Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Video

  • digital video
  • high-speed video
  • instructional video
  • streaming video

  • Terms modified by Video

  • video analysis
  • video broadcast
  • video broadcasting
  • video camera
  • video clips
  • video data
  • video frame
  • video game
  • video games
  • video image
  • video laryngoscope
  • video laryngoscopy
  • video microscopy
  • video monitoring
  • video observation
  • video presentation
  • video record
  • video recording
  • video sequence
  • video stream
  • video streaming
  • video system
  • video transmission

  • Selected Abstracts


    Douglas P. Nowacek


    Chad C Carroll
    SUMMARY 1Maintaining patient adherence to a drug regimen has proven to be difficult. Missed doses can impact drug efficacy and disease control, leading to increased health-care costs. 2During clinical drug trials, poor adherence could lead to false conclusions regarding drug efficacy. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the feasibility of using personal digital video cameras to monitor adherence to a medication regimen during a clinical investigation. 3Older men and women (60,78 years) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of ibuprofen or paracetamol on skeletal muscle adaptations to chronic resistance exercise training. Patients took three daily doses of either a placebo or the maximal daily over-the-counter dose of ibuprofen (1.2 g/day) or paracetamol (4.0 g/day) for 12 weeks. Prior to beginning the study, subjects were trained to use a personal digital video camera to record their drug consumption. 4Subjects correctly recorded 4956 of 5375 doses, resulting in an average camera compliance rate of 92% (71,100%). 5We describe a method of monitoring adherence to a prescribed drug regimen during a clinical investigation. Camera compliance rates, which directly confirm drug consumption, were higher than what is typically obtained with other methods of monitoring adherence. This camera compliance method provides the investigator with a simple and convenient means to generate direct evidence of drug consumption. [source]

    Articulated Object Reconstruction and Markerless Motion Capture from Depth Video

    Yuri Pekelny
    Abstract We present an algorithm for acquiring the 3D surface geometry and motion of a dynamic piecewise-rigid object using a single depth video camera. The algorithm identifies and tracks the rigid components in each frame, while accumulating the geometric information acquired over time, possibly from different viewpoints. The algorithm also reconstructs the dynamic skeleton of the object, thus can be used for markerless motion capture. The acquired model can then be animated to novel poses. We show the results of the algorithm applied to synthetic and real depth video. [source]

    Reanimating Faces in Images and Video

    V. Blanz
    This paper presents a method for photo-realistic animation that can be applied to any face shown in a single imageor a video. The technique does not require example data of the person's mouth movements, and the image to beanimated is not restricted in pose or illumination. Video reanimation allows for head rotations and speech in theoriginal sequence, but neither of these motions is required. In order to animate novel faces, the system transfers mouth movements and expressions across individuals, basedon a common representation of different faces and facial expressions in a vector space of 3D shapes and textures. This space is computed from 3D scans of neutral faces, and scans of facial expressions. The 3D model's versatility with respect to pose and illumination is conveyed to photo-realistic image and videoprocessing by a framework of analysis and synthesis algorithms: The system automatically estimates 3D shape andall relevant rendering parameters, such as pose, from single images. In video, head pose and mouth movements aretracked automatically. Reanimated with new mouth movements, the 3D face is rendered into the original images. Categories and Subject Descriptors (according to ACM CCS): I.3.7 [Computer Graphics]: Animation [source]

    Emergency Department Orientation Utilizing Web-based Streaming Video

    Swaminatha V. Mahadevan MD
    Abstract To assure a smooth transition to their new work environment, rotating students and housestaff require detailed orientations to the physical layout and operations of the emergency department. Although such orientations are useful for new staff members, they represent a significant time commitment for the faculty members charged with this task. To address this issue, the authors developed a series of short instructional videos that provide a comprehensive and consistent method of emergency department orientation. The videos are viewed through Web-based streaming technology that allows learners to complete the orientation process from any computer with Internet access before their first shift. This report describes the stepwise process used to produce these videos and discusses the potential benefits of converting to an Internet-based orientation system. [source]

    Self-reported changes in clinical behaviour by undergraduate dental students after video-based teaching in paediatric dentistry

    M. Kalwitzki
    Abstract, Four cohorts of undergraduate students (n = 113) were filmed on video tapes whilst performing paediatric treatments. Selected parts of these tapes were shown the day after. Thus, within one term each student was able to view his performance on a videotape as well as those of fellow students. After completion of the clinical course in paediatric dentistry students were asked by means of a questionnaire about behavioural changes in their clinical work regarding different topics. Considerable changes in behaviour were reported for various topics. Most of the students emphasised the viable role of the video for changing their behaviour. This was especially true for aspects of verbal and non-verbal communication where mainly female students benefited. Moreover, video was thought to have been useful for improving capacities to deal with patients in fear or pain and for ergonomics. About two-thirds of the students (64.6%) thought that watching the video had made it easier for them to put theoretical knowledge into action. Video does not seem to play an important role for confirmation and maintenance of behaviour patterns. In conclusion however, it can be stated that video has a high impact on the modification of behaviour patterns of undergraduate students for many aspects of clinical work. The use of video can thus attribute to dental education in an effective way. [source]

