Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Kinds of Victimization

  • criminal victimization
  • peer victimization
  • relational victimization
  • sexual victimization
  • violence victimization
  • violent victimization

  • Terms modified by Victimization

  • victimization experience
  • victimization risk
  • victimization survey

  • Selected Abstracts


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
    This article investigates the impact of criminal victimization on household residential mobility. Existing research finds that direct experiences with crime influence mobility decisions, such that persons who suffer offenses near their homes are more likely to move. The current study extends this line of inquiry to consider whether indirect victimization that involves neighbors also stimulates moving. The analysis uses the National Crime Survey to estimate multilevel models that incorporate data from individual households and their spatially proximate neighbors. The results show that the link between direct victimization and moving continues to hold after controlling for neighborhood context. Indirect property victimization also leads to moving, with effects about equal in size to those of direct victimization. In contrast, no evidence is found that violent victimization that occurs in neighboring homes influences mobility, probably because most of these events are nonstranger violence that provokes less anxiety for neighbors. [source]


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 4 2002
    Homeless youth establish a variety of relationships with people they meet on the street. These associations generate different levels of the intangible resources of trust, commitment, and reciprocity that contribute to a person's social capital. We argue that the relationships homeless youth describe as "street families" resemble the fictive kin common among people who have limited resources, and that these relationships are a greater source of social capital than are other associations. Social capital may improve access to many valued outcomes, including protections. Regression analyses of violent victimization support our argument, demonstrating that fictive street families keep youth out of harm's way more than do other street associations. [source]

    Victimization: a newly recognized outcome of prematurity

    Line Nadeau PhD
    Victimization by peers affects 10 to 20% of school children under the age of 12 years. Physical, verbal, and psychological victimization (being pushed, hit, called names, teased, being the target of rumours, theft, extortion) is associated with short- and long-term adjustment problems, such as peer rejection, social withdrawal, low self-esteem, anxiety, loneliness, and depression, as well as academic problems and school drop-out. Research on populations of school children (primary and secondary) has associated victimization with personal risk factors (the victim's characteristics and behaviour) and interpersonal risk factors (social relationships between peers). Studies on the social adjustment of preterm children at school age show that, even in the absence of a major motor or cognitive disability, this population has several personal risk factors associated with victimization. The objective of this study was to compare the level of victimization experienced by a group of 96 seven-year-old children born extremely preterm (EP, <29 weeks of gestation; 49 females) against that experienced by a group of 63 term children (34 females) matched for age and sex, maternal level of education, and family socioeconomic status. The children born EP had a mean gestational age of 27.3 weeks (SD 1.2) and a mean birthweight of 1001.1g (SD 223) and normal birth weight children had a mean gestational age of 39.5 weeks (SD 1.5) and a mean birthweight of 3468.7g (SD 431). Physical and verbal victimization were assessed in a school setting by peers with individual sociometric interviews (Modified Peer Nomination Inventory). After controlling for physical growth (height and weight) at the age of 7 years, the data indicate two independent effects: males were more victimized than females, and children born preterm experienced more verbal victimization by their peers than their term classmates, even when participants with a visible motor, intellectual, or sensory disability were excluded. Several hypotheses are presented to account for the higher incidence of verbal victimization of preterm children. [source]

    Associations of Sexual Victimization, Depression, and Sexual Assertiveness with Unprotected Sex: A Test of the Multifaceted Model of HIV Risk Across Gender

    Patricia J. Morokoff
    This study examined whether the Multifaceted Model of HIV Risk (MMOHR) would predict unprotected sex based on predictors including gender, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), sexual victimization (SV), depression, and sexual assertiveness for condom use. A community-based sample of 473 heterosexually active men and women, aged 18,46 years completed survey measures of model variables. Gender predicted several variables significantly. A separate model for women demonstrated excellent fit, while the model for men demonstrated reasonable fit. Multiple sample model testing supported the use of MMOHR in both men and women, while simultaneously highlighting areas of gender difference. Prevention interventions should focus on sexual assertiveness, especially for CSA and SV survivors, as well as targeting depression, especially among men. [source]

