be achieved with minimal additional development and without detriment to the environment is the central question that is likely to dominate planning in the this region over the next few years. Is it possible to achieve more with existing resources? Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

    Evaluation of a dynamic multi-class sediment transport model in a catchment under soil-conservation agriculture

    Peter Fiener
    Abstract Soil erosion models are essential tools for the successful implementation of effective and adapted soil conservation measures on agricultural land. Therefore, models are needed that predict sediment delivery and quality, give a good spatial representation of erosion and deposition and allow us to account for various soil conservation measures. Here, we evaluate how well a modified version of the spatially distributed multi-class sediment transport model (MCST) simulates the effectiveness of control measures for different event sizes. We use 8 year runoff and sediment delivery data from two small agricultural watersheds (07 and 37 ha) under optimized soil conservation. The modified MCST model successfully simulates surface runoff and sediment delivery from both watersheds; one of which was dominated by sheet and the other was partly affected by rill erosion. Moreover, first results of modelling enrichment of clay in sediment delivery are promising, showing the potential of MCST to model sediment enrichment and nutrient transport. In general, our results and those of an earlier modelling exercise in the Belgian Loess Belt indicate the potential of the MCST model to evaluate soil erosion and deposition under different agricultural land uses. As the model explicitly takes into account the dominant effects of soil-conservation agriculture, it should be successfully applicable for soil-conservation planning/evaluation in other environments. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The importance of plant root characteristics in controlling concentrated flow erosion rates

    G. Gyssels
    Abstract While it has been demonstrated in numerous studies that the aboveground characteristics of the vegetation are of particular importance with respect to soil erosion control, this study argues the importance of separating the influence of vegetation on soil erosion rates into two parts: the impact of leaves and stems (aboveground biomass) and the influence of roots (belowground biomass). Although both plant parameters form inseparable constituents of the total plant organism, most studies attribute the impact of vegetation on soil erosion rates mainly to the characteristics of the aboveground biomass. This triggers the question whether the belowground biomass is of no or negligible importance with respect to soil erosion by concentrated flow. This study tried to answer this question by comparing cross-sectional areas of concentrated flow channels (rills and ephemeral gullies) in the Belgian Loess Belt for different cereal and grass plant densities. The results of these measurements highlighted the fact that both an increase in shoot density as well as an increase in root density resulted in an exponential decrease of concentrated flow erosion rates. Since protection of the soil surface in the early plant growth stages is crucial with respect to the reduction of water erosion rates, increasing the plant root density in the topsoil could be a viable erosion control strategy. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Inelastic deformation response of SDOF systems subjected to earthquakes

    Rafael Riddell
    Abstract Performance-based seismic design requires reliable methods to predict earthquake demands on structures, and particularly inelastic deformations, to ensure that specific damage-based criteria are met. Several methods based on the response of equivalent linear single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) systems have been proposed to estimate the response of multi-degree-of-freedom structures. These methods do not offer advantages over the traditional Veletsos,Newmark,Hall (VNH) procedure, indeed, they have been shown to be inaccurate. In this study, the VNH method is revised, considering the inelastic response of elastoplastic, bilinear, and stiffness-degrading systems with 5% damping subjected to two sets of earthquake ground motions. One is an ensemble of 51 earthquake records in the Circumpacific Belt, and the other is a group of 44 records in California. A statistical analysis of the response data provides factors for constructing VNH inelastic spectra. Such factors show that the ,equal-displacement' and ,equal-energy' rules to relate elastic and inelastic responses are unconservative for high ductilities in the acceleration- and velocity-sensitive regions of the spectrum. It is also shown that, on average, the effect of the type of force,deformation relationship of non-linear systems is not significant, and responses can be conservatively predicted using the simple elastoplastic model. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Using a Geographic Information System to identify areas with potential for off-target pesticide exposure

    Thomas G. Pfleeger
    Abstract In many countries, numerous tests are required as part of the risk assessment process before chemical registration to protect human health and the environment from unintended effects of chemical releases. Most of these tests are not based on ecological or environmental relevance but, rather, on consistent performance in the laboratory. A conceptual approach based on Geographic Information System (GIS) technology has been developed to identify areas that are vulnerable to nontarget chemical exposure. This GIS-based approach uses wind speed, frequency of those winds, pesticide application rates, and spatial location of agricultural crops to identify areas with the highest potential for pesticide exposure. A test scenario based on an incident in Idaho (USA) was used to identify the relative magnitude of risk from off-target movement of herbicides to plants in the conterminous United States. This analysis indicated that the western portion of the Corn Belt, the central California valley, southeastern Washington, the Willamette Valley of Oregon, and agricultural areas bordering the Great Lakes are among those areas in the United States that appear to have the greatest potential for off-target movement of herbicides via drift. Agricultural areas, such as the Mississippi River Valley and the southeastern United States, appears to have less potential, possibly due to lower average wind speeds. Ecological risk assessments developed for pesticide registration would be improved by using response data from species common to high-risk areas instead of extrapolating test data from species unrelated to those areas with the highest potential for exposure. [source]

    Prehistoric gold markers and environmental change: A two-age system for standing stones in western Ireland