    Computer-mediated instructional video: a randomised controlled trial comparing a sequential and a segmented instructional video in surgical hand wash

    M. Schittek Janda
    Background:, Video-based instructions for clinical procedures have been used frequently during the preceding decades. Aim:, To investigate in a randomised controlled trial the learning effectiveness of fragmented videos vs. the complete sequential video and to analyse the attitudes of the user towards video as a learning aid. Materials and methods:, An instructional video on surgical hand wash was produced. The video was available in two different forms in two separate web pages: one as a sequential video and one fragmented into eight short clips. Twenty-eight dental students in the second semester were randomised into an experimental (n = 15) and a control group (n = 13). The experimental group used the fragmented form of the video and the control group watched the complete one. The use of the videos was logged and the students were video taped whilst undertaking a test hand wash. The videos were analysed systematically and blindly by two independent clinicians. The students also performed a written test concerning learning outcome from the videos as well as they answered an attitude questionnaire. Results:, The students in the experimental group watched the video significantly longer than the control group. There were no significant differences between the groups with regard to the ratings and scores when performing the hand wash. The experimental group had significantly better results in the written test compared with those of the control group. There was no significant difference between the groups with regard to attitudes towards the use of video for learning, as measured by the Visual Analogue Scales. Most students in both groups expressed satisfaction with the use of video for learning. Conclusion:, The students demonstrated positive attitudes and acceptable learning outcome from viewing CAL videos as a part of their pre-clinical training. Videos that are part of computer-based learning settings would ideally be presented to the students both as a segmented and as a whole video to give the students the option to choose the form of video which suits the individual student's learning style. [source]

    Proxy caching algorithms and implementation for time-shifted TV services

    Tim Wauters
    The increasing popularity of multimedia streaming applications introduces new challenges in content distribution networks (CDNs). Streaming services such as Video on Demand (VoD) or digital television over the Internet (IPTV) are very bandwidth-intensive and cannot tolerate the high start-up delays and poor loss properties of today's Internet. To solve these problems, caching (the initial segment of) popular streams at proxies could be envisaged. This paper presents a novel caching algorithm and architecture for time-shifted television (tsTV) and its implementation, using the IETF's Real-Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP). The algorithm uses sliding caching windows with sizes depending on content popularity and/or distance metrics. The caches can work in stand-alone mode as well as in co-operative mode. This paper shows that the network load can already be reduced considerably using small diskless caches, especially when using co-operative caching. A prototype implementation is detailed and evaluated through performance measurements. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Effect of Using Photos from Authentic Video as Advance Organizers on Listening Comprehension in an FLES Chinese Class

    Lee Wilberschied
    The first type of advance organizer consisted of written words and sentences in Chinese, which summarized major scenes in the video the students were to watch. The second advance organizer involved the same written words and sentences as the first, with accompanying pictures taken from the video itself. Statistical significance of the listening comprehension scores from the exercises could not be established. However, the exercises seemed to be helpful, particularly for younger and less language-proficient students. Interview results indicated that students perceived the pictures as more helpful than text alone. [source]