    Correlation of the Experience of Peer Relational Aggression Victimization and Depression among African American Adolescent Females,

    Melissa M. Gomes PhD
    PROBLEM:, This study aimed to examine if the experience of peer relational aggression victimization (PRAV) can be linked to feelings of depression in the African American adolescent female population. METHODS:, The sample included 241 college-age African American adolescent females assessed for PRAV and depression. Statistical analysis was carried out to determine the relationship between the variables. FINDINGS:, PRAV in this study population does exist as a detrimental phenomenon, whereby PRAV significantly correlates with depression, r (214) = 0.29, p < .01. CONCLUSION:, Nurses can assist the adolescent clients experiencing relational aggression by becoming knowledgeable on the presentation and manifestations of this experience. [source]

    Bullying in school and adolescent sense of empowerment: an analysis of relationships with parents, friends, and teachers,

    Maury Nation
    Abstract We explore the development of bullying and victimization in school by investigating 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds' sense of interpersonal empowerment with parents, friends and teachers. A national sample of 4386 male and female students from 243 middle and secondary schools in Italy were surveyed. Boys were more likely than girls to be bullies and more likely to have been a bully/victim. Victimization and the likelihood of being both a bully and a victim declined with age. Bullying increased with age among boys whereas for girls it was slightly more prevalent at age 13 than ages 11 or 15. The sense of empowerment students experience with their teachers decreased in the older cohorts. Disempowered relationships with teachers consistently predicted bullying behaviour. Higher social competence was reported by 13- and 15-year-old bullies. Chronically bullied students had lower social competence in all age cohorts. Otherwise, predictors of victimization varied by age: 11-year-old victims felt less empowered by their teachers; 15-year-old victims reported more difficulties in negotiating cooperative relationships with parents. Bullies in all cohorts and younger bully/victims feel less empowered by their teachers. These findings suggest that students who are disempowered by teachers may either compensate by oppressing (bullying) peers or generalize the power differential with peers (become a victim). Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Forensic Investigation of Sex Crimes In Colombia

    Nancy B. Cabelus
    Victimization by sexual assault has become not only a public health and safety issue but a way of life for many in Colombia. Poverty, gender inequality, and a lack of family and community support contribute to the cycle of sexual violence. Ineffective medico-legal systems have added to a rate of 93% for sex crimes that go without arrest or prosecution in Bogotá, the capital. Collaborative efforts are underway between the United States and Colombian governments to change the criminal justice system and strengthen forensic investigation of sex crimes in Colombia. [source]

    Managing Threat: Do Social-Cognitive Processes Mediate the Link Between Peer Victimization and Adjustment Problems in Early Adolescence?

    Wendy L. Hoglund
    Peer victimization has been linked concurrently and over time with multiple adjustment problems. However, the reasons for this multi-finality in victimization are not well understood. The current study examines social-cognitive processes (hostile attributions, social perspective awareness, and interpersonal skills) as mediators of the relations between subtypes of peer victimization (relational, physical) and depression and anxiety, social withdrawal, and physical aggression in early adolescence. The overall pattern of associations among subtypes of victimization, social-cognitive processes, and adjustment converged with expectations that victimization biases adolescents' cognitions about peers in conflict situations and skills relating to peers. In turn, these cognitions and skills differentially compromised their ability to regulate diverse emotions or limit reticent behaviors in response to peer threats. Modest gender differences in these associations were found. [source]

    The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Later Sexual Victimization among Runaway Youth

    Kimberly A. Tyler
    Path analysis was used to investigate the impact of childhood sexual abuse on later sexual victimization among 372 homeless and runaway youth in Seattle. Young people were interviewed directly on the streets and in shelters by outreach workers in youth service agencies. High rates of both childhood sexual abuse and street sexual victimization were reported, with females experiencing much greater rates compared with their male counterparts. Early sexual abuse in the home increased the likelihood of later sexual victimization on the streets indirectly by increasing the amount of time at risk, deviant peer affiliations, participating in deviant subsistence strategies, and engaging in survival sex. These findings suggest that exposure to dysfunctional and disorganized homes place youth on trajectories for early independence. Subsequently, street life and participation in high-risk behaviors increases their probability of sexual victimization. [source]

    Why Have Child Maltreatment and Child Victimization Declined?