    K.R. Moore
    The Murrisk Peninsula in southwest County Mayo is a major target for gold exploration in Ireland. The most productive areas include the Cregganbaun Shear Zone and Cregganbaun Quartzite Belt on Croagh Patrick, both geologically related to Iapetus closure, and gold is concentrated in alluvial deposits of river systems draining these areas. A comparison of gold occurrences with the location of prehistoric stone monuments reveals that simple standing-stone monuments, though isolated from other monument types, correlate with alluvial gold. South of the Murrisk Peninsula in Connemara, isolated standing stones are associated with a wide range of mineral resources and with other monuments. Dating of the stones relative to blanket-bog expansion and coastal landform changes indicates that standing stones were raised as markers of gold placer deposits before a climatic deterioration at 1200 B.C. Late Bronze Age monuments with a ceremonial purpose are more complex and include stone alignments. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes in sulfides from the pre-3770 Ma Isua Supracrustal Belt, West Greenland

    GEOBIOLOGY, Issue 4 2006
    ABSTRACT Redox chemistry of the coupled atmosphere,hydrosphere system has coevolved with the biosphere, from global anoxia in the Archean to an oxygenated Proterozoic surface environment. However, to trace these changes to the very beginning of the rock record presents special challenges. All known Eoarchean (c. 3850,3600 Ma) volcanosedimentary successions (i.e. supracrustal rocks) are restricted to high-grade gneissic terranes that seldom preserve original sedimentary structures and lack primary organic biomarkers. Although complicated by metamorphic overprinting, sulfur isotopes from Archean supracrustal rocks have the potential to preserve signatures of both atmospheric chemistry and metabolic fractionation from the original sediments. We present a synthesis of multiple sulfur isotope measurements (32S, 33S and 34S) performed on sulfides from amphibolite facies banded iron-formations (BIFs) and ferruginous garnet-biotite (metapelitic) schists from the pre-3770 Ma Isua Supracrustal Belt (ISB) in West Greenland. Because these data come from some of the oldest rocks of interpretable marine sedimentary origin, they provide the opportunity to (i) explore for possible biosignatures of sulfur metabolisms in early life; (ii) assess changes in atmospheric redox chemistry from ,3.8 Ga; and (iii) lay the groundwork to elucidate sulfur biogeochemical cycles on the early Earth. We find that sulfur isotope results from Isua do not unambiguously indicate microbially induced sulfur isotopic fractionation at that time. A significantly expanded data set of ,33S analyses for Isua dictates that the atmosphere was devoid of free oxygen at time of deposition and also shows that the effects of post-depositional metamorphic remobilization and/or dilution can be traced in mass-independently fractionated sulfur isotopes. [source]

    Polyphase evolution and reaction sequence of compositional domains in metabasalt: a model based on local chemical equilibrium and metamorphic differentiation

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 3-4 2000
    T. M. Toth
    Abstract Eclogitic garnet amphibolite samples from the Southern Steep Belt of the Central Alps show evidence of several stages of metamorphic evolution and exhumation. A method for unravelling this evolution is presented and applied to these samples. It involves a combination of detailed petrographic analysis and microchemical characterization with quantitative models of the thermodynamically stable phase relations for specific compositional domains of each sample. Preserved mineral relics and textural evidence are compared to model predictions to identify the important irreversible reactions. The interpretation of the exhumation history is thus based on the consistency of a wide spectrum of observations with predicted phase diagrams, leading to robust reconstruction of a pressure,temperature (P,T) path even where the mineralogical relics in samples are insufficient, due to retrogression, to warrant application of multi-equilibrium thermobarometric techniques. The formation of compositionally different domains in the metabasalt samples studied is attributed to prograde growth of porphyroblasts (e.g. garnet, plagioclase, zoisite) in the matrix, implying substantial metamorphic differentiation at the scale of a few millimetres. Chemical interaction among different domains during the subsequent P,T evolution is shown to have been very limited. This led to different reaction sequences during exhumation, in which relics preserved in different domains reflect a range of continually changing P,T conditions. For samples from a single outcrop, we deduce a Barrovian prograde path to eclogite facies (23,,3,kbar, 750,,50C), followed by (rapid) decompression to 8,,1,kbar and 675,,25C, and a final heating phase at similar pressures reaching 750,,40C. This evolution is attributed to the Alpine cycle involving subduction,collision and slab breakoff,extrusion of tectonic fragments that make up the Southern Steep Belt of the Central Alps. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Tectonic deformation around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis: constraints from the Cretaceous palaeomagnetic data of the Shan-Thai Block

