Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Victims

  • accident victim
  • adult victim
  • assault victim
  • child victim
  • female victim
  • homicide victim
  • passive victim
  • rape victim
  • sexual assault victim
  • suicide victim
  • trauma victim

  • Terms modified by Victims

  • victim advocate
  • victim relationship

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 12 2008
    Sergey Gavrilets
    We study victim,exploiter coevolution in a spatially heterogeneous island model. In each species, fitness consequences of between-species interactions are controlled by a single haploid diallelic locus. Our emphasis is on the conditions for the maintenance of genetic variation, the dynamic patterns observed, the extent of local adaptation and genetic differentiation between different demes, and on how different parameters (such as the strength and heterogeneity in selection, migration rates, and the number of sites) affect the dynamic and static behavior of the system. We show that under spatially homogeneous selection the maintenance of genetic variation is possible through asynchronous nonlinear dynamics where the allele frequencies in a majority of demes quickly synchronize but the rest do not. Spatially heterogeneous selection can maintain genetic variation even if migration rates are maximal. This happens in an oscillatory way. Genetic variation is most likely to be maintained at high levels if the heterogeneity in selection is large. If there are some restrictions on migration, genetic variation can be maintained at a stable equilibrium. This behavior is most likely at intermediate migration rates. In this case, the system can exhibit high spatial subdivision as measured by FST values but relatively low local adaptation. [source]


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
    Because research shows a close association between offending and victimization, recent work has argued that theories that account for crime should explain victimization as well. The current study uses a new approach to examine the extent of the overlap between offenders who commit violent crime and victims of violence to determine whether it is worthwhile to pursue separate theories to account for these phenomena. Specifically, we take the statistical approach that Osgood and Schreck (2007) developed for analyzing specialization in violent versus property offending and apply it to analyzing tendencies to gravitate toward violent offending versus victimization. In doing so, we treat the differentiation into victim and offender roles as an individual-level latent variable while controlling for confounding between the likelihood that individuals will take either role in violent acts and their overall numbers of encounters with violence (as either offender or victim). Our purpose is to examine 1) whether significant differentiation can be observed between the tendency to be an offender versus the tendency to be a victim, 2) whether any such differential tendency is stable over time, and 3) if it is possible to predict whether individuals will tend toward violent offending versus victimization. Using two waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to explore these objectives, we find significant and stable levels of differentiation between offenders and victims. Moreover, this differentiation is predictable with explanatory variables. [source]


    ECONOMICS & POLITICS, Issue 3 2006
    A model is presented where the ruler may arm the producers, in order to convince them that he will not expropriate them ex post. This sets an upper limit on the tax rate, not higher than their probability of losing their income, should a war occur. The relevance of this analysis is illustrated by discussing various case studies, involving post-conflict situations. Some variants of the model are presented for highlighting some implementation problems, related to asymmetric information or to positive initial endowments of weapons or non-produced wealth, which may lead to war in equilibrium. [source]


    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 1 2009
    Jonathan Scher
    Acknowledging the rapid growth of child sexual abuse in the United States, this Note advocates for the recognition of a limited exception to the blanket-hearsay ban on out-of-court statements made by unavailable declarants set out by the Supreme Court in Crawford v. Washington. In order to protect a criminal defendant's Sixth Amendment confrontation right, Crawford requires that hearsay evidence that is "testimonial" in nature be deemed inadmissible if the witness is unavailable and the defendant does not have a prior opportunity to cross-examine the witness against him. However, Crawford noted that, where nontestimonial hearsay is at issue, cross-examination may not be necessary. Accordingly, where a child sexual abuse victim makes statements during a structured or semi-structured forensic interview to a member of a multidisciplinary team, these statements should be deemed nontestimonial and thus admitted into evidence, without requiring cross-examination of the child. Allowing for this exception to the general hearsay ban in Crawford is not only consistent with current precedent, but it is also warranted to promote public policy and to curb the negative impact such abuse has on society. [source]


    Article first published online: 16 DEC 200
    First page of article [source]