    David Finkelhor
    Various forms of child maltreatment and child victimization declined as much as 40,70% from 1993 until 2004, including sexual abuse, physical abuse, sexual assault, homicide, aggravated assault, robbery, and larceny. Other child welfare indicators also improved during the same period, including teen pregnancy, teen suicide, and children living in poverty. This article reviews a wide variety of possible explanations for these changes: demography, fertility and abortion legalization, economic prosperity, increased incarceration of offenders, increased agents of social intervention, changing social norms and practices, the dissipation of the social changes from the 1960s, and psychiatric pharmacology. Multiple factors probably contributed. In particular, economic prosperity, increasing agents of social intervention, and psychiatric pharmacology have advantages over some of the other explanations in accounting for the breadth and timing of the improvements. [source]

    Pathways from Traumatic Child Victimization to Delinquency: Implications for Juvenile and Permanency Court Proceedings and Decisions

    ABSTRACT Research studies and observations by mental health and judicial professionals suggest that childhood traumatic victimization may contribute to the development of juvenile delinquency. Based on this evidence, we describe a chronological pathway that runs from: (a) early childhood victimization, to (b) escalating dysregulation of emotion and social information processing ("survival coping," which takes the form of depression, anxiety, social isolation, peer rejection, and conflicted relationships), to (c) severe and persistent problems with oppositional-defiance and overt or covert aggression compounded by post-traumatic reactivity and hypervigilance ("victim coping"). A case vignette is provided, and implications for judicial review and decisions are discussed. [source]

    Gender and Crime: Patterns in Victimization and Offending.

    LAW & SOCIETY REVIEW, Issue 4 2006
    By Karen Heimer, Candace Kruttschnitt
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Stressful Events, Avoidance Coping, and Unprotected Anal Sex Among Gay and Bisexual Men

    James I. Martin
    This study examined associations among stressful life events, avoidance coping, and unprotected anal sex (UAS) in a convenience sample of 297 men obtained through the Internet and who either reported having sex with men or self-identified as gay or bisexual. Participants completed an Internet-hosted self-administered questionnaire that included measures of victimization experiences and other stressful life events, and avoidance coping. More than half of the sample reported engaging in UAS during the previous 6 months. Victimization predicted UAS regardless of partner type; victimization, HIV-positive serostatus, and avoidance coping predicted UAS with nonprimary partners. The findings provide evidence that American gay and bisexual men may experience a variety of stressful life events, including a surprising amount of victimization, and that at least some episodes of UAS may be associated with attempts to cope with distress associated with such events. [source]

    Peer Sexual Harassment Victimization at School: The Roles of Student Characteristics, Cultural Affiliation, and School Factors

    Shalhevet Attar-Schwartz PhD
    This study examines the links between students' reports of sexual harassment victimization by peers and a number of individual and school contextual factors. It is based on a nationally representative sample of 16,604 students in Grades 7 through 11 in 327 schools across Israel who completed questionnaires during class. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to examine the links. Overall, approximately one in four students (25.6%) were victims of at least one unwanted and unwelcome act of harassment by peers (such as being touched or pinched in sexual manner) in the prior month. The most vulnerable groups were Israeli-Arab boys and students with negative perceptions of their school climate. The school correlates associated with higher levels of victimization were a higher share of students with less-educated parents, larger schools and classrooms, and negative school climate. The interactions between gender and school-related factors indicate that the gender patterns are different for Israeli-Arab and Jewish schools and for schools with different concentrations of students' families with low socioeconomic status. The study emphasizes the need for an ecological perspective in addressing school-based sexual harassment. [source]