    Kenji Tanaka
    SUMMARY Lower to Middle Cretaceous red sandstones were sampled at four localities in the Lanpin-Simao fold belt of the Shan-Thai Block to describe its regional deformational features. Most of the samples revealed a characteristic remanent magnetization with unblocking temperatures around 680 C. Primary natures of magnetization are ascertained through positive fold test. A tilt-corrected formation-mean direction for the Jingdong (24.5N, 100.8E) locality, which is located at a distance of 25 km from the Ailaoshan,Red River Fault, revealed northerly declination with steep inclination (Dec./Inc. = 8.3/48.8, ,95= 7.7, N= 13). However, mean directions obtained from the Zhengyuan (24.0N, 101.1E), West Zhengyuan (24.0N, 101.1E) and South Mengla (21.4N, 101.6E) localities indicate an easterly deflection in declination; such as Dec./Inc. = 61.8/46.1, ,95= 8.1 (N= 7), Dec./Inc. = 324.2/,49.4, ,95= 6.4 (N= 4) and Dec./Inc. = 51.2/46.4, ,95= 5.6 (N= 13), respectively. The palaeomagnetic directions obtained from these four localities are incorporated into a palaeomagnetic database for the Shan-Thai Block. When combined with geological, geochronological and GPS data, the processes of deformation in the Shan-Thai Block is described as follows: Subsequent to its rigid block clockwise rotation of about 20 in the early stage of India,Asia collision, the Shan-Thai Block experienced a coherent but southward displacement along the Red River Fault prior to 32 Ma. This block was then subjected to a north,south compressive stresses during the 32,27 Ma period, which played a key role in shaping the structure of Chongshan-Lancang-Chiang Mai Belt. Following this some local clockwise rotational motion has occurred during the Pliocene-Quaternary time in central part of the Shan-Thai Block as a result of internal block movements along the reactivated network of faults. [source]

    Palaeomagnetic and rock-magnetic studies of Cretaceous rocks in the Gongju Basin, Korea: implication of clockwise rotation

    Seong-Jae Doh
    Summary Palaeomagnetic and rock-magnetic studies have been carried out for Cretaceous non-marine sedimentary rocks (Gongju Group) and volcanic rocks in the Gongju Basin, located along the northern boundary of the Ogcheon Belt, Korea. K,Ar age dating for the volcanic rocks was also performed. It is found that the Gongju Group was remagnetised during the tilting of the strata with the characteristic remanent magnetisation (ChRM) direction of at 30 per cent untilting of the strata with a maximum value of precision parameter (k), while the volcanic rocks are revealed to acquire primary remanence with the direction of after the tilt-correction. The K,Ar ages of the volcanic rocks range from 81.8 2.4 to 73.5 2.2 Ma, corresponding to the Campanian stage of the Late Cretaceous. Electron microscope observations of samples from the Gongju Group show authigenic iron-oxide minerals of various sizes distributed along the cleavage of chlorite and in the pore spaces, indicating that the strata acquired the chemical remanent magnetisation due to the formation of secondary magnetic minerals under the influence of fluids. The palaeomagnetic pole positions are at Lat./Long. = 69.6N/224.3E (dp= 3.5, dm= 5.2) calculated for the 30 per cent tilt-corrected direction of the Gongju Group and at for the volcanic rocks. Based on the results of this study, it is interpreted that the volcanic rocks acquired the primary magnetisation almost at the same time as the remagnetisation of the Gongju Group in the Late Cretaceous. Comparisons of Cretaceous palaeomagnetic poles from the Korean Peninsula with those from Eurasia implies that the Korean Peninsula underwent clockwise rotation of 21.2 5.3 for the middle Early Cretaceous, 12.6 5.4 for the late Early Cretaceous, and 7.1 9.8 for the Late Cretaceous with respect to Eurasia, due to the sinistral motion of the Tan-Lu Fault. [source]

    Gravity evidence for a larger Limpopo Belt in southern Africa and geodynamic implications

    R. T. Ranganai
    Summary The Limpopo Belt of southern Africa is a Neoarchean orogenic belt located between two older Archean provinces, the Zimbabwe craton to the north and the Kaapvaal craton to the south. Previous studies considered the Limpopo Belt to be a linearly trending east-northeast belt with a width of ,250 km and ,600 km long. We provide evidence from gravity data constrained by seismic and geochronologic data suggesting that the Limpopo Belt is much larger than previously assumed and includes the Shashe Belt in Botswana, thus defining a southward convex orogenic arc sandwiched between the two cratons. The 2 Ga Magondi orogenic belt truncates the Limpopo,Shahse Belt to the west. The northern marginal, central and southern marginal tectonic zones define a single gravity anomaly on upward continued maps, indicating that they had the same exhumation history. This interpretation requires a tectonic model involving convergence between the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons during a Neoarchean orogeny that preserved the thick cratonic keel that has been imaged in tomographic models. [source]

    Will photosynthesis of maize (Zea mays) in the US Corn Belt increase in future [CO2] rich atmospheres?