    Cognitive Biases and Nonverbal Cue Availability in Detecting Deception

    Judee K. Burgoon
    In potentially deceptive situations, people rely on mental shortcuts to help process information. These heuristic judgments are often biased and result in inaccurate assessments of sender veracity. Four such biases,truth bias, visual bias, demeanor bias, and expectancy violation bias,were examined in a judgment experiment that varied nonverbal cue availability and deception. Observers saw a complete videotaped interview (full access to visual, vocal, and verbal cues), heard the complete interview (vocal and verbal access), or read a transcript (verbal access) of a truthful or deceptive suspect being questioned about a mock theft and then rated the interviewee on information, behavior, and image management and truthfulness. Results supported the presence of all four biases, which were most evident when interviewees were deceptive and observers had access to all visual, vocal, and verbal modalities. Deceivers' messages were judged as increasingly complete, honest, clear, and relevant; their behavior as more involved and dominant; and their overall demeanor as more credible, with the addition of nonverbal cues. Deceivers were actually judged as more credible than truthtellers in the audiovisual modality, whereas best discrimination and detection accuracy occurred in the audio condition. Results have implications for what factors influence judgments of a sender's credibility and accuracy in distinguishing truth from deception, especially under conditions where senders are producing messages interactively. Résumé Les biais cognitifs et la disponibilité des indices non verbaux dans la détection du mensonge Dans les situations potentiellement trompeuses, les gens se fient sur des raccourcis mentaux afin d'aider à traiter l,information. Ces jugements heuristiques sont souvent biaisés et ont pour résultat des évaluations erronées de l'honnêteté de l,émetteur. Quatre de ces biais (le biais de vérité, le biais visuel, le biais comportemental et le biais de violation des attentes) furent examinés dans une expérience de jugements qui variait en disponibilité des indices non verbaux et en mensonge. Les observateurs ont vu un entretien complet enregistré sur vidéo (accès complet aux indices visuels, vocaux et verbaux), entendu l'entretien complet (accès vocal et verbal) ou lu une transcription (accès verbal) d,un suspect honnête ou trompeur, interrogéà propos d'un faux vol. Ils ont ensuite classé l,interviewé selon des critères d'information, de comportement, de gestion de l,image et d'honnêteté. Les résultats appuient la présence de chacun des quatre biais, qui étaient le plus évidents lorsque les interviewés mentaient et que les observateurs avaient accès à toutes les modalités visuelles, vocales et verbales. Avec l,ajout des indices non verbaux, les messages des menteurs étaient jugés comme étant de plus en plus complets, honnêtes, clairs et pertinents; leurs comportements comme étant plus complexes et dominants; leur comportement général comme plus crédible. Les menteurs étaient en fait jugés plus crédibles que les personnes honnêtes dans la modalité la plus complète (indices visuels, vocaux et verbaux), tandis que la plus grande exactitude dans la discrimination et la détection s'est produite chez les gens n,ayant eu accès qu'à l,enregistrement audio. Les résultats ont des implications pour les facteurs qui influencent les jugements de la crédibilité d'un émetteur et l,exactitude dans la distinction entre la vérité et le mensonge, surtout dans des conditions où les émetteurs produisent les messages de façon interactive. Mots clés : mensonge, comportement non verbal, communication interpersonnelle, crédibilité, confiance, modalité, CMO Abstract Kognitive Befangenheit und nonverbale Hinweisverfügbarkeit beim Aufdecken von Täuschung In potentiellen Täuschungssituationen greifen Menschen auf mentale Abkürzungen zurück, die ihnen helfen, Informationen zu verarbeiten. Diese heuristischen Urteile sind oft befangen und resultieren in einer fehlerhaften Beurteilung der Aufrichtigkeit des Senders. Vier solcher Befangenheiten , Wahrheitsbefangenheit, visuelle Befangenheit, Verhaltensbefangenheit und Erwartungsverletzungsbefangenheit , untersuchten wir in einem Beurteilungsexperiment mit variierter nonverbaler Hinweisverfügbarkeit und Täuschung. Beobachter sahen ein aufgezeichnetes Video (visueller, vokaler und verbaler Zugang), hörten ein Interview (vokaler und verbaler Zugang) oder lasen ein Manuskript (verbaler Zugang) eines wahrheitsgemäßen oder täuschenden Verdächtigen, der bezüglich eines Entwendungsdiebstahls verhört wurde. Danach beurteilten die Teilnehmer diesen hinsichtlich der Informationen und Verhaltensweisen, des Imagemanagement und der Wahrhaftigkeit. Die Ergebnisse stützen die Existenz aller vier Befangenheiten, die sich am deutlichsten zeigten, wenn Interviewte täuschten und die Beobachter Zugang zu allen visuellen, vokalen und verbalen Modalitäten hatten. Die Botschaft des Täuschenden wurde als zunehmend vollständig, ehrlich, klar und relevant, sein Verhalten als stärker involviert und dominant, und sein allgemeines Verhalten als glaubwürdiger beurteilt, wenn nonverbale Hinweise ergänzt wurden. Täuschende wurden in der AV-Variante sogar als glaubwürdiger beurteilt als jene, die die Wahrheit sagten. Die beste Unterscheidung und Entdeckungsgenauigkeit herrschte in der Audio-Kondition vor. Die Ergebnisse zeigen auf, welche Faktoren die Beurteilung der Glaubwürdigkeit eines Senders und die Genauigkeit bei der Unterscheidung von Wahrheit und Täuschung beeinflussen; insbesondere unter Bedingungen, in denen der Sender die Botschaft interaktiv produziert. Resumen Los Prejuicios Cognitivos y La Disponibilidad de la Clave No Verbal en la Detección del Engaño En situaciones potencialmente engañosas, la gente confía en los atajos mentales para ayudarse en el procesamiento de información. Estos juicios heurísticos son a menudo tendenciosos y dan como resultado evaluaciones imprecisas acerca de la veracidad del emisor. Cuatro de esos prejuicios ,prejuicio sobre la veracidad, prejuicio visual, prejuicio sobre el comportamiento, y prejuicio sobre la violación de expectación ,fueron examinados en un experimento de juicio variando la disponibilidad de la clave no verbal y el engaño. Los observadores vieron una entrevista completa grabada en video (con acceso pleno a las claves visuales, vocales y verbales), escucharon la entrevista en su totalidad (acceso a lo vocal y verbal), ó leyeron una transcripción (acceso a lo verbal) de un sospechoso veraz ó mentiroso cuestionado sobre un presunto robo, luego clasificaron al entrevistado acerca de la información, el comportamiento, el manejo de la imagen y la veracidad. Los resultados respaldaron la presencia de los 4 prejuicios, que fueron más evidentes cuando los entrevistados mintieron y los observadores tuvieron acceso a las modalidades visuales, vocales, y verbales. Los mensajes de los impostores fueron juzgados como más completes, honestos, claros, y relevantes; sus comportamientos fueron más involucrados y dominantes; y sus comportamientos en general fueron más creíbles, con el aditamento de las claves no verbales. Los impostores fueron juzgados actualmente como más creíbles que aquellos que decían la verdad en la modalidad audio visual, mientras que la mayor discriminación y certeza de detección ocurrió en la condición auditiva. Los resultados tienen implicancias sobre qué factores influyen los juicios sobre la credibilidad del emisor de un mensaje y la certeza para distinguir la verdad de la mentira, especialmente bajo condiciones en la cuales los emisores producen mensajes en forma interactiva. Palabra claves: decepción, comportamiento no verbal, comunicación interpersonal, credibilidad, confianza, modalidad, CMC ZhaiYao Yo yak [source]