    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 6 2005
    Martin Batstone
    Background: Road trauma is a common cause of severe facial injuries. The aim of the present study is to define patients involved, and determine the effect of their geographical origin on treatment and follow up. Methods: All patients over 14 years of age suffering facial injuries caused by road trauma presenting to the two study hospitals from 1994 to 1999 were identified and details were collected on demographic details and treatment. Results: Four hundred and nine patients met the inclusion criteria. The majority required hospital transfer. Young men were the most frequently injured group of patients. Patients from peripheral regions had significant delays in transfer and treatment. They were made fewer outpatient appointments but attended at the same frequency as patients from the immediate region of the study hospitals. Conclusions: To minimize delays the process of patient transfer needs to be streamlined and education of staff in peripheral hospitals undertaken regarding facial injuries. [source]

    Equating Innocent Threats and Bystanders

    abstract Michael Otsuka claims that it is impermissible to kill innocent threats because doing so is morally equivalent to killing bystanders. I show that Otsuka's argument conflates killing as a means with treating a person herself as a means. The killing of a person can be a means only if that person is instrumental in the threat to Victim's life. A permission to kill a person as a means will not permit killing bystanders. I also defend a permission to kill innocent threats against Otsuka's Trolley Cases. Otsuka depicts a person tied to an oncoming trolley as a bystander. I argue that such characters are threats whom Victim can permissibly kill. [source]

    Examining Rape Empathy From the Perspective of the Victim and the Assailant,

    Christine A. Smith
    Two studies using college student samples were conducted to establish reliability and validity for new scales measuring rape victim empathy and rape perpetrator empathy separately. In Experiment 1, two 13-item measures of rape empathy were developed. Variables examined for purposes of construct validity included personal sexual assault experience, general empathy, and perceived rape victim responsibility. In Experiment 2, we added 5 new items to each scale. The final scales were two 18-item measures with high reliability. Variables examined in Experiment 2 included personal sexual assault, general empathy, and acquaintanceship with a victim or a perpetrator. Both studies found gender differences for empathy scores, with women tending to be higher on rape victim empathy, and men tending to be higher on rape perpetrator empathy. Personal sexual experience was related to rape empathy scores. Perceived victim responsibility was negatively correlated with rape victim empathy and positively correlated with rape perpetrator empathy. [source]

    Unjustified aggression in preschool

    C. Monks
    Abstract This study investigates the nature of unjustified aggression in Spanish preschool children aged 4 to 6 years. Children were assigned to roles in aggression (Aggressor, Victim, Defender, Supporter, and Bystander) on the basis of peer, teacher, and self-nominations. The roles taken in aggression were examined in relation to individuals' physical strength, social status, and social development. The coping strategies used by victims were also examined. Aggressive children were found to be socially rejected. Defenders were found to be the most popular children in the class, which may place them better to defend others without fear of reprisal or they may gain their status from the act of defending others. The findings also indicate that young victims do not exhibit the characteristics of older victims (e.g., social rejection and physical weakness), which confirms findings with 4- to 6-year-olds in England [Monks et al. 2002a, 2002b]. It is suggested that these findings relate to the instability of victimisation at this age. Aggr. Behav. 28:458,476, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    An Empirical Analysis of 30 Years of U.S. Juvenile and Adult Sexual Homicide Offender Data: Race and Age Differences in the Victim,Offender Relationship

    Heng Choon (Oliver) Chan M.A.
    Abstract:, Little is known about the racial patterns of crimes committed by sexual homicide offenders (SHOs). This study examined race and age influences on victim,offender relationship for juvenile and adult SHOs. A large sample (N = 3868) from the Supplemental Homicide Reports (1976,2005) was used. Analyses of victim,offender patterns included examining victim age effects (child, adolescent, adult, and elderly). The findings revealed several race- and age-based differences. Black offenders were significantly overrepresented in the SHO population. This finding held for juveniles and adults independently. White SHOs were highly likely to kill within their race, "intra-racially" (range 91,100%) across four victim age categories, whereas Black SHOs killed both intra-racially (range 24,82%) and inter-racially (18,76%), with the likelihood of their killing inter-racially increasing as the age of the victim increased. This study underscores the importance of considering victim,offender racial patterns in sexual murder investigations, and it offers practical implications for offender profiling. [source]

    Is your Child or Student a Bully or a Victim of Bullying?

