Vivo Model Systems (vivo + model_system)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The small intestine as a model for evaluating adult tissue stem cell drug targets,

Christopher S. Potten
These crucial cells are responsible for all cell production in renewing tissues, and play a vital role in tissue regeneration. Although reliable stem cell markers are generally unavailable for adult epithelial tissues, the small intestinal crypts are an excellent in vivo model system to study stem cells. Within this tissue, the stem cells have a very well-defined cell position, allowing accurate definition of stem cell specific events. Clonal regeneration assays for the small intestine allow stem cell survival and functional competence to be studied. The ultimate lineage ancestor stem cells are extremely efficiently protected from genetic damage, which accounts for the low cancer incidence in this tissue. Some of the regulatory networks governing stem and transit cell behaviour are beginning to be understood and it is postulated that p53 plays a crucial role in these processes. [source]

Local gene delivery to the vessel wall

R. C. Smith
This review will provide an overview of delivery strategies that are being evaluated for vascular gene therapy. We will limit our discussion to those studies that have been demonstrated, utilizing in vivo model systems, to limit post-interventional restenosis. We also discuss the efficacy of the vectors and methods currently being used to transfer genetic material to the vessel wall. The efficiency of these techniques is a critical issue for the successful application of gene therapy. [source]

Activity and regulation of glycoPEGylated factor VIIa analogs

Summary.,Background:,Recombinant coagulation factor VIIa (rFVIIa) has proven to be a safe and effective drug for treatment of bleeding episodes in hemophilic patients with inhibitors. However, rFVIIa is cleared from the circulation relatively quickly. Protein modification with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) can prolong the circulatory lifetime of proteins but it could also impair protein function by molecular shielding of the protein surface. Objectives:, To characterize the interaction of glycoPEGylated rFVIIa , rFVIIa-10K PEG and rFVIIa-40K PEG , with tissue factor (TF), factor X (FX) and plasma inhibitors, tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and antithrombin (AT). Methods:, The amidolytic and FX activation assays were employed to investigate the interaction of glycoPEGylated rFVIIa with its macromolecular substrate and inhibitors. Results:, Both the glycoPEGylated rFVIIa analogs exhibited similar amidolytic activity as that of rFVIIa in the absence or the presence of relipidated TF. The analogs were as effective as rFVIIa in activating FX in the absence of TF. In the presence of TF, the glycoPEGylated rFVIIa variants, relative to rFVIIa, were slightly less effective at lower concentrations, but no significant differences were found among them in activating FX at saturating concentrations. Both AT/heparin and TFPI effectively inhibited the glycoPEGylated rFVIIa bound to relipidated TF or TF on stimulated endothelial cells. In contrast to their normal interaction with TF, the glycoPEGylated rFVIIa variants appeared to interact poorly with phospholipids. Conclusions:, The glycoPEGylated rFVIIa variants retained their catalytic activity and interacted efficiently with TF, FX and the plasma inhibitors. Further work with appropriate in vitro and in vivo model systems is needed to determine the feasibility of using glycoPEGylated rFVIIa to improve therapeutic options for bleeding disorders. [source]

New insights into the pathogenic role of advanced glycation in diabetic retinopathy

Purpose Retinopathy is the most common microvascular complication of diabetes. The clinicopathology of microvascular lesions and neuroglial dysfunction in the diabetic retina have been extensively studied, although the relative contribution of various biochemical sequelae of hyperglycaemia remains ill-defined. The formation and accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) is an important pathogenic pathway in the progression of diabetic retinopathy although some of the cellular and molecular pathologies initiated by these adducts in retinal cells remain unknown. Methods This presentation will cover several aspects of AGE-linked retinal pathology and demonstrate opportunities for therapeutic intervention. The studies outlined will cover a wide range of molecular cell biology approaches using appropriate in vitro and in vivo model systems. Results It will be demonstrated that AGEs form in vivo in the diabetic retina through the reaction of alpha-oxaloaldehydes leading to significant modifications of retinal proteins. Evidence will be presented to demonstrate that these AGEs act as significant effectors of retinal vascular and neuroglial cell dysfunction, leading to pro-inflammatory responses, growth factor imbalance and, ultimately, neurovascular lesions such as blood retinal barrier dysfunction and microvascular degeneration. The protective role of novel AGE-inhibitors will also be shown. Conclusion Evidence now points towards a pathogenic role for advanced glycation in the initiation and progression of diabetic retinopathy and this review lecture will outline the current state of knowledge of AGE-related pathology in the retina at a cellular and molecular level. [source]