    Synopsis of Free Paper Presentation , Podium & Video

    Article first published online: 8 AUG 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Capsule Endoscopy in Examination of Esophagus for Lesions After Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation: A Potential Tool to Select Patients With Increased Risk of Complications

    Capsule Endoscopy in Examination of Esophagus.,Background: Esophageal injury can result from left atrial radiofrequency ablation (RFA) therapy, with added concern because of its possible relationship to the development of atrial-esophageal (A-E) fistulas. Objective: Evaluate utility of esophageal capsule endoscopy to detect esophageal lesions as a complication of RFA therapy in the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: Consecutive patients with AF who underwent left atrial RFA therapy and received capsule endoscopy within 48 hours postablation. Video was reviewed by a single gastroenterologist. The medical records were also reviewed for symptoms immediately postablation and at the 3-month follow-up. Results: A total of 93 consecutive patients were included and 88 completed the study and were analyzed. The prevalence of esophageal lesions was 17% (15/88 patients). Nine percent (8/88) of these patients had lesions anatomically consistent with the location of the ablation catheter. Six patients with positive capsule findings had symptoms of chest pain (3/6, 50%), throat pain (2/6, 33%), nausea (1/6, 17%), and abdominal pain (1/6, 17%). An additional 24 patients were symptomatic postablation, but with normal capsule findings. All patients with identified lesions by capsule endoscopy received oral proton pump inhibitor therapy, and were instructed to contact the Cleveland Clinic in the event of worsening symptoms. No delayed complications were reported at the 3-month follow-up. Conclusion: This study supports the use of capsule endoscopy as a tool for the detection of esophageal injury post-RFA therapy. PillCam ESO is well tolerated and provides satisfactory images of the areas of interest in the esophagus without potential risk related to insufflation with regular esophagogastroduodenoscopy. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 21, pp. 839-844, August 2010) [source]

    Validating the use of temperature data loggers to measure survival of songbird nests

    Karel Weidinger
    ABSTRACT Accurate determination of nest fates and nest predators is possible through continuous video monitoring, but such monitoring is relatively expensive and labor intensive. If documenting of the timing of nest termination events is sufficient, then data loggers (DL) may allow more extensive sampling and may represent a viable alternative. I validated temperature DL records of nest survival time by simultaneous videotaping and compared results derived from DL records with those obtained by regular nest visits by an observer. I estimated the fate of 937 nests of nine species of open cup-nesting songbirds, including 673 nests monitored using DL, 165 monitored using video cameras, 33 validation nests monitored simultaneously using both DL and video cameras, and 132 control nests monitored only by observer visits. Deployment of DL did not negatively influence nest survival rate. DL reliably recorded survival time and allowed classification of nest fates based on the potential fledging age, regardless of the frequency of nest visits by an observer. The true fate of nests that survived beyond the potential fledging age can not be safely determined from time of failure, except for nocturnal events that suggest partial predation. Video revealed frequent partial or complete predation on nests with old nestlings that would have been categorized as successful by other methods. I conclude that temperature DL are efficient, reliable, and relatively inexpensive tools for recording exact nest survival times and classification of nest fates, with implications for nest survival modeling and discriminating between diurnal and nocturnal predation. SINOPSIS Es posible determinar con precisión la sobrevicencia en nidos y la depredación en estos mediante el uso de videos contínuos. Pero dicho monitoreo es relativamente costoso y requiere mucho trabajo. Si el documentar el momento en que se termina el anidamiento es suficiente para obtener la información, previamente mencionada, el uso de bitácoras electrónicas de temperatura (loggers) pudieran permitir el tomar muestras más amplias y por ende, representar una alternativa viable. Validé la toma de temperaturas con bitácoras electrónicas para determinar la sobrevivencia en nidos con la toma simultánea de videos y comparé los resultados obtenidos (con la bitácora) con los datos tomados por un observador que visitó regularmente los nidos. El estudio se hizo con 937 nidos de nueve especies de aves canoras cuyo nido es en forma de copa. De estos 673 se monitorearon utilizando bitácoras electrónicas de temperatura, 165 con cámaras de video, 33 con monitoreo simultáneo de bitacora y video y 132, como control, monitoreados mediante observación directa. El uso de las bitácoras no influyó negativamente en la tasa de sobrevivencia. La bitácora grabó el tiempo de sobrervivencia y permitió la clasificación de los nidos (exitoso o no exitoso) basado en el tiempo potencial de la edad de dejar el nido, sin importar la frecuencia de visita a los nidos por parte de observadores. La verdadera finalidad de los nidos que sobreviven, más alla de la edad potencial de dejar el nido los pichones, no puede ser determinado con exactitud, excepto en eventos nocturnos que surgieren depredación. El uso de videos permitió determinar la depredación parcial o completa en nidos, particularmente de pichones que se tardaron más que el tiempo promedio en dejar el nido y que en estudios se asume que sobrevivieron. Puedo concluir que las bitácoras electrónicas de temperatura son eficientes, confiables, de bajo costo y permiten determinar con precisión la sobrevivencia en nidos y la clasificación de estos entre exitosos y no exitosos, con implicaciones para construir modelos de sobrevivencia y discriminar entre depredores diurnos y nocturnos. [source]