    Article first published online: 16 MAY 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Reducing Obesity: Motivating Action While Not Blaming the Victim

    Context: The rise in obesity in the United States may slow or even reverse the long-term trend of increasing life expectancy. Like many risk factors for disease, obesity results from behavior and shows a social gradient. Especially among women, obesity is more common among lower-income individuals, those with less education, and some ethnic/racial minorities. Methods: This article examines the underlying assumptions and implications for policy and the interventions of the two predominant models used to explain the causes of obesity and also suggests a synthesis that avoids "blaming the victim" while acknowledging the role of individuals' health behaviors in weight maintenance. Findings: (1) The medical model focuses primarily on treatment, addressing individuals' personal behaviors as the cause of their obesity. An underlying assumption is that as independent agents, individuals make informed choices. Interventions are providing information and motivating individuals to modify their behaviors. (2) The public health model concentrates more on prevention and sees the roots of obesity in an obesogenic environment awash in influences that lead individuals to engage in health-damaging behaviors. Interventions are modifying environmental forces through social policies. (3) There is a tension between empowering individuals to manage their weight through diet and exercise and blaming them for failure to do so. Patterns of obesity by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status highlight this tension. (4) Environments differ in their health-promoting resources; for example, poorer communities have fewer supermarkets, more fast-food outlets, and fewer accessible and safe recreational opportunities. Conclusions: A social justice perspective facilitates a synthesis of both models. This article proposes the concept of "behavioral justice" to convey the principle that individuals are responsible for engaging in health-promoting behaviors but should be held accountable only when they have adequate resources to do so. This perspective maintains both individuals' control and accountability for behaviors and society's responsibility to provide health-promoting environments. [source]

    Gender and role-based perceptions of domestic abuse: does sexual orientation matter?,

    Eric P. Seelau Ph.D.
    Although it is estimated that domestic abuse is as common in gay male and lesbian intimate relationships as in heterosexual relationships, the legal system often fails to recognize or respond to same-gender cases. Empirical research examining the impact of sexual orientation on perceptions of abuse is virtually nonexistent. Undergraduates (N,=,252) read a summary of a domestic abuse incident in which victims and perpetrators varied by gender and, by implication, sexual orientation. Victim and respondent gender, rather than the couple's sexual orientation, primarily affected responses to domestic abuse. Domestic abuse perpetrated against women was perceived to be more serious and in need of intervention than abuse against men. Women were more likely than men to believe the victim and to recommend criminal justice system interventions. Because they are inconsistent with gender role stereotypes, domestic abuse cases involving male victims or female perpetrators may not receive equitable treatment within the criminal justice system. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Witnessing Intimate Partner Violence as a Child Does Not Increase the Likelihood of Becoming an Adult Intimate Partner Violence Victim

    Amy A. Ernst MD
    ObjectivesTo determine whether adults who witnessed intimate partner violence (IPV) as children would have an increased rate of being victims of ongoing IPV, as measured by the Ongoing Violence Assessment Tool (OVAT), compared with adult controls who did not witness IPV as children. The authors also sought to determine whether there were differences in demographics in these two groups. MethodsThis was a cross sectional cohort study of patients presenting to a high-volume academic emergency department. Emergency department patients presenting from November 16, 2005, to January 5, 2006, during 46 randomized four-hour shifts were included. A confidential computer touch-screen data entry program was used for collecting demographic data, including witnessing IPV as a child and the OVAT. Main outcome measures were witnessing IPV as a child, ongoing IPV, and associated demographics. Assuming a prevalence of IPV of 20% and a clinically significant difference of 20% between adults who witnessed IPV as children and adult controls who did not witness IPV as children, the study was powered at 80%, with 215 subjects included. ResultsA total of 280 subjects were entered; 256 had complete data sets. Forty-nine percent of subjects were male, 45% were Hispanic, 72 (28%) were adults who witnessed IPV as children, and 184 (72%) were adult controls who did not witness IPV as children. Sixty-three (23.5%) were positive for ongoing IPV. There was no correlation of adults who witnessed IPV as children with the presence of ongoing IPV, as determined by univariate and bivariate analysis. Twenty-three of 72 (32%) of the adults who witnessed IPV as children, and 39 of 184 (21%) of the adult controls who did not witness IPV as children, were positive for IPV (difference, 11%; 95% confidence interval [CI] =,2% to 23%). Significant correlations with having witnessed IPV as a child included age younger than 40 years (odds ratio [OR], 4.2; 95% CI = 1.7 to 9.1), income less than 20,000/year (OR, 5.1; 95% CI = 1.6 to 12.5), and abuse as a child (OR, 9.1; 95% CI = 4.2 to 19.6). Other demographics were not significantly correlated with having witnessed IPV as a child. ConclusionsAdults who witnessed IPV as children were more likely to have a lower income, be younger, and have been abused as a child, but not more likely to be positive for ongoing IPV, when compared with patients who had not witnessed IPV. [source]

    George Ralph Mines: Victim of self-experimentation?

