Virus Entry (virus + entry)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Genotype-dependent sensitivity of hepatitis C virus to inhibitors of the p7 ion channel,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 6 2008
Stephen Griffin
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) p7 protein plays a critical role during particle formation in cell culture and is required for virus replication in chimpanzees. The discovery that it displayed cation channel activity in vitro led to its classification within the "viroporin" family of virus-coded ion channel proteins, which includes the influenza A virus (IAV) M2 protein. Like M2, p7 was proposed as a potential target for much needed new HCV therapies, and this was supported by our finding that the M2 inhibitor, amantadine, blocked its activity in vitro. Since then, further compounds have been shown to inhibit p7 function but the relationship between inhibitory effects in vitro and efficacy against infectious virus is controversial. Here, we have sought to validate multiple p7 inhibitor compounds using a parallel approach combining the HCV infectious culture system and a rapid throughput in vitro assay for p7 function. We identify a genotype-dependent and subtype-dependent sensitivity of HCV to p7 inhibitors, in which results in cell culture largely mirror the sensitivity of recombinant protein in vitro; thus building separate sensitivity profiles for different p7 sequences. Inhibition of virus entry also occurred, suggesting that p7 may be a virion component. Second site effects on both cellular and viral processes were identified for several compounds in addition to their efficacy against p7 in vitro. Nevertheless, for some compounds antiviral effects were specific to a block of ion channel function. Conclusion: These data validate p7 inhibitors as prototype therapies for chronic HCV disease. (HEPATOLOGY 2008;48:1779-1790.) [source]

Serum amyloid A has antiviral activity against hepatitis C virus by inhibiting virus entry in a cell culture system,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 6 2006
Muriel Lavie
Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute phase protein produced by the liver. SAA concentration increases markedly in the serum following inflammation and infection. Large increases in SAA concentration during the acute phase response suggest that SAA has a beneficial role in host defense. This study sought to determine the effect of SAA on hepatitis C virus (HCV) infectivity using retroviral particles pseudotyped with HCV envelope glycoproteins (HCVpp) and the recently developed cell culture system for HCV (HCVcc). SAA inhibited HCVpp and HCVcc infection in a dose-dependent manner by affecting an early step of the virus life cycle. Further characterization with HCVpp indicated that SAA blocks virus entry by interacting with the viral particle. In addition, the antiviral activity of SAA was strongly reduced when high-density lipoproteins (HDL) were coincubated with SAA. However, HDL had only a slight effect on the antiviral activity of SAA when HCVpp was first preincubated with SAA. Furthermore, analyses of SAA in sera of chronic HCV patients revealed the presence of variable levels of SAA with abnormally elevated concentrations in some cases. However, no obvious clinical correlation was found between SAA levels and HCV viral loads. In conclusion, our data demonstrate an antiviral activity for SAA and suggest a tight relationship between SAA and HDL in modulating HCV infectivity. (HEPATOLOGY 2006;44:1626,1634.) [source]

Development of an orally infectious Sindbis virus transducing system that efficiently disseminates and expresses green fluorescent protein in Aedes aegypti

D. J. Pierro
Abstract We have constructed an orally infectious Sindbis virus, ME2/5,2J/GFP, that expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the midgut of Aedes aegypti and in other tissues as the virus disseminates. This virus has two unique features that are improvements over the SIN-based expression systems currently used in mosquitoes. First, a subgenomic RNA promoter and GFP coding sequence is located 5,- to the second subgenomic promoter and structural genes of the virus. Second, the E2 glycoprotein gene of TE/5,2J/GFP is replaced with the E2 gene of MRE16 SIN virus. The first feature enhances virus genome stability during virus dissemination from the midgut to other tissues and the second allows efficient virus entry into the midgut epithelial cells and then spread of the virus throughout the mosquito. [source]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus entry into host cells: Opportunities for therapeutic intervention,

Kap-Sun Yeung
Abstract A novel human coronavirus (CoV) has been identified as the etiological agent that caused the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003. The spike (S) protein of this virus is a type I surface glycoprotein that mediates binding of the virus to the host receptor and the subsequent fusion between the viral and host membranes. Because of its critical role in viral entry, the S protein is an important target for the development of anti-SARS CoV therapeutics and prophylactics. This article reviews the structure and function of the SARS CoV S protein in the context of its role in virus entry. Topics that are discussed include: the interaction between the S1 domain of the SARS spike protein and the cellular receptor, angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and the structural features of the ectodomain of ACE2; the antigenic determinants presented by the S protein and the nature of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies that are elicited in vivo; the structure of the 4,3-hydrophobic heptad repeats HR1 and HR2 of the S2 domain and their interaction to form a six-helical bundle during the final stages of fusion. Opportunities for the design and development of anti-SARS agents based on the inhibition of receptor binding, the therapeutic uses of S-directed monoclonal antibodies and inhibitors of HR1,HR2 complex formation are presented. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Med Res Rev, 26, No. 4, 414,433, 2006 [source]