    An analysis of diurnal courses of CO2 uptake under free-air concentration enrichment (FACE)
    Abstract The C4 grass Zea mays (maize or corn) is the third most important food crop globally in terms of production and demand is predicted to increase 45% from 1997 to 2020. However, the effects of rising [CO2] upon C4 plants, and Z. mays specifically, are not sufficiently understood to allow accurate predictions of future crop production. A rainfed, field experiment utilizing free-air concentration enrichment (FACE) technology in the primary area of global corn production (US Corn Belt) was undertaken to determine the effects of elevated [CO2] on corn. FACE technology allows experimental treatments to be imposed upon a complete soil,plant,atmosphere continuum with none of the effects of experimental enclosures on plant microclimate. Crop performance was compared at ambient [CO2] (354 , mol mol,1) and the elevated [CO2] (549 ,mol mol,1) predicted for 2050. Previous laboratory studies suggest that under favorable growing conditions C4 photosynthesis is not typically enhanced by elevated [CO2]. However, stomatal conductance and transpiration are decreased, which can indirectly increase photosynthesis in dry climates. Given the deep soils and relatively high rainfall of the US Corn Belt, it was predicted that photosynthesis would not be enhanced by elevated [CO2]. The diurnal course of gas exchange of upper canopy leaves was measured in situ across the growing season of 2002. Contrary to the prediction, growth at elevated [CO2] significantly increased leaf photosynthetic CO2 uptake rate (A) by up to 41%, and 10% on average. Greater A was associated with greater intercellular [CO2], lower stomatal conductance and lower transpiration. Summer rainfall during 2002 was very close to the 50-year average for this site, indicating that the year was not atypical or a drought year. The results call for a reassessment of the established view that C4 photosynthesis is insensitive to elevated [CO2] under favorable growing conditions and that the production potential of corn in the US Corn Belt will not be affected by the global rise in [CO2]. [source]

    Substantial regional differences in human herpesvirus 8 seroprevalence in sub-Saharan Africa: Insights on the origin of the "Kaposi's sarcoma belt",,

    Sheila C. Dollard
    Abstract Equatorial Africa has among the highest incidences of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in the world, thus earning the name "KS Belt." This was the case even before the HIV epidemic. To date, there is no clear evidence that HHV-8 seroprevalence is higher in this region but interpretation of the available literature is tempered by differences in serologic assays used across studies. We examined representatively sampled ambulatory adults in Uganda, which is in the "KS Belt," and in Zimbabwe and South Africa which are outside the Belt, for HHV-8 antibodies. All serologic assays were uniformly performed in the same reference laboratory by the same personnel. In the base-case serologic algorithm, seropositivity was defined by reactivity in an immunofluorescence assay or in 2 enzyme immunoassays. A total of 2,375 participants were examined. In Uganda, HHV-8 seroprevalence was high early in adulthood (35.5% by age 21) without significant change thereafter. In contrast, HHV-8 seroprevalence early in adulthood was lower in Zimbabwe and South Africa (13.7 and 10.8%, respectively) but increased with age. After age adjustment, Ugandans had 3.24-fold greater odds of being HHV-8 infected than South Africans (p < 0.001) and 2.22-fold greater odds than Zimbabweans (p < 0.001). Inferences were unchanged using all other serologic algorithms evaluated. In conclusion, HHV-8 infection is substantially more common in Uganda than in Zimbabwe and South Africa. These findings help to explain the high KS incidence in the "KS Belt" and underscore the importance of a uniform approach to HHV-8 antibody testing. [source]

    Stratigraphy of the mid- to upper-Cretaceous System in the Aridagawa area, Wakayama, Southwest Japan

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 3 2010
    Akihiro Misaki
    Abstract The litho- and biostratigraphy of the mid- to upper-Cretaceous System around the Yagumaike Pond in the Aridagawa area, Wakayama, Southwest Japan, were investigated. Many Middle to Late Albian megafossils were found in the strata of a block bounded by faults. It was also revealed that the Upper Cretaceous System of other blocks ranges from the Middle Turonian to Santonian. The Albian megafossil assemblage contains few benthic organisms, in contrast with the abundance of nektons found (e.g. cephalopods). Sedimentological observations of the mudstone profiles also indicate that scarcely or weakly bioturbated, well-laminated mudstone is dominant among the Albian deposits. These results suggest deposition of the Albian mudstone under a dysaerobic to anoxic environment. It is comparable to the extended oceanic anoxia (OAEs) in mid-Cretaceous time. Albian deposits with similar characteristics are also known to exist in Shikoku, Southwest Japan. A wide sedimentary basin that was directly affected by global environmental events, such as OAEs, seemed to be formed on the Chichibu Belt in the Albian. The Upper Cretaceous strata in the study area are extremely thin, similar to the coeval deposits on the Chichibu Belt in Shikoku. It is suggested that the sedimentation rate in the sedimentary basin on the Chichibu Belt was extremely low during early Late Cretaceous time. [source]

    Large-scale folding in the Asemi-gawa region of the Sanbagawa Belt, southwest Japan

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 2 2010
    Hiroshi Mori
    Abstract The Sanbagawa Belt generally shows higher metamorphic grade at higher structural levels. This inversion can be interpreted as reflecting an original inverted thermal structure typical of subduction zone environments. However, repetitions in the distribution of the metamorphic zones seen in central Shikoku, Japan, clearly show the original thermal structure has been affected by deformation after the peak of metamorphism. This repetition has been attributed to both the action of tectonic discontinuities and regional folding. It is important to distinguish between these two interpretations to determine the extent to which the original subduction zone sequence is preserved. Analyses of lithological and structural data reveal the presence of a large-scale post-metamorphic fold in the central part of the highest grade region. This folding has an axis that coincides with the thermal axis implied by the distribution of the metamorphic zonation, suggesting the repetition of metamorphic zones in this area can be accounted for by folding without the need for major discontinuities. [source]