    Victimization, Anger, and Gender: Low Anger and Passive Responses Work

    Kelly M. Champion PhD
    This study examined the contributions of gender, anger, expectations of positive outcomes, and frequency of victimization by and bullying of peers among school-aged children to predict individual differences in intentions to respond to provocative events with nonassertive behavior. Children between the ages of 9 and 13 (N = 505, 246 female, 259 male) completed the Anger Response Inventory, Child Version (Tangney et al., 1996) and measures of victimization and bullying. Results of regression procedures demonstrated that female gender and low anger predicted ignoring and using distraction. Nonassertive responses, low anger, and low victimization predicted expecting more positive outcomes following provocation. Victimization was unrelated to intentions to use nonassertive responses but bullying negatively predicted walking away and using distraction. No modifying effects for gender, victimization, or bullying were found. [source]

    Victimization of Children With Disabilities

    Irit Hershkowitz PhD
    Children with disabilities (CWDs) are more likely to be victims of child abuse but may have more difficulty than their typically developing (TD) peers reporting their experiences. In this study, the authors examined the characteristics of abuse reported by CWDs based on forensic statements made by 40430 alleged abuse victims, 11% categorized as children with minor disabilities, and 1.2% categorized as children with severe disabilities. Proportionally more of the CWDs than of the TD children were allegedly victims of sexual rather than physical abuse. CWDs failed to disclose abuse and delayed disclosure more often than TD suspected victims. CWDs were more likely than TD children to be abused by parent figures and to experience physical abuse resulting in body injury or serious sexual offenses, including those involving penetration, repeated abuse, use of force, and threats. Higher levels of disability were associated with increased risk of sexual abuse. Both the heightened incidence of severe abuse among and the failure to disclose abuse by CWDs should be sources of considerable concern to social welfare and criminal justice agencies. [source]

    Mothers' Violence Victimization and Child Behavior Problems: Examining the Link

    Richard Thompson PhD
    The current study examined the link between parents' experience of violence victimization and child outcomes, in 197 mother-child dyads recruited from low-income urban neighborhoods. At recruitment (when children were between 6 and 18 months old), demographic factors, child behavioral outcomes, mother-child interactions, mothers' psychosocial functioning, and mothers' history of violence victimization were assessed. Child behavioral outcomes, mother-child interactions, and mothers' psychosocial functioning were assessed again at age 4. Mothers' history of victimization as children (but not as adults) uniquely predicted child behavior problems at age 4. Three classes of possible mediators were examined: demographics, maternal psychosocial functioning, and mother-child interactions. Of these, only mother psychological aggression toward child met preliminary criteria for mediation; it partially mediated the link between mother childhood victimization and child behavioral outcomes. Maternal depressive symptoms and young age at child's birth independently predicted child behavior problems, but did not act as mediators. Mothers' early experiences with violence victimization appear to exert an important influence on child behavioral outcomes; this influence appears to be mediated, in part, by mothers' psychological aggression toward their children. [source]

    Correlates of the categories of adolescent attachment styles: Perceived rearing, family function, early life events, and personality

    Nao Tanaka phd
    Aims:, To identify the psychosocial correlates of adolescents. Methods:, Unmarried university students (n = 4226) aged 18,23 years were examined in a questionnaire survey. Results:, Four clusters of people (indifferent, secure, fearful, and preoccupied) identified by cluster analysis were plotted in 2-D using discriminant function analysis with the first function (father's and mother's Care, Cooperativeness, and family Cohesion on the positive end and Harm Avoidance and father's and mother's Overprotection on the negative end) representing the Self-model and the second function (Reward Dependence and experience of Peer Victimization on the positive end and Self-directedness on the negative end) representing the Other model. Conclusions:, These findings partially support Bartholomew's notion that adult attachment is based on the good versus bad representations of the self and the other and that it is influenced by psychosocial environments experienced over the course of development. [source]

    Prospective effects of violence exposure across multiple contexts on early adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems

    Sylvie Mrug
    Background:, Violence exposure within each setting of community, school, or home has been linked with internalizing and externalizing problems. Although many children experience violence in multiple contexts, the effects of such cross-contextual exposure have not been studied. This study addresses this gap by examining independent and interactive effects of witnessing violence and victimization in the community, home, and school on subsequent internalizing and externalizing problems in early adolescence. Methods:, A community sample of 603 boys and girls (78% African American, 20% Caucasian) participated in a longitudinal study of youth violence. During two assessments 16 months apart, adolescents reported on witnessing violence and victimization in the community, school, and home, and their internalizing and externalizing problems. Results:, Multiple regressions tested the independent and interactive effects of witnessing violence or victimization across contexts on subsequent adjustment, after controlling for initial levels of internalizing and externalizing problems and demographic covariates. Witnessing violence at school predicted anxiety and depression; witnessing at home was related to anxiety and aggression; and witnessing community violence predicted delinquency. Victimization at home was related to subsequent anxiety, depression, and aggression; victimization at school predicted anxiety; and victimization in the community was not independently related to any outcomes. Finally, witnessing violence at home was associated with more anxiety, delinquency, and aggression only if adolescents reported no exposure to community violence. Conclusions:, Violence exposure at home and school had the strongest independent effects on internalizing and externalizing outcomes. Witnessing community violence attenuated the effects of witnessing home violence on anxiety and externalizing problems, perhaps due to desensitization or different norms or expectations regarding violence. However, no comparable attenuation effects were observed for victimization across contexts. [source]

    Prospective Relations Among Victimization, Rejection, Friendlessness, and Children's Self- and Peer-Perceptions

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 6 2005
    Christina Salmivalli
    This study investigated the prospective links between three forms of peer adversities (i.e., victimization, rejection, and lack of reciprocated friendships) and children's perceptions of themselves and of their peers. The sample consisted of 212 children (107 boys and 105 girls, 11,13 years) recruited from four primary schools and followed up for a period of one year. The results showed that a negative self-perception was a risk factor for the development of all forms of peer adversities. Of the three forms of peer adversities assessed, victimization and rejection had an influence on children's peer perceptions. None of the peer adversities predicted changes in self-perceptions. The results partially support a transactional model between children and their environments. [source]

    Relational aggression and victimization in gay male relationships: the role of internalized homophobia

    Thomas M. Kelley
    Abstract This article presents two studies that are the first to examine relational aggression and relational victimization in gay male peer relationships. A qualitative pilot study provides a strong rationale for a subsequent empirical investigation of 100 young adult, self-identified gay males. Results of both studies demonstrate that relational aggression and relational victimization are common experiences in gay male relationships. They also reveal forms of relational aggression and victimization that appear to be unique to gay males (e.g., outing). Results of the empirical study found significant relations between engaging in relational aggression against gay males and experiencing relational victimization and between experiencing relational victimization and internalized homophobia. However, there was no significant correlation between internalized homophobia and engaging in relational aggression. A multiple regression analysis found that experiencing relational victimization was correlated more strongly with the combination of engaging in relational aggression and internalized homophobia together than with relational aggression alone. Results are discussed within the framework of Allport's "traits due to victimization" theory and Meyer's theory of "minority stress." Implications for the prevention of relational aggression/victimization in gay male relationships are offered. Aggr. Behav. 34:475,485, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The added risk of opioid problem use among treatment-seeking youth with marijuana and/or alcohol problem use