    Snailfishes of the central California coast: video, photographic and morphological observations

    D. L. Stein
    Video and photographic images of snailfishes (Liparidae) collected by the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, augmented by specimens collected simultaneously, were analysed. Nine species in five genera were identified, including Careproctus melanurus, Careproctus ovigerus, Careproctus longifilis, Careproctus gilberti, Careproctus filamentosus, Osteodiscus cascadiae, Nectoliparis pelagicus, Paraliparis dactylosus and Rhinoliparis barbulifer. Voucher specimens were collected of all except C. melanurus, C. gilberti and C. filamentosus. In addition, individuals of the Paraliparis,rosaceus' species group were abundant but could not be identified to species. Many liparids were identified only to family, but an individual of a very distinctive unknown species, presumably undescribed, was videotaped. Relative abundance of C. melanurus was estimated, and several in situ snailfish behaviours are described for the first time. [source]

    Validation of video versus electromyography for chewing evaluation of the elderly wearing a complete denture

    summary, Chewing efficiency may affect nutritional status in the elderly. Many elderly patients are complete denture wearers, and often present cognitive problems. Those two factors make evaluation of mastication difficult with experimental methods. Analysis of video recording may be a simple way to routinely assess chewing parameters. This study aimed at validating several parameters of video evaluation versus electromyography (EMG), which is considered the ,gold standard'. The design was a prospective randomized study, carried out at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France. Twelve complete denture wearers chewed four model foods differing in hardness. Sessions were videotaped and EMG recordings were registered. Mastication time, number of masticatory cycles and cleaning time were recorded simultaneously by video and EMG. Two investigators independently analyzed the videos twice, in random order. Evaluation of criterion validity: a positive video/EMG correlation was found for the parameters ,chewing time' (0·89, Pearson) and ,number of masticatory cycles' (0·94, Spearman), whereas no statistical difference was found between these two EMG and video variables (t -test). Inter and intra-rater reliability gave a positive intraclass coefficient (ICC) for duration of mastication (0·86,0·98), number of masticatory cycles (0·90,0·97) and cleaning time (0·90,0·98). Discriminatory ability was studied using anova (P = 0·01): variation was significant in masticatory duration (F = 10), number of masticatory cycles (F = 10) and cleaning time (F = 4). Video may be a useful assessment tool in prosthetic rehabilitation and can be applied to help choose the type of food (solid, semi-liquid or liquid) to administer to dependent persons, particularly those suffering from dementia. [source]

    A New Website for the Society for Visual Anthropology:

    ABSTRACT In 2008, the Society for Visual Anthropology reconceived and redesigned its website to create a communications infrastructure that is sustainable, flexible, aesthetically engaging, and responsive to the needs of diverse users. The site utilizes blogging and social-media principles to more efficiently distribute information and to promote and archive the activities of the society's annual Film, Video, and Interactive Media Festival and Visual Research Conference. [source]

    Berber Culture on the World Stage: From Village to Video

    Berber Culture on the World Stage: From Village to Video. Jane E. Goodman. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005. 239 pp. [source]

    The Laryngoscope Is Going Video

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 3 2006
    Jonas T. Johnson MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Does Trial presentation medium matter in jury simulation research?

    Evaluating the effectiveness of eyewitness expert testimony
    This study assesses whether mock jurors' perceptions of eyewitness expert testimony vary based on the level of ecological validity,video or transcript trial presentation medium. In Experiment 1, 496 jury-eligible mock jurors were presented a simulated trial. Each served in one condition in a 3 (no expert or eyewitness expert either with or without prosecution rebuttal witness),×,2 (trial presentation medium: Video or transcript) design. Participants were generally less certain of the defendant's guilt after the eyewitness expert testimony, and affective and cognitive ratings of the expert testimony were higher in the transcript than video condition. However, there were no significant interactions of modality with expert conditions, thus reducing concerns that jury simulation research must be conducted with live or video trials to be externally valid. Findings were replicated in Experiment 2 using the testimony of a different eyewitness expert rated to have a more dynamic communication style. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Video as an Effective Method to Deliver Pretest Information for Rapid Human Immunodeficiency Testing