    Louis J. Acierno M.D.Facc
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Care for the Adult Family Members of Victims of Unexpected Cardiac Death

    Robert Zalenski MD
    Abstract More than 300,000 sudden coronary deaths occur annually in the United States, despite declining cardiovascular death rates. In 2000, deaths from heart disease left an estimated 190,156 new widows and 68,493 new widowers. A major unanswered question for emergency providers is whether the immediate care of the loved ones left behind by the deceased should be a therapeutic task for the staff of the emergency department in the aftermath of a fatal cardiac arrest. Based on a review of the literature, the authors suggest that more research is needed to answer this question, to assess the current immediate needs and care of survivors, and to find ways to improve care of the surviving family of unexpected cardiac death victims. This would include improving quality of death disclosure, improving care for relatives during cardiopulmonary resuscitation of their family member, and improved methods of referral for services for prevention of psychological and cardiovascular morbidity during bereavement. [source]

    Systematic review of the perceptions and experiences of accessing health services by adult victims of domestic violence

    Louise Robinson RGN RHV BSc (Hons) MSc
    Abstract This systematic review synthesises evidence on the perceptions and experiences of adult victims of domestic violence when accessing healthcare services. The review was concerned with disclosure of domestic violence by adult victims when accessing health services, the responses of healthcare professionals to these victims, victims' perceived barriers to support, and the appropriateness of support and referrals. These aims required the review to focus on studies using in-depth qualitative methods to explore victims' perceptions and experiences. A comprehensive systematic search of 12 databases was carried out in June/July 2005. Application of the review protocol and inclusion criteria resulted in 10 studies (conducted in the UK, USA and Australia) being considered eligible for the review. Data were extracted from these studies and a quality assessment completed. Thematic analysis was carried out to enable the identification of recurrent themes within the included studies. Findings indicate that victims of domestic violence experience difficulties when accessing healthcare services. Victims perceive that these difficulties can be attributed to inappropriate responses by healthcare professionals, discomfort with the healthcare environment, perceived barriers to disclosing domestic violence, and a lack of confidence in the outcomes of disclosure to a health professional. The methodological quality of included studies was variable, but no papers were rejected based on quality issues. These results can contribute to and inform a comprehensive assessment of the experiences of adult victims of domestic violence when accessing healthcare services. The health service is in a unique position to contribute towards the assessment and identification of domestic violence and to provide access to appropriate support. The messages of this study are important for policy-makers and practitioners. [source]

    The Association Between Hypothermia, Prehospital Cooling, and Mortality in Burn Victims

    Adam J. Singer MD
    Abstract Objectives:, Hypothermia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in trauma victims. The prognostic value of hypothermia on emergency department (ED) presentation in burn victims is not well known. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of hypothermia in burn victims and its association with mortality and hospital length of stay (LOS). The study also examined the potential causative role of prehospital cooling in hypothermic burn patients. Methods:, This was a retrospective review of a county trauma registry. The county was both suburban and rural, with a population of 1.5 million and with one burn center. Burn patients between 1994 and 2007 who met trauma registry criteria were included. Demographic and clinical data including prehospital cooling, burn size and depth, and presence of inhalation injury were collected. Hypothermia was defined as a core body temperature of less than or equal to 35°C. Data analysis consisted of univariate associations between patient characteristics and hypothermia. Results:, There were 1,215 burn patients from 1994 to 2007. Mean age (±standard deviation [±SD]) was 29 (±24) years, 67% were male, 248 (26.7%) had full-thickness burns, and 24 (2.6%) had inhalation injury. Only 17 (1.8%) had a burn larger than 70% total body surface area (TBSA). A total of 929 (76%) patients had an initial ED temperature recorded. Only 15/929 (1.6%) burn patients had hypothermia on arrival, and all were mild (lowest temperature was 32.6°C). There was no association between sex, year, and presence of inhalation injury with hypothermia. Hypothermic patients were older (44 years vs. 29 years, p = 0.01), and median Injury Severity Score (ISS) was higher (25 vs. 4, p = 0.002) than for nonhypothermic patients. Hypothermia was present in 6/17 (35%) patients with a TBSA of 70% or greater and in 8/869 (0.9%) patients with a TBSA of <70% (p < 0.001). Mortality was higher in hypothermic patients (60% vs. 3%, p < 0.001). None of the hypothermic patients received prehospital cooling. Conclusions:, Hypothermia on presentation to the ED was noted in 1.6% of all burn victims in this trauma registry. Hypothermia was more common in very large burns and was associated with high mortality. In this series, prehospital cooling did not appear to contribute to hypothermia. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:456,459 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]