    ADDICTION, Issue 4 2010
    Geetha A. Subramaniam
    Abstract Objectives To determine the added risk of opioid problem use (OPU) in youth with marijuana/alcohol problem use (MAPU). Methods A total of 475 youth (ages 14,21 years) with OPU + MAPU were compared to a weighted sample of 475 youth with MAPU only (i.e. no OPU) before and after propensity score matching on gender, age, race, level of care and weekly use of marijuana/alcohol. Youth were recruited from 88 drug treatment sites participating in eight Center for Substance Abuse Treatment-funded grants. At treatment intake, participants were administered the Global Appraisal of Individual Need to elicit information on demographic, social, substance, mental health, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), physical and legal characteristics. Odds ratios with confidence intervals were calculated. Results The added risk of OPU among MAPU youth was associated with greater comorbidity; higher rates of psychiatric symptoms and trauma/victimization; greater needle use and sex-related HIV risk behaviours; and greater physical distress. The OPU + MAPU group was less likely to be African American or other race and more likely to be aged 15,17 years, Caucasian; report weekly drug use at home and among peers; engage in illegal behaviors and be confined longer; have greater substance abuse severity and polydrug use; and use mental health and substance abuse treatment services. Conclusions These findings expand upon the existing literature and highlight the substantial incremental risk of OPU on multiple comorbid areas among treatment-seeking youth. Further evaluation is needed to assess their outcomes following standard drug treatment and to evaluate specialized interventions for this subgroup of severely impaired youth. [source]

    Prevalence and correlates of traumatic brain injury among delinquent youths

    Brian E. Perron
    Background,Delinquent youth frequently exhibit high-risk behaviours that can result in serious injury. However, little is known about traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) and their correlates in this population. Aims,To examine the period prevalence and correlates of TBIs in delinquent youths. Method,Interviews were conducted with 720 (97.3%) residents of 27 Missouri Division of Youth Services rehabilitation facilities between March 1 and May 31, 2003. Participants [mean age (Mage) = 15.5, standard deviation (SD) = 1.2, 87% male] completed measures assessing TBI, substance use, psychiatric symptoms, and antisocial traits/behaviours. TBI was defined as ever having sustained a head injury causing unconsciousness for more than 20 minutes. Results,Nearly one-in-five youths (18.3%) reported a lifetime TBI. Youths with TBIs were significantly more likely than youths without to be male, have received a psychiatric diagnosis, report an earlier onset of criminal behaviour/substance use and more lifetime substance use problems and past-year criminal acts, evidence psychiatric symptoms, report lifetime suicidality, be impulsive, fearless, and external in locus of control and criminally victimized in the year preceding incarceration. Male gender and frequency of own criminal victimization were important predictors of TBI in multivariate analyses. Regression analyses adjusted for demographic factors, indicated that youths with TBIs were at significantly elevated risk for current depressive/anxious symptoms, antisocial behaviour, and substance abuse problems. Conclusions,TBI is common among delinquent youth and associated with wide ranging psychiatric dysfunction; however, the causal role of TBIs in the pathogenesis of co-morbid conditions remains unclear. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
    This article investigates the impact of criminal victimization on household residential mobility. Existing research finds that direct experiences with crime influence mobility decisions, such that persons who suffer offenses near their homes are more likely to move. The current study extends this line of inquiry to consider whether indirect victimization that involves neighbors also stimulates moving. The analysis uses the National Crime Survey to estimate multilevel models that incorporate data from individual households and their spatially proximate neighbors. The results show that the link between direct victimization and moving continues to hold after controlling for neighborhood context. Indirect property victimization also leads to moving, with effects about equal in size to those of direct victimization. In contrast, no evidence is found that violent victimization that occurs in neighboring homes influences mobility, probably because most of these events are nonstranger violence that provokes less anxiety for neighbors. [source]


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
    Because research shows a close association between offending and victimization, recent work has argued that theories that account for crime should explain victimization as well. The current study uses a new approach to examine the extent of the overlap between offenders who commit violent crime and victims of violence to determine whether it is worthwhile to pursue separate theories to account for these phenomena. Specifically, we take the statistical approach that Osgood and Schreck (2007) developed for analyzing specialization in violent versus property offending and apply it to analyzing tendencies to gravitate toward violent offending versus victimization. In doing so, we treat the differentiation into victim and offender roles as an individual-level latent variable while controlling for confounding between the likelihood that individuals will take either role in violent acts and their overall numbers of encounters with violence (as either offender or victim). Our purpose is to examine 1) whether significant differentiation can be observed between the tendency to be an offender versus the tendency to be a victim, 2) whether any such differential tendency is stable over time, and 3) if it is possible to predict whether individuals will tend toward violent offending versus victimization. Using two waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to explore these objectives, we find significant and stable levels of differentiation between offenders and victims. Moreover, this differentiation is predictable with explanatory variables. [source]