    Roland C. Merchant MD
    Abstract Objectives:, Video-based delivery of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pretest information might assist in streamlining HIV screening and testing efforts in the emergency department (ED). The objectives of this study were to determine if the video "Do you know about rapid HIV testing?" is an acceptable alternative to an in-person information session on rapid HIV pretest information, in regard to comprehension of rapid HIV pretest fundamentals, and to identify patients who might have difficulties in comprehending pretest information. Methods:, This was a noninferiority trial of 574 participants in an ED opt-in rapid HIV screening program who were randomly assigned to receive identical pretest information from either an animated and live-action 9.5-minute video or an in-person information session. Pretest information comprehension was assessed using a questionnaire. The video would be accepted as not inferior to the in-person information session if the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the difference (,) in mean scores on the questionnaire between the two information groups was less than a 10% decrease in the in-person information session arm's mean score. Linear regression models were constructed to identify patients with lower mean scores based upon study arm assignment, demographic characteristics, and history of prior HIV testing. Results:, The questionnaire mean scores were 20.1 (95% CI = 19.7 to 20.5) for the video arm and 20.8 (95% CI = 20.4 to 21.2) for the in-person information session arm. The difference in mean scores compared to the mean score for the in-person information session met the noninferiority criterion for this investigation (, = 0.68; 95% CI = 0.18 to 1.26). In a multivariable linear regression model, Blacks/African Americans, Hispanics, and those with Medicare and Medicaid insurance exhibited slightly lower mean scores, regardless of the pretest information delivery format. There was a strong relationship between fewer years of formal education and lower mean scores on the questionnaire. Age, gender, type of insurance, partner/marital status, and history of prior HIV testing were not predictive of scores on the questionnaire. Conclusions:, In terms of patient comprehension of rapid HIV pretest information fundamentals, the video was an acceptable substitute to pretest information delivered by an HIV test counselor. Both the video and the in-person information session were less effective in providing pretest information for patients with fewer years of formal education. [source]

    Biliary Ultrasound Instructional Video

    Rimon N. Bengiamin MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Video versus traditional informed consent for neonatal circumcision

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 9 2010
    Caroline J Chantry
    Abstract Aim:, To determine if videotapes about newborn circumcision would be superior to traditional physician ,informed consent' discussion for maternal knowledge, satisfaction and perception of provider bias. Design/methods:, A convenience sample of mothers interested in or undecided about circumcision was randomized to watch a video on: (i) circumcision risks/benefits (,Video-Plus' n = 168); or (ii) unrelated material followed by traditional physician risk/benefit discussion (,Standard-MD' n = 136). Questionnaires were administered during hospitalization and subsequent telephone interviews. Statistical differences were analysed by chi-square and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results:, Most mothers (82%) decided about circumcision prenatally. Fewer mothers perceived bias from the video vs. physicians [1.1% vs. 6.8%, p = 0.04]. Composite knowledge (correct of 10 answers) [ (SD) 6.5 (2.1) vs. 6.4 (2.1), p = 0.78] or satisfaction [5-point Likert scale, 3.98 (1.50) vs. 3.75 (1.58), p = 0.16] did not differ by group, although more highly educated mothers preferred the video [satisfaction 4.08 (1.01) vs. 2.63 (0.99), p = 0.04]. Significant knowledge gaps existed in both groups. Conclusion:, In this setting, no difference in maternal knowledge was found between ,Video-Plus' and traditional informed consent although more highly educated mothers preferred the video. Better ways to achieve understanding of risks and benefits for this elective procedure should be sought. [source]

    Multicenter Study of Preferences for Health Education in the Emergency Department Population

    M. Kit Delgado MD
    Abstract Objectives:, Emergency departments (EDs) are increasingly proposed as high-yield venues for providing preventive health education to a population at risk for unhealthy behaviors and unmet primary care needs. This study sought to determine the preferred health education topics and teaching modality among ED patients and visitors. Methods:, For two 24-hour periods, patients aged 18 years and older presenting to four Boston EDs were consecutively enrolled, and waiting room visitors were surveyed every 3 hours. The survey assessed interest in 28 health conditions and topics, which were further classified into nine composite health education categories. Also assessed was the participants' preferred teaching modality. Results:, Among 1,321 eligible subjects, 1,010 (76%) completed the survey, of whom 56% were patients and 44% were visitors. Among the health conditions, respondents were most interested in learning about stress and depression (32%). Among the health topics, respondents were most interested in exercise and nutrition (43%). With regard to learning modality, 34% of subjects chose brochures/book, 25% video, 24% speaking with an expert, 14% using a computer, and 3% another mode of learning (e.g., a class). Speaking with an expert was the overall preferred modality for those with less than high school education and Hispanics, as well as those interested in HIV screening, youth violence, and stroke. Video was the preferred modality for those interested in learning more about depression, alcohol, drugs, firearm safety, and smoke detectors. Conclusions:, Emergency department patients and visitors were most interested in health education on stress, depression, exercise, and nutrition, compared to topics more commonly targeted to the ED population such as substance abuse, sexual health (including HIV testing), and injury prevention. Despite many recent innovations in health education, most ED patients and visitors in our study preferred the traditional form of books and brochures. Future ED health education efforts may be optimized by taking into account the learning preferences of the target ED population. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:652,658 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]