    Role of southeastern Sanandaj,Sirjan Zone in the tectonic evolution of Zagros Orogenic Belt, Iran

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 4 2009
    Ramin Arfania
    Abstract Geological studies indicate that the southeastern Sanandaj,Sirjan Zone, located in the southeastern Zagros Orogenic Belt, is subdivided transversally into the Esfahan,Sirjan Block with typical Central Iranian stratigraphic features and the Shahrekord,Dehsard Terrane consisting of Paleozoic and Lower Mesozoic metamorphic rocks. The Main Deep Fault (Abadeh Fault) is a major lithospheric fault separating the two parts. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the role of the southeastern Sanandaj,Sirjan Zone in the tectonic evolution of the southeastern Zagros Orogenic Belt on the basis of geological evidence. The new model implies that Neo-Tethys 1 came into being when the Central Iran Microcontinent split from the northeastern margin of Gondwana during the Late Carboniferous to Early Permian. During the Late Triassic a new spreading ridge, Neo-Tethys 2, was created to separate the Shahrekord,Dehsard Terrane from Afro,Arabian Plate. The Zagros sedimentary basin was formed on a continental passive margin, southwest of Neo-Tethys 2. The two ophiolitic belts of Naien,Shahrebabak,Baft and Neyriz were developed to the northeast of Neo-Tethys 1 and southwest of Neo-Tethys 2 respectively, related to the sinking of the lithosphere of the Neo-Tethys 1 in the Late Cretaceous. It can be concluded that deposition of the Paleocene conglomerate on the Central Iran Microcontinent and Pliocene conglomerate in the Zagros Sedimentary Basin is directly linked to the uplift generated by collision. [source]

    Structure of Sumatra and its implications for the tectonic assembly of Southeast Asia and the destruction of Paleotethys

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 1 2009
    Anthony J. Barber
    Abstract It is now generally accepted that Southeast Asia is composed of continental blocks which separated from Gondwana with the formation of oceanic crust during the Paleozoic, and were accreted to Asia in the Late Paleozoic or Early Mesozoic, with the subduction of the intervening oceanic crust. From east to west the Malay peninsula and Sumatra are composed of three continental blocks: East Malaya with a Cathaysian Permian flora and fauna; Sibumasu, including the western part of the Malay peninsula and East Sumatra, with Late Carboniferous,Early Permian ,pebbly mudstones' interpreted as glaciogenic diamictites; and West Sumatra, again with Cathaysian fauna and flora. A further unit, the Woyla nappe, is interpreted as an intraoceanic arc thrust over the West Sumatra block in the mid Cretaceous. There are varied opinions concerning the age of collision of Sibumasu with East Malaya and the destruction of Paleotethys. In Thailand, radiolarites have been used as evidence that Paleotethys survived until after the Middle Triassic. In the Malay peninsula, structural evidence and the ages of granitic intrusions are used to support a Middle Permian to Early Triassic age for the destruction of Paleotethys. It is suggested that the West Sumatra block was derived from Cathaysia and emplaced against the western margin of Sibumasu by dextral transcurrent faulting along a zone of high deformation, the Medial Sumatra Tectonic Zone. These structural units can be traced northwards in Southeast Asia. The East Malaya block is considered to be part of the Indochina block, Sibumasu can be traced through Thailand into southern China, the Medial Sumatra Tectonic Zone is correlated with the Mogok Belt of Myanmar, the West Burma block is the extension of the West Sumatra block, from which it was separated by the formation of the Andaman Sea in the Miocene, and the Woyla nappe is correlated with the Mawgyi nappe of Myanmar. [source]

    Petrogenesis and tectonic setting of bimodal volcanism in the Sakoli Mobile Belt, Central Indian shield

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 1 2009
    Talat Ahmad
    Abstract The Sakoli Mobile Belt comprises bimodal volcanic rocks that include metabasalt, rhyolite, tuffs, and epiclastic rocks with metapelites, quartzite, arkose, conglomerate, and banded iron formation (BIF). Mafic volcanic rocks are tholeiitic to quartz-tholeiitic with normative quartz and hypersthene. SiO2 shows a large compositional gap between the basic and acidic volcanics, depicting their bimodal nature. Both the volcanics have distinct geochemical trends but display some similarity in terms of enriched light rare earth element,large ion lithophile element characteristics with positive anomalies for U, Pb, and Th and distinct negative anomalies for Nb, P, and Ti. These characteristics are typical of continental rift volcanism. Both the volcanic rocks show strong negative Sr and Eu anomalies indicating fractionation of plagioclases and K-feldspars, respectively. The high Fe/Mg ratios for the basic rocks indicate their evolved nature. Whole rock Sm,Nd isochrons for the acidic volcanic rocks indicate an age of crystallization for these volcanic rocks at about 1675 180 Ma (initial 143Nd/144Nd = 0.51017 0.00017, mean square weighted deviate [MSWD] = 1.6). The ,Ndt (t = 2000 Ma) varies between ,0.19 and +2.22 for the basic volcanic rock and between ,2.85 and ,4.29 for the acidic volcanic rocks. Depleted mantle model ages vary from 2000 to 2275 Ma for the basic and from 2426 to 2777 Ma for the acidic volcanic rocks, respectively. These model ages indicate that protoliths for the acidic volcanic rocks probably had a much longer crustal residence time. Predominantly basaltic magma erupted during the deposition of the Dhabetekri Formation and part of it pooled at crustal or shallower subcrustal levels that probably triggered partial melting to generate the acidic magma. The influence of basic magma on the genesis of acidic magma is indicated by the higher Ni and Cr abundance at the observed silica levels of the acidic magma. A subsequent pulse of basic magma, which became crustally contaminated, erupted as minor component along with the dominantly acidic volcanics during the deposition of the Bhiwapur Formation. [source]