Expression and roles of herpesvirus entry mediators A and C in cells of oral origin

S.-L. Hung
The roles of viral glycoprotein D (gD) and cellular herpesvirus entry mediators A (HveA) and C (HveC) in herpes simplex virus entry into oral cells were determined. Studies with purified truncated forms of gD-1, HveA and HveC indicated that these molecules may be involved in herpes simplex virus entry into oral cells. Moreover, HveA was expressed similarly in primary cultures of gingival keratinocytes and fibroblasts, whereas HveC was expressed at higher levels in gingival keratinocytes, as determined by RT-PCR and immunocytochemical staining. Further analysis using immunohistochemistry demonstrated that both HveA and HveC were expressed in epithelial cells, fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells in gingival tissues. However, only HveC was detected in nerve fibers. Also, HveA was detected throughout the epidermis, whereas HveC was pronounced in the strata basale and spinosum. In conclusion, this study characterized HveA and HveC, molecules that may participate in entry of herpes simplex virus into oral cells. [source]

High-resolution mass spectrometric mapping of reovirus digestion

Ita Had, isejdi
Reovirus is an enteric virus built from eight structural proteins that form a double-layered capsid. During virus entry into cells the reovirus outermost capsid layer (composed of proteins ,3 and 1C) is proteolytically processed to generate first an infectious subviral particle (ISVP), then the transcriptionally active core particle. Previous studies have demonstrated that protein ,3, the outermost protein in the viral capsid, is removed from virus particles extremely rapidly. Other studies, using the detergent tetradecyl sulfate (14SO4) in combination with the protease chymotrypsin, have shown that 1C cleavage is not necessary for infectious viral processing. We have recently used mass spectrometry to characterize the cascade of ,3 proteolysis in intact reovirus serotype 1 Lang (T1L) virions (Mendez et al., Virology 2003; 311: 289,304). In the present study, we use high-resolution mass spectrometry to characterize the cascade of outer capsid digestion of both T1L and the other commonly used reovirus strain (serotype 3 Dearing [T3D]), with the protease trypsin, both in the presence and absence of 14SO4. These studies indicate that digestion kinetics and specificities are determined both by virus type and by presence or absence of detergent. Presence of detergent accelerated digestion of both outer capsid proteins. In contrast to chymotrypsin digestion, which segregated ,3 digestion from 1 digestion, both proteins were rapidly digested by trypsin in the presence of detergent. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

N -acetylcysteine augments adenovirus-mediated gene expression in human endothelial cells by enhancing transgene transcription and virus entry

L. Jornot
Abstract Background It has previously been shown that oxidants reduce the efficiency of adenoviral transduction in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In this study, the effect of the antioxidant N -acetylcysteine (NAC) in adenovirus-mediated gene transfer has been investigated. Methods HUVECs were pretreated or not with NAC, and infected with E1E3-deleted adenovirus (Ad) containing the LacZ gene expressed from the RSV-LTR promoter/enhancer in the presence and absence of NAC. Transgene expression was assessed at the protein level (histochemical staining, measurement of ,-Gal activity, and western blot), mRNA level (real-time RT-PCR) and gene level (nuclear run on) 24,h and 48,h after infection. Adenoviral DNA was quantitated by real-time PCR, and cell surface expression of Coxsackie/adenovirus receptors (CAR) was determined by FACS analysis. Results Pretreatment of cells with NAC prior to Ad infection enhanced ,-Gal activity by two-fold due to an increase in viral DNA, which was related to increased CAR expression. When NAC was present only during the post-infection period, a five-fold increase in ,-Gal activity and LacZ gene transcriptional activity was observed. When NAC was present during both the pretreatment and the post-infection period, ,-Gal activity was further enhanced, by 15-fold. Augmentation of ,-Gal activity was paralleled by an increase in ,-Gal protein and mRNA levels. NAC did not affect the half-life of LacZ mRNA. Conclusion Pretreatment with NAC prior to Ad infection enhances virus entry, while treatment with NAC post-infection increases transgene transcription. This strategy permits the use of lower adenoviral loads and thus might be helpful for gene therapy of vascular diseases. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Close linkage of genes encoding receptors for subgroups A and C of avian sarcoma/leucosis virus on chicken chromosome 28