    Victims of Domestic Violence: A Proposal for a Community Diagnosis Based on One of Two Domains of NANDA Taxonomy II

    Patricia Serpa de Souza Batista
    PURPOSE To explore and identify diagnostic components to amplify NANDA nursing diagnoses by modifying the root violence. Whereas violence is nondebatable as a diagnostic concept in nursing, other alternatives have not been identified in the two existing diagnoses. METHODS Using the case study method, this qualitative study sought to identify commonalties in a population of women who were "donnas da casa" (homemakers) in a small rural community of approximately 100 families, typical of the Brazilian northeast. The sample of 7 women was identified through a larger study that had been based on health needs of the community. Data were obtained through observation during a home visit and a semistructured interview based on NANDA Taxonomy II. Observations were focused on hygiene, manner of dress, home environment, and physical and emotional state. Data were analyzed by content and clustered into major categories. From these a profile of the women and another of the partners emerged. FINDINGS Subjects ranged in age from 33 to 43 years, and number of children between 3 and 7. One of the 7 women was literate; 5 were underweight; all were slovenly attired. They appeared sad and older than their age. The majority seemed relieved to unburden themselves to the interviewers as they went through a gamut of emotions such as sadness, anguish, and irritability expressed through crying, restlessness, changes in body language, and tone of voice. The shortage of beds was supplemented by hammocks and mats or cardboard. The women spoke of being confined to their home and of male partners who drank on weekends, thus leaving them with little money for necessities of life. There were accounts of beatings when the partner returned home after drinking, overt nonacceptance of children from previous marriages, and general destruction of the family environment. New children were regarded as just another mouth to feed. DISCUSSION The profiles pointed to the necessity of identifying a new nursing diagnosis that would be linked, only tangentially, by the root violence to the two diagnoses in NANDA Taxonomies I and II. This insight led us to consider that a new method of listing NANDA diagnoses, by root only, is imperative in the evolution of Taxonomy II. Proposed descriptors, Victims of (Axis 3) and Domestic (Axis 6) would be identified by Axes, thereby facilitating the process of classifying in the Domains and Classes. The two existing NANDA diagnoses, risk for other-directed violence and risk for self-directed violence, are proposed for classification in Class 3, Violence, in Domain 11 of Taxonomy II. Safety/Protection could, by virtue of their modification power, find anchor in another domain such as Domain 6, Self-Perception. CONCLUSIONS Although Safety/Protection seems the most logical domain for classification by root, the axes, dimensions of human responses, could pull the diagnosis in another direction, thereby dictating other nursing interventions and nursing outcomes [source]

    Second Conference on Identifying and Serving Child Victims of Trafficking

    Micah Bump
    First page of article [source]

    Orthopaedic patients' experience of motor vehicle accident in Singapore

    K.L. Tan mn (ortho nrsg)
    Aim:, The purpose of this paper is to present a study that explored the experiences of orthopaedic patients injured in motor vehicle accidents (MVAs), from the time of the accident until 6 months after being discharged from hospital. Background:, Trauma injuries from MVAs are increasing, with the number of deaths from such injuries continuing to rise. Victims often sustain open fractures to more than one part of their body and need rehabilitation and support to adjust to long-term chronic or permanent disability. In the last decade, research pertaining to trauma nursing has concentrated on neurologically injured patients. Although there is a paucity of research on the nursing perspective of psychological care for non-neurologically injured patients, the majority of studies located were mainly quantitative in nature and did not analyse the personal experiences of orthopaedic patients. Method:, A qualitative naturalistic inquiry approach was used, which provided a first-hand account of the traumatic MVA event experienced by six orthopaedic participants in Singapore. Data were collected from face-to-face in-depth interviews. Participants were voluntarily recruited through purposeful sampling and ,snowballing'. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim in preparation for analysis. Findings:, The analysis of information explicated four main themes: the experience of the event, the effect of hospitalization, surviving the event and self-transformation. Conclusion:, The study provided an understanding of orthopaedic patients' experience of MVA in Singapore. The findings of the study have the potential to contribute to the limited qualitative research available concerning victims' experiences of MVAs and nurses caring for MVA victims. [source]