    Hostile Attribution of Intent and Aggressive Behavior: A Meta-Analysis

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 3 2002
    Bram Orobio De Castro
    A meta-analytic review was conducted to explain divergent findings on the relation between children's aggressive behavior and hostile attribution of intent to peers. Forty-one studies with 6,017 participants were included in the analysis. Ten studies concerned representative samples from the general population, 24 studies compared nonaggressive to extremely aggressive nonreferred samples, and 7 studies compared nonreferred samples with children referred for aggressive behavior problems. A robust significant association between hostile attribution of intent and aggressive behavior was found. Effect sizes differed considerably between studies. Larger effects were associated with more severe aggressive behavior, rejection by peers as one of the selection criteria, inclusion of 8- to-12-year-old participants, and absence of control for intelligence. Video and picture presentation of stimuli were associated with smaller effect sizes than was audio presentation. Staging of actual social interactions was associated with the largest effects. The importance of understanding moderators of effect size for theory development is stressed. [source]

    Seizures and paroxysmal events: symptoms pointing to the diagnosis of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy and pyridoxine phosphate oxidase deficiency

    Aim, We report on seizures, paroxysmal events, and electroencephalogram (EEG) findings in four female infants with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) and in one female with pyridoxine phosphate oxidase deficiency (PNPO). Method, Videos and EEGs were analysed and compared with videos of seizures and paroxysmal events archived from 140 neonates. PDE and PNPO were proven by complete control of seizures once pyridoxine or pyridoxal 5,-phosphate was administered and by recurrence when withdrawn. Mutations in the antiquitin gene were found in three patients and in the PNPO gene in one child. Results, Seizures began within 48 hours after birth in four newborns and at age 3 weeks in one. Frequent multifocal and generalized myoclonic jerks, often intermixed with tonic symptoms, abnormal eye movement, grimacing, or irritability, were observed in all infants with PDE and PNPO, but rarely in the other archived videos of neonates. EEGs were inconstant and frequently no discernable ictal changes were recorded during the seizures and the paroxysmal events. In addition, interictal EEGs were inconclusive, with normal and abnormal recordings. In older children tonic,clonic seizures, abnormal behaviour, inconsolable crying, frightened facial expression, sleep disturbance, loss of consciousness, paraesthesia, or intermittent visual symptoms were described during controlled and uncontrolled withdrawal or insufficient dosage. Interpretation, PDE or PNPO should be considered in infants with prolonged episodes of mixed multifocal myoclonic tonic symptoms, notably when associated with grimacing and abnormal eye movements. [source]

    Computer-mediated instructional video: a randomised controlled trial comparing a sequential and a segmented instructional video in surgical hand wash

    M. Schittek Janda
    Background:, Video-based instructions for clinical procedures have been used frequently during the preceding decades. Aim:, To investigate in a randomised controlled trial the learning effectiveness of fragmented videos vs. the complete sequential video and to analyse the attitudes of the user towards video as a learning aid. Materials and methods:, An instructional video on surgical hand wash was produced. The video was available in two different forms in two separate web pages: one as a sequential video and one fragmented into eight short clips. Twenty-eight dental students in the second semester were randomised into an experimental (n = 15) and a control group (n = 13). The experimental group used the fragmented form of the video and the control group watched the complete one. The use of the videos was logged and the students were video taped whilst undertaking a test hand wash. The videos were analysed systematically and blindly by two independent clinicians. The students also performed a written test concerning learning outcome from the videos as well as they answered an attitude questionnaire. Results:, The students in the experimental group watched the video significantly longer than the control group. There were no significant differences between the groups with regard to the ratings and scores when performing the hand wash. The experimental group had significantly better results in the written test compared with those of the control group. There was no significant difference between the groups with regard to attitudes towards the use of video for learning, as measured by the Visual Analogue Scales. Most students in both groups expressed satisfaction with the use of video for learning. Conclusion:, The students demonstrated positive attitudes and acceptable learning outcome from viewing CAL videos as a part of their pre-clinical training. Videos that are part of computer-based learning settings would ideally be presented to the students both as a segmented and as a whole video to give the students the option to choose the form of video which suits the individual student's learning style. [source]

    Technologies of Visibility: The Utopian Politics of Cameras, Televisions, Videos and Dreams in New Britain

    Andrew Lattas
    This paper explores how Melanesian villagers have harnessed modern, technological ways of seeing. It begins by analysing the politics and narrative structures of dreams and popular stories about secret photos concerning the dead. These are stories about losing control and regaining hidden, alternative representations of Melanesians. I then analyse how millenarian followers have experimented with ,constructing' their own versions of cameras, televisions and videos so as to gain access to the omniscient powers of modern technology and merge them with those of a Christian god and with the gaze of the dead. In the Pomio Kivung movement, ,televisions' and ,videos' have even been used to create new forms of moral surveillance for policing and governing communities. Here the customary shamanic worlds of dreams and possession have been modernised and redeployed to re-mediate the governmental practices and disciplinary schemes of civilisating projects originally belonging to Western churches and government. [source]