    Olivine-spinifex basalt from the Tamba Belt, southwest Japan: Evidence for Fe- and high field strength element-rich ultramafic volcanism in Permian Ocean

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 3 2007
    Yuji Ichiyama
    Abstract Permian basalt showing typical spinifex texture with >10 cm-long olivine pseudomorphs was discovered from the Jurassic Tamba accretionary complex in southwest Japan. The spinifex basalt occurs as a river boulder accompanied by many ferropicritic boulders in a Permian chert-greenstone unit. Groundmass of this rock is holocrystalline, suggesting a thick lava or sill for its provenance. Minor kaersutite in the groundmass indicates a hydrous magma. The spinifex basalt, in common with the associated ferropicritic rocks, is characterized by high high field strength element (HFSE) contents (e.g. Nb = 62 ppm and Zr = 254 ppm) and high-HFSE ratios (Al2O3/TiO2 = 3.9, Nb/Zr = 0.24 and Zr/Y = 6.4) unlike typical komatiites. The spinifex basalt and ferropicrite might represent the upper fractionated melt and the lower olivine-rich cumulate, respectively, of a single ultramafic sill (or lava) as reported from the early Proterozoic Pechenga Series in Kola Peninsula. Their parental magma might have been produced by hydrous melting of a mantle plume that was dosed with Fe- and HFSE-rich garnet pyroxenite. The spinifex basalt is an evidence for the Pechenga-type ferropicritic volcanism taken place in a Permian oceanic plateau, which accreted to the Asian continental margin as greenstone slices in Jurassic time. [source]

    Transpressional tectonics of the Mineoka Ophiolite Belt in a trench,trench,trench-type triple junction, Boso Peninsula, Japan

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 4 2005
    Ryota Mori
    Abstract Structures developed in metamorphic and plutonic blocks that occur as knockers in the Mineoka Ophiolite Belt in the Boso Peninsula, central Japan, were analyzed. The aim was to understand the incorporation processes of blocks of metamorphic and plutonic rocks with an arc signature into the serpentinite mlange of the Mineoka Ophiolite Belt in relation to changes in metamorphic conditions during emplacement. Several stages of deformation during retrogressive metamorphism were identified: the first faulting stage had two substage shearing events (mylonitization) under ductile conditions inside the crystalline blocks in relatively deeper levels; and the second stage had brittle faulting and brecciation along the boundaries between the host serpentinite bodies in relatively shallower levels (zeolite facies). The first deformation occurred during uplift before emplacement. The blocks were intensively sheared by the first deformation event, and developed numerous shear planes with spacing of a few centimeters. The displacement and width of each shear plane were a few centimeters and a few millimeters, respectively, at most. In contrast, the fault zone of the second shearing stage reached a few meters in width and developed during emplacement of the Mineoka Ophiolite. Both stages occurred under a right-lateral transpressional regime, in which thrust-faulting was associated with strike-slip faulting. Such displacement on an outcrop scale is consistent with the present tectonics of the Mineoka Belt. This implies that the same tectonic stress has been operating in the Boso trench,trench,trench-type triple junction area in the northwest corner of the Pacific since the emplacement of the Mineoka Ophiolite. The Mineoka Ophiolite Belt must have worked as a forearc sliver fault during the formation of a Neogene accretionary prism further south. [source]

    Prograde eclogites from the Tonaru epidote amphibolite mass in the Sambagawa Metamorphic Belt, central Shikoku, southwest Japan

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 3 2005
    Yasuo Miyagi
    Abstract Prograde eclogites occur in the Tonaru epidote amphibolite mass in the Sambagawa Metamorphic Belt of central Shikoku. The Tonaru mass is considered to be a metamorphosed layered gabbro, and occurs as a large tectonic block (approximately 6.5 km 1 km) in a high-grade portion of the Sambagawa schists. The Tonaru mass experienced high- P/low- T prograde metamorphism from the epidote-blueschist facies to the eclogite facies prior to its emplacement into the Sambagawa schists. The estimated P,T conditions are T = 300,450C and P = 0.7,1.1 GPa for the epidote-blueschist facies, and the peak P,T conditions for the eclogite facies are T = 700,730C and P , 1.5 GPa. Following the eclogite facies metamorphism, the Tonaru mass was retrograded to the epidote amphibolite facies. It subsequently underwent additional prograde Sambagawa metamorphism, together with the surrounding Sambagawa schists, until the conditions of the oligoclase,biotite zone were reached. The high- P/low- T prograde metamorphism of the eclogite facies in the Tonaru mass and other tectonic blocks show similar steep dP/dT geothermal gradients despite their diverse peak P,T conditions, suggesting that these tectonic blocks reached different depths in the subduction zone. The individual rocks in each metamorphic zone of the Sambagawa schists also recorded steep dP/dT geothermal gradients during the early stages of the Sambagawa prograde metamorphism, and these gradients are similar to those of the eclogite-bearing tectonic blocks. Therefore, the eclogite-bearing tectonic blocks reached greater depths in the subduction zone than the Sambagawa schists. All the tectonic blocks were ultimately emplaced into the hanging wall side of the later-subducted Sambagawa high-grade schists during their exhumation. [source]