    Investigating Sexual Abuse: Findings of a 15-Year Longitudinal Study

    Bob McCormack
    Background, There is a lack of longitudinal large-scale studies of sexual abuse in intellectual disability services. Such studies offer opportunities to examine patterns in disclosure, investigation and outcomes, and to report on incidence and trends. Methods, All allegations of sexual abuse (n = 250) involving service users as victims or perpetrators of sexual abuse over a 15-year period in a large Irish community-based service were analysed based on the data extracted from extensive contemporaneous case notes. Results, Victims or families were the most common concern raisers of abuse. Following multidisciplinary investigation, almost half (47%) of all allegations of sexual abuse were confirmed (n = 118). In confirmed episodes, more than half the perpetrators were adolescents and adults with intellectual disabilities, while almost a quarter were relatives. The most common type of abuse was sexual touch, although 31% of episodes involved penetration or attempted penetration. The most common location was the family home, followed by the day service and public places. A notable feature was the variation in the incidence of abuse over the study period, largely caused by episodes of multiple abuse. Conclusions, The incidence of confirmed episodes of sexual abuse of adults with intellectual disabilities may be higher than previously estimated. There is an urgent need for statutory guidelines, which require reporting of adult abuse, and provide protection for bona fide whistle blowers, similar to existing child protection legislation. [source]

    Prevention of dog bites: Evaluation of a brief educational intervention program for preschool children

    Fiona Wilson
    Dog bites are an underestimated societal problem. Victims suffer injuries, both physical and emotional, that sometimes end in death, and the economic cost to the community is high. The most frequent victims are children, many of whom are bitten at home. Current interventions, primarily aimed at the control of dogs in public areas, appear unlikely to reduce the incidence of dog bites within this group. In this study, parents' beliefs about their children's behavior around familiar and strange dogs were investigated using a questionnaire. The impact of a brief educational dog safety program on 192 kindergarten children (M = 4.68 years of age) was then evaluated. The questionnaire data revealed that many children engage in unsafe behaviors around dogs, and that parents are largely unaware of the dangers associated with such behaviors. The dog safety program resulted in a significant increase in the ability of children to identify high risk situations for up to 4 weeks, with the benefits being even greater in those children whose parents were also given information regarding safe behaviors around dogs. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Social cognition and moral cognition in bullying: what's wrong?

    Gianluca Gini
    Abstract Two different models have been proposed that describe the bully alternatively as a child lacking in social skills [Crick and Dodge, 1994], or as a cold manipulative individual, who leads gangs to achieve personal goals [Sutton et al., 1999a]. The present study examined the performance of 204 8,11-year-olds in a set of stories that assessed understanding of cognitions and emotions, in relation to their Participant Role in bullying. Moreover, children's understanding of moral emotions and proneness to moral disengagement was assessed. Victims showed some difficulties in the social cognition task, whereas bullies did not. Aggressive children, instead, were found to be more ready to show moral disengagement mechanisms, whereas defenders showed higher levels of moral sensibility. Results are discussed in relation to the two models, and the need for further research into empathy and moral cognition of children involved in bullying episodes is highlighted. Aggr. Behav. 32:528,539, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Nature, extent, and causes of bullying among personality-disordered patients in a high-secure hospital