D. Elleder
Summary Avian sarcoma and leucosis viruses (ASLV) are classified into six major subgroups (A to E and J) according to the properties of the viral envelope proteins and the usage of cellular receptors for virus entry. Subgroup A and B receptors are identified molecularly and their genomic positions TVA and TVB are mapped. The subgroup C receptor is unknown, its genomic locus TVC is reported to be genetically linked to TVA, which resides on chicken chromosome 28. In this study, we used two chicken inbred lines that carry different alleles coding for resistance (TVCR) and sensitivity (TVCS) to infection by subgroup C viruses. A backross population of these lines was tested for susceptibility to subgroup C infection and genotyped for markers from chicken chromosome 28. We confirmed the close linkage between TVA and TVC loci. Further, we have described the position of TVC on chromosome 28 relative to markers from the consensus map of the chicken genome. [source]

Pathogenesis of equine herpesvirus-1 infection in the mouse model

APMIS, Issue 1 2009
Equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) is a major equine pathogen causing respiratory diseases, abortions and severe neurological disorders. The basis of neurological disturbances is, as in other organs, infection of endothelial cells, followed by vasculitis, thrombosis and ischaemic damage of the parenchyma. Here, a murine model was used to explore the mechanism of entry to, and spread within the brain, the cell affinity of the agent and the modulating role of the immune defence, which are all factors governing the pathogenesis of the neurological disease. Because controversial views exist about these mechanisms, we undertook a neuropathological study with intranasally infected adult mice. EHV-1 entered the brain through the olfactory neuroepithelium and along the olfactory nerves, and spread transsynaptically in rostro-caudal direction, using olfactory and limbic neuronal networks. Exclusively neurons were infected. The cellular immune reaction exerted a restraining effect on virus dissemination. Following nasal infection, the olfactory route was the major pathway for virus entry and dissemination, involvement of the trigeminal nerve in virus spread seems much less probable. In the adult mouse brain EHV-1 behaves as a typical neurotropic agent, using, similarly to other herpesviruses, the neuronal networks for dissemination. Vasculitis, the predominant type of lesion in natural infection, and endothelial cell positivity for EHV-1 were detectable only in the lung. Thus, this agent exhibits in the mouse a dual affinity: it is neurotropic in the brain, and endotheliotropic in visceral organs. Consideration of pathogenetic aspects of equine and experimental murine EHV-1 infections also helps a better understanding of human herpetic brain disease. [source]

Come in and take your coat off , how host cells provide endocytosis for virus entry

Mario Schelhaas
Summary Viruses are intracellular parasites that rely upon the host cell machinery for their life cycle. Newly generated virus particles have to transmit their genomic information to uninfected cells/organisms. Viral entry is the process to gain access to viral replication sites within uninfected cells, a multistep course of events that starts with binding to target cells. Since viruses are simple in structure and composition and lack any locomotive capacity, viruses depend on hundreds of host cell proteins during entry. Most animal viruses take advantage of endocytosis to enter cells. Cell biological, morphological and biochemical studies, live cell imaging and systematic approaches have identified various new endocytic mechanisms besides clathrin-mediated endocytosis, macropinocytosis and caveolar/lipid raft-mediated endocytosis. Hence, studying virus entry has become ever more complex. This review provides a cell biological overview of the existing endocytic mechanisms and strategies used or potentially used by viruses to enter cells. [source]

Zaire Ebola virus entry into human dendritic cells is insensitive to cathepsin L inhibition

Osvaldo Martinez
Summary Cathepsins B and L contribute to Ebola virus (EBOV) entry into Vero cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. However, the role of cathepsins in EBOV-infection of human dendritic cells (DCs), important targets of infection in vivo, remains undefined. Here, EBOV-like particles containing a ,-lactamase,VP40 fusion reporter and Ebola virus were used to demonstrate the cathepsin dependence of EBOV entry into human monocyte-derived DCs. However, while DC infection is blocked by cathepsin B inhibitor, it is insensitive to cathepsin L inhibitor. Furthermore, DCs pre-treated for 48 h with TNF, were generally less susceptible to entry and infection by EBOV. This decrease in infection was associated with a decrease in cathepsin B activity. Thus, cathepsin L plays a minimal, if any, role in EBOV infection in human DCs. The inflammatory cytokine TNF, modulates cathepsin B activity and affects EBOV entry into and infection of human DCs. [source]