    Flexible Endoscopic Clip-Assisted Zenker's Diverticulotomy: The First Case Series (With Videos),

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 7 2008
    Shou-jiang Tang MD
    Abstract Background: In treating Zenker's diverticulum (ZD), there are potential risks associated with performing flexible endoscopic diverticulotomy without suturing or stapling. We recently introduced flexible endoscopic clip-assisted diverticulotomy (ECD) in treating ZD by securing the septum prior to dissection. Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of ECD for complete septum dissection. Study Design: Case series at an academic center. Seven consecutive patients (mean age 71 y; range 48,91 y) with symptomatic ZD of various craniocaudal sizes based on radiographic measurements (mean 2.6 cm; range 0.8 cm,4.5 cm) were included. The mean depth of the septum was 1.73 cm (range 0.3 cm,3.1 cm). The mean duration of symptoms was 4.8 years (range 0.5,10 y). Methods: After endoclips were placed on either side of the cricopharyngeal bar, the septum was dissected between these two clips down to the inferior end of the diverticulum with a needle-knife. Procedures including "one-step ECD" (n = 1), "stepwise ECD" (n = 3), and "bottom ECD" (n = 2) were performed based on the septum depth of the ZD during endoscopy. ECD was not performed on one patient due to severe mucosal fragility of the esophageal inlet. Iatrogenic blunt dissection of the septum by the endoscopic hood occurred secondary to patient retching during the procedure. Main outcome measurements were symptom resolution and complications. Results: All patients (n = 6) who underwent ECD had complete resolution of esophageal symptoms at a minimum 6-month follow-up. There were no procedural complications. The patient who did not undergo ECD developed an esophageal perforation. She was managed conservatively without surgical intervention. On follow-up, her dysphagia was completely resolved. Conclusions: ECD is feasible, safe, and effective for complete septum dissection. ECD and endoscopic stapler-assisted diverticulotomy are complimentary rather than competing strategies in approaching ZD. Study limitations include the case series design and limited follow-up period. [source]

    Effect of the geometry on the performance of the MaxblendÔ impeller with viscous Newtonian fluids

    Yoann Guntzburger
    Abstract Experimental and numerical investigations have been carried out to assess the effect of the vessel geometry (number of baffles) and the shape of the Maxblend impeller (configuration of the bottom paddle and angle of the upper grid) with viscous Newtonian fluids in the laminar and lower turbulent mixing regimes. Two parameters have been explored namely the power consumption of the impeller and the mixing time. Videos of the discoloration process have also been taken to get access to the mixing patterns. A nominal 50-l vessel has been used in the experiments. The number of baffles has been varied from 1 to 4, and the bottom paddle has been modified by making openings to allow flow passage. Finally, the effect of using a straight grid in the upper part of the Maxblend has been studied under the same conditions. It is shown that the number of baffles does not have a significant effect on the power consumption, the mixing evolution, and the mixing time regardless of the flow regime. Making openings in the bottom paddle allows for the destruction of the segregated zones at the bottom of the tank at the expense of a very slight increase in power consumption and mixing time. Finally, the power and mixing time are both increased with a straight grid Maxblend. Copyright © 2009 Curtin University of Technology and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Pediatric Resuscitation Mock Code Practice Impacts Selected Skills

    Jennifer Mackey
    Objectives:, Determine the utility of a computer-controlled mannequin in training and assessment of resident pediatric resuscitation skills. Determine if mock code practice is beneficial in maintaining mastery of critical pediatric resuscitation skills. Methods:, A prospective randomized study of 22 interns (12 pediatric, 10 emergency medicine) randomized to: Group 1 (cases who participated in 3 mock codes over a 6 month period) and Group 2 (controls who did not receive mock code practice). Each intern was randomly paired in teams of two who participated at baseline in two code scenarios using the Laerdal Simbaby. The interns alternated airway and circulatory management responsibility. At 6 months all interns returned to the simulator in pairs to participate in another two pediatric code scenarios. All sessions were videotaped and time of computer initiation of scenario events recorded. Videos were examined by a pediatric emergency physician (blinded to Group participation) using a structured recording form. A general linear model was used to assess differences in response times and Fisher's exact tests for categorical data. Results:, Whether in charge of airway or circulatory management, at post test interns who had completed mock codes required less time to: recognize the need for bag mask ventilation (Diff 5.6 seconds, p < 0.005), initiate BVM (Diff 2.7 seconds, p < 0.006), intubate (Diff 22 seconds, p < 0.03), and recognizing the need for chest compressions (Diff 24 seconds, p < 0.03). There were no differences in times for recognizing the need for fluid resuscitation or for factors such as appropriate mask size, rate of ventilation, intubation success (including number of attempts), compression techniques, or IO placement. Conclusions:, Computer controlled mannequins provide reproducible measurable experiences. This study demonstrates that mock code practice may impact some, but not all, aspects of pediatric resuscitation skill retention. [source]