    Jane L. Ireland
    Abstract The present study explored the perceptions and experiences of the nature, extent and causes of bullying among personality-disordered patients, with a subsidiary aim of exploring differences in perceptions between staff and patients. The sample was selected from the Personality Disorder Unit of a high secure hospital. The total sample consisted of 60 participants, 30 patients and 30 staff. Participants engaged in a semi-structured interview based on that developed by Brookes [1993] and modified by Ireland and Archer [1996] and Ireland [2002a]. The interview assessed their perceptions and experiences of patient-to-patient bullying. One fifth of patients and staff reported that they had seen a patient being bullied in the previous week. One-fifth of patients reported that they had been bullied in the previous week and less than one tenth reported that they had bullied others. The most frequent types of bullying reported were theft-related, verbal abuse, being made to do chores, physical assaults and intimidation. One fifth of the sample reported that sexual abuse took place. Victims were generally perceived to be ,easy targets' that were vulnerable, either physically or emotionally. Staff identified a wider range of victim types than patients. The results highlight how patient-to-patient bullying does occur and is an important issue worthy of further research. A number of similarities were found between the current findings and those of prison-based research suggesting that both hospitals and prisons share a number of environmental similarities that help to explain why bullying takes placed in secure forensic settings. Aggr. Behav. 30:229,242, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Identity Theft: Laws, Crimes, and Victims


    Proactive and reactive aggression among school bullies, victims, and bully-victims

    Christina Salmivalli
    Abstract Bullies, victims, bully-victims, and control children were identified from a sample of 1062 children (530 girls and 532 boys), aged 10 to 12 years, participating in the study. Their reactive and proactive aggression was measured by means of peer and teacher reports. Peer and teacher reports were more concordant with respect to reactive than proactive aggression. Comparing the children in different bullying roles in terms of their reactive and proactive aggression, bully-victims were found to be the most aggressive group of all. For this group, it was typical to be highly aggressive both reactively and proactively. Although bullies were significantly less aggressive than bully-victims, they scored higher than victims and controls on both reactive and proactive aggression. However, observations at the person level, i.e., cross-tabulational analyses, indicated that bullies were not only overrepresented among children who were both reactively and procatively aggressive but also among the only reactively aggressive as well as the only proactively aggressive groups. Victims scored higher than control children on reactive aggression, but they were not proactively aggressive. Furthermore, even their reactive aggression was at a significantly lower level than that of bullies and bully-victims. Aggr. Behav. 28:30,44, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Do Noneconomic Damages Caps and Attorney Fee Limits Reduce Access to Justice for Victims of Medical Negligence?

    Steven Garber
    We analyze effects of noneconomic damages caps and attorney fee limits (AFLs) on the ability of people injured by negligent physicians to retain qualified lawyers to represent them. We employ survey data from 965 plaintiffs' attorneys who reported likelihoods of accepting hypothetical meritorious cases described by scenarios. We estimate how willingness to accept such cases increases with the expected hourly fees associated with them, and the estimates suggest substantial effects and plausible tradeoffs. We conclude that caps and AFLs make it harder to retain counsel in various circumstances, and we present policy simulations elucidating how several factors combine to determine these effects. [source]

    Why SANEs Matter: Models of Care for Sexual Violence Victims in the Emergency Department

    Stacey B. Plichta
    This study examines models of SANE service in the ED and quality of care. Nurse managers of all 82 EDs in Virginia were surveyed (RR 76%). Five models emerged: 1) No SANE services (27.4%); 2) Victims transferred off-site for services (14.5%); 3) Partial coverage of services by ED SANEs (16.1%); 4) SANEs called in from off-site (6.5%); and 5) full-coverage of services by ED SANEs (35.5%). Models 4 and 5 consistently provided a higher quality of care. [source]

    Toxicology and Circumstances of Death of Homicide Victims in New South Wales, Australia 1996,2005

    Shane Darke Ph.D.
    Abstract:, To determine the prevalence and circumstances of psychoactive substances amongst homicide victims, 485 consecutive cases autopsied at the NSW Department of Forensic Medicine (1/1/1996,12/31/2005) were analyzed. Substances were detected in 62.6% of cases, and illicit drugs in 32.8%. Alcohol, cannabis, opioids, and psychostimulants were most commonly detected. Alcohol and cannabis were both more prevalent amongst males. Mean ages were significantly younger for decedents who tested positive for a substance and for an illicit drug. Cases where death resulted from a physical altercation were more likely to have had alcohol and cannabis present. Illicit drugs were prominent amongst firearms deaths. The proportion of alcohol positive cases increased from 25.0% on Monday to 49.4% for Saturdays/Sundays. Alcohol was more common in incidents in the 0001,0600 h and 1800,2400 h periods. Psychoactive substances appear to substantially increase the risk of homicide, although there are important differences between drug classes in the circumstances of such incidents. [source]