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2004
    This research examines the ways in which assaults motivated by bias are similar to and different from other types of assault. Analyses are based on data from the National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS), pooled across eleven states. We find evidence suggesting that offenders motivated by racial and ethnic bias are more likely to be versatile offenders than specialists: they are more (not less) likely to be using drugs and alcohol during the crime than conventional offenders. Bias offenders are also more likely to seriously injure the victim. Finally, we find that the risks of bias crime victimization (relative to the risk of assault victimization generally) are similar for blacks and other racial minorities. [source]


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
    Despite more than three decades of research on the topic of violence against women, the relative contribution of individual, family and community factors to victimization risk remains unknown. We use self-report data from the Area-Identified National Crime Victimization Survey to study the correlates of stranger, nonstranger and intimate,partner violence against women. Regardless of victim-offender relationship, we find that the risk for victimization is highest among young, single women with children, particularly those who have lived in the current home for relatively shorter periods. Area family and age composition appear to have stronger direct relationships with women's violence than poverty or racial composition measures. We also find there to be more similarities than differences in the individual, family, and community correlates of stranger, nonstranger and intimate partner violence. We discuss these findings as part of the growing body of multilevel literature on violence and on violence against women. [source]


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 4 2001
    This study introduces public social control into multilevel victimization research by investigating its impact on household and personal victimization risk for residents across 60 urban neighborhoods. Public social control refers to the ability of neighborhoods to secure external resources necessary for the reduction of crime and victimization. I find that living in neighborhoods with high levels of public social control reduces an individual's likelihood of victimization, especially in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Given the important role that residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods can play in securing public social control, this contingent finding suggests that disadvantaged neighborhoods can be politically viable contexts. [source]

    Questions about the relationship of economic conditions to violent victimization

    Kenneth C. Land
    First page of article [source]


    Research Summary: Current knowledge about violence among public housing residents is extremely limited. Much of what we know about violence in and around public housing is derived from analysis of Uniform Crime Report (UCR) data or victimization surveys of public housing residents. The results of these studies suggest that fear of crime among public housing residents is high and that violent offense rates may be higher in areas that contain public housing compared with similar areas without public housing. Yet, "[r]ecorded crime rates (and victimization rates) are an index not of the rate of participation in crime by residents of an area, but of the rate of crime (or victimization) that occurs in an area whether committed by residents or non-residents" (Weatherburn et al., 1999:259). Therefore, neither UCR nor victimization data measurement strategies address whether crime in and around public housing emanates from those who reside in public housing. Additionally, much of this research focuses on atypical public housing,large developments with high-rise buildings located in major metropolitan areas. To complement the existing literature, we compare rates of self-reported crime and violence among adolescents who reside in public housing in Rochester, N.Y., and Pittsburgh, Pa., with adolescents from the same cities who do not live in public housing. In Rochester, property crime and violence participation rates during adolescence and early adulthood among those in public housing are statistically equivalent to participation rates among those not in public housing. In Pittsburgh, living in public housing during late adolescence and early adulthood, particularly in large housing developments,increases the risk for violent offending, but not for property offending. The current study relies on a relatively small number of subjects in public housing at any single point in time and is based on cross-sectional analyses. Even so, there are several important policy implications that can be derived from this study, given that it moves down a path heretofore largely unexplored. Policy Implications: If replicated, our findings indicate that not all public housing is inhabited disproportionately by those involved in crime; that to develop appropriate responses, it is essential to discover if the perpetrators of violence are residents or trespassers; that policy should target reducing violence specifically and not crime in general; that a modification to housing allocation policies that limits, to the extent possible, placing families with children in late adolescence into large developments might reduce violence perpetrated by residents; that limited resources directed at reducing violence among residents should be targeted at those developments or buildings that actually have high rates of participation in violence among the residents; and that best practices may be derived from developments where violence is not a problem. [source]