    Brief history of petrotectonic research on the Sanbagawa Belt, Japan

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 4 2004
    Shohei Banno
    Abstract Petrological study of the Sanbagawa schists was initiated by B. Koto (1856,1935) and extensive petrographic works were performed by J. Suzuki (1896,1970) and Y. Horikosi (1905,1992), who studied in the Besshi area of central Shikoku. Petrological work based on the mineral facies concept of P. Eskola (1883,1964) was initiated in Japan in the 1950s by A. Miyashiro on the low pressure/temperature (P/T) Abukuma complex, and then by Y. Seki and S. Banno on the high P/T Sanbagawa Metamorphic Belt. A unique inverted thermal structure was established by researchers in the 1970s. Therefore, mainly geological and petrographic features of the Sanbagawa Belt were established by the 1990s, and contemporary researchers are now testing the classical images using the new and quantitative viewpoints of geochronological, structural, tectonic, and thermal modeling. [source]

    Zircon U,Pb ages and tectonic implications of ,Early Paleozoic' granitoids at Yanbian, Jilin Province, northeast China

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 4 2004
    Yanbin Zhang
    Abstract The Yanbian area is located in the eastern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) of China and is characterized by widespread Phanerozoic granitic intrusions. It was previously thought that the Yanbian granitoids were mainly emplaced in the Early Paleozoic (so-called ,Caledonian' granitoids), extending east,west along the northern margin of the North China craton. However, few of them have been precisely dated; therefore, five typical ,Caledonian' granitic intrusions (the Huangniling, Dakai, Mengshan, Gaoling and Bailiping batholiths) were selected for U,Pb zircon isotopic study. New-age data show that emplacement of these granitoids extended from the Late Paleozoic to Late Mesozoic (285,116 Ma). This indicates that no ,Caledonian' granitic belt exists along the northern margin of the North China craton. The granitoids can be subdivided into four episodes based on our new data: Early Permian (285 9 Ma), Early Triassic (249,245 Ma), Jurassic (192,168 Ma) and Cretaceous (119,116 Ma). The 285 9 Ma tonalite was most likely related to subduction of the Paleo-Asian Oceanic Plate beneath the North China craton, followed by Triassic (249,245 Ma) syn-collisional monzogranites, representing the collision of the CAOB orogenic collage with the North China craton and final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. The Jurassic granitoids resulted from subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate and subsequent collision of the Jiamusi,Khanka Massif with the existing continent, assembled in the Triassic. The Early Cretaceous granitoids formed in an extensional setting along the eastern Asian continental margin. [source]

    Expulsion of a geopressured hydrothermal system associated with destructive earthquakes and buried active faults in the Shinanogawa Seismic Belt, Japan

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 2 2004
    Huilong Xu
    Abstract The Shinanogawa Seismic Belt in the Northern Fossa Magna, Honshu Island, Japan, extends along the Shinano River, bounding the Eurasian Plate and the Okhotsk Plate. The geopressured hydrothermal system occurs widely in the Northern Fossa Magna region. Many destructive earthquakes are related to the activity of this system in the Shinanogawa Seismic Belt. Expulsion of a geopressured hydrothermal system and rising from depth along an active fault triggers the occurrence of an earthquake and opens the fault as a pathway. Anomalous areas in temperature, electrical conductivity and Cl, concentration of groundwater trend north,east in a linear distribution, and convincingly demonstrate the presence of a buried active fault at the epicentral area of the destructive earthquake in the Shinanogawa Seismic Belt. The distribution of the major axis of the anomalous area in groundwater temperature shows a strong positive relationship with earthquake magnitude, which means that the distribution of this area may indicate the scale of earthquake fault. The linearly anomalous areas in groundwater temperature, resulting from the percolation of a geopressured hydrothermal system, that have no record of previous destructive earthquake are predicted to be areas where destructive earthquakes could occur in the future. Four potential earthquake areas are proposed and discussed in this paper, based on re-examination of active faults and seismicity in the Shinanogawa Seismic Belt. [source]

    Tectonic and stratigraphic significance of the Middle Ordovician carbonate breccias in the Ogcheon Belt, South Korea

