Voluntary Participants (voluntary + participant)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Patterns and correlates of substance use amongst juvenile detainees in New South Wales 1989,99

Abstract In the decade 1989,99 there have been significant changes in the patterns of substance use in the Australian community. Juvenile offenders have been a sentinel population of these emerging trends. The social and personal costs associated with adolescent substance use, especially where it leads to increased criminal offending requires urgent attention. This study was a replication of the 1989 and 1994 surveys of young people in detention in New South Wales, Australia. The 300 voluntary participants from nine detention centres had a similar demographic profile to participants of the previous surveys. They were predominantly male (90%) with a mean age of 16.5 years and an over-representation of Aboriginal and Torres Straits Islander peoples. The patterns of lifetime alcohol and tobacco use were stable over the decade, with particular increases in amphetamine, opioid and cocaine use since 1994. The more concerning pattern of at least weekly substance use revealed significant increases in cannabis, opioid and cocaine use since 1994, but a significant decrease in the frequent use of alcohol. This study also reports on high levels of negative health and psychosocial consequences of substance use, including overdose, among this group. High levels of self-reported depression and suicidal behaviours, family and gender issues are also discussed. Encouragingly, there was a relatively high level of self-recognized treatment need for substance use and mental health problems among the sample. This highlights further the growing need for the development and dissemination of novel interventions that harness this willingness and actively engage, motivate and maintain these young people in accessible, appropriate and effective interventions. [source]

Can solving of wordchains be explained by phonological skills alone?

DYSLEXIA, Issue 1 2010
Arve E. Asbjørnsen
Abstract The present study focussed on the determinants for effective solving of the Wordchains Test (WCT) in a normative sample of Norwegian junior high-school students. Forty voluntary participants from a rural school district in Western Norway completed the WCT along with tests of general intellectual capacity, single word and non-word reading, auditory working memory, and visual scanning. All measures correlated significantly with each other except for general non-verbal abilities were not correlated with visual scanning. A stepwise multiple regression analysis, using the WCT as the dependent variable, yielded a model that included single word reading, letter recognition, and working memory as independent variables. This model accounted for 75% of the variance in WCT performance. This finding suggests that phonological skills only have an indirect influence on WCT performance. Thus, the core deficit in dyslexia, i.e. impaired phonological skills, may be related to the development of word recognition skills, but have no direct effect on the WCT performance in a normative sample. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Driving Vengeance and Willful Violations: Clustering of Problem Driving Attitudes

Dwight A. Hennessy
A total of 93 drivers (46 female, 47 male) from Toronto, Canada, with at least 5 years' driving experience, completed a battery of self-report questionnaires assessing the likelihood of engaging in mild driver aggression, frequency of past driver violence, driving vengeance, and willful violations. All were recruited as voluntary participants through posted signs, personal contact, and referrals. Mild driver aggression increased independently with elevated vengeance and elevated violations. Driver violence was predicted by the three-way interaction of Vengeance × Violations × Gender such that violence increased in male drivers with a vengeful attitude, especially in combination with higher levels of violations. The data indicated that driver aggression and violence were more prevalent among drivers who held clusters of other dangerous driving attitudes and behaviors as part of their typical behavior routine. [source]

The Menopause Experience: A Woman's Perspective

Sharon A. George PhD
Objective: To understand the complexities of the experience of menopause in American women from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. The specific aims of this phenomenologic study were to (a) examine and interpret the reality of the menopausal transition as experienced by American women and (b) identify common elements and themes that occur as a result of the complexities of this experience. Design: Data for this qualitative study were gathered through semistructured interviews with 15 women who experienced natural menopause. Participants: A multiethnic sample of 15 menopausal American women in Massachusetts was selected from a pool of voluntary participants from the Boston area. Data Analysis: The interviews were analyzed to identify themes pertinent to the personal experience of menopause. Those themes, extracted from the similarities and differences described, represent broad aspects of these women's experiences. Results: Three major themes or phases were identified: expectations and realization, sorting things out, and a new life phase. Although some women expressed similar thoughts in particular categories, no two women had the same experience of menopause. Conclusions: The data support the premise that the experience of menopause in American women is unique to each individual and that the meaning or perspective differs among women. The data revealed the complexities of this human experience by explicating personal meanings related to experiences, expectations, attitudes, and beliefs about menopause. [source]