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 3 2002
    In-Chang Ryu
    Abstract Carbonate breccias occur sporadically in the Lower,Middle Ordovician Maggol Limestone exposed in the Taebacksan Basin in the northeastern part of the northeast,southwest-trending Ogcheon Belt, South Korea. These carbonate breccias have been previously interpreted as intraformational or fault-related breccias. Thus, little attention has been focused on tectonic and stratigraphic significance of these carbonate breccias. The present study, however, indicates that the majority of these carbonate breccias are solution,collapse breccias, which are causally linked to paleokarstification. Carbonate facies analysis in conjunction with conodont biostratigraphy suggests that an overall regression toward the top of the Maggol Limestone probably culminated in subaerial exposure of platform carbonates during the early Middle Ordovician (earliest Darriwilian). Extensive subaerial exposure of platform carbonates resulted in paleokarst-related solution,collapse breccias in the upper Maggol Limestone. This subaerial exposure event is manifested as a major paleokarst unconformity at the Sauk,Tippecanoe sequence boundary elsewhere beneath the Middle Ordovician succession and its equivalents, most notably North America and North China. Due to its global extent, this paleokarst unconformity has been viewed as a product of second- or third-order eustatic sealevel drop during the early Middle Ordovician. Although a paleokarst breccia zone is recognized beneath the Middle Ordovician succession in South Korea, the Sauk,Tippecanoe sequence boundary appears to be a conformable transgressive surface on the top of the paleokarst breccia zone in the upper Maggol Limestone. The paleokarst breccia zone beneath the conformable transgressive surface is represented by a thinning-upward stack of exposure-capped tidal flat-dominated cycles that are closely associated with multiple occurrences of paleokarst-related solution,collapse breccias. This paleokarst breccia zone was a likely consequence of repeated fourth- and fifth-order sealevel fluctuations. It suggests that second- and third-order eustatic sealevel drop may have been significantly tempered by substantial tectonic subsidence near the end of the Maggol deposition. The tectonic subsidence in the basin is also evidenced by the occurrence of coeval off-platform lowstand siliciclastic quartzite lenses as well as debris flow carbonate breccias (i.e. the Yemi Breccia). With the continued tectonic subsidence, subsequent rise in the eustatic cycle caused drowning and deep flooding of carbonate platform, forming a transgressive surface on the top of the paleokarst breccia zone. This tectonic implication contrasts notably with the slowly subsiding carbonate platform model for the basin as has been previously interpreted. Thus, it is proposed that the Taebacksan Basin in the northeastern part of the Ogcheon Belt evolved from a slowly subsiding carbonate platform to a rapidly subsiding intracontinental rift basin during the early Middle Ordovician. The proposed tectonic model in the basin gives much better insight to unravel the stratigraphic response to tectonic evolution of the Ogcheon Belt, which remains an enigmatic feature in formulating a tectonic framework of the Korean peninsula. The present study also provides a good example that the falling part of the eustatic sealevel cycle may not produce a significant event in a rapidly subsiding basin where the rate of eustatic fall always remained lower than the rate of subsidence. [source]

    Structural position of the Seba eclogite unit in the Sambagawa Belt: Supporting evidence for an eclogite nappe

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 2 2002
    Article first published online: 4 JUL 200, Mutsuki Aoya
    Abstract Eclogite-bearing units in the Sambagawa Metamorphic Belt have long been considered tectonic blocks that have disparate tectonic and metamorphic histories that are distinct from each other and from the major non-eclogitic Sambagawa schists. However, recent studies have shown that eclogite facies metamorphism of the Seba eclogite unit is related to the subduction event that caused the metamorphism of the non-eclogitic Sambagawa schist. New structural data further show that the Seba eclogite unit, which appears to be isolated from the other eclogite units, is in fact in structural continuity with them, occupying the highest structural levels in the Sambagawa Belt. This suggests that eclogitic metamorphism of the other eclogite units is also related to the Sambagawa subduction event. It is, therefore, possible that all eclogite units in the Sambagawa Belt constitute a single coherent unit, the eclogite nappe, members of which underwent the same eclogitic metamorphism related to the Sambagawa subduction event. [source]

    Three-dimensional finite strain analysis in the high-grade part of the Sanbagawa Belt using deformed meta-conglomerate

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 2 2002
    Yoshinori Moriyama
    Abstract Regional ductile deformation of the Sanbagawa belt is generally thought to be characterized by constrictional strain, based on strain analysis using deformed radiolarians in the low-grade regions. Similar strain analysis could not be carried out in the medium- to high-grade zones, because it is very difficult to identify individual radiolarians after strong recrystallization. However, discovery of the first known meta-conglomerate in the high-grade region of the Sanbagawa Belt allows quantitative 3-D strain to be estimated in this region. Using a development of the Rf-, method, an evaluation of appropriate errors for this estimate can be determined. The principal strain ratios and estimated errors are X/Y = 5.4,6.6 and Y/Z = 3.8,3.9 implying deformation in the flattening field and refuting the idea of uniform constrictional strain. Semi-quantitative markers of the shape of the strain ellipse throughout the high-grade regions suggest that the deformation of the Sanbagawa Belt is dominantly in the flattening field. The difference with the earlier results may be due to late-stage overprinting by upright folding of the main ductile fabric in the low-grade region of western Shikoku. [source]

    Mesozoic to Cenozoic igneous activity and tectonism in the Ryoke Belt, Southwest Japan

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 1 2000
    Y. Hayama
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]