Vertebrate Model (vertebrate + model)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Vascular anatomy of the developing medaka, Oryzias latipes: A complementary fish model for cardiovascular research on vertebrates

Misato Fujita
Abstract The zebrafish has become a very useful vertebrate model for cardiovascular research, but detailed morphogenetic studies have revealed that it differs from mammals in certain aspects of the primary circulatory system, in particular, the early vitelline circulation. We searched for another teleost species that might serve as a complementary model for the formation of these early primary vessels. Here (and online at, we present a detailed characterization of the vascular anatomy of the developing medaka embryo from the stage 24 (1 day 20 hr) through stage 30 (3 days 10 hr). Three-dimensional images using confocal microangiography show that the medaka, Oryzias latipes, follows the common embryonic circulatory pattern consisting of ventral aorta, aortic arches, dorsal aorta, transverse vessels, vitelline capillary plexus, and marginal veins. The medaka, thus, may serve as a valuable model system for genetic analysis of the primary vasculature of vertebrates. Developmental Dynamics 235:734,746, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Developmental toxicity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos after exposure to manufactured nanomaterials: Buckminsterfullerene aggregates (nC60) and fullerol

Xiaoshan Zhu
Abstract The present paper summarizes, to our knowledge, the first study regarding the developmental toxicity of stable buck-minsterfullerene aggregates suspended in water (nC60) using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a vertebrate model. Zebrafish embryo survival, hatching rate, heartbeat, and pericardial edema were noted and described within 96 h of exposure. Fullerol (a hydroxylated C60 derivative, C60(OH)16,18) at 50 mg/L did not exert toxicity to zebrafish embryos. In contrast, nC60 at 1.5 mg/L delayed zebrafish embryo and larval development, decreased survival and hatching rates, and caused pericardial edema. Toxicity was mitigated by adding an antioxidant (glutathione), which suggests that a free radical,induced mechanism or another form of oxidative stress played a role in developmental toxicity. [source]

Identification of an osteopontin-like protein in fish associated with mineral formation

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 17 2007
Vera G. Fonseca
Fish has been recently recognized as a suitable vertebrate model and represents a promising alternative to mammals for studying mechanisms of tissue mineralization and unravelling specific questions related to vertebrate bone formation. The recently developed Sparus aurata (gilthead seabream) osteoblast-like cell line VSa16 was used to construct a cDNA subtractive library aimed at the identification of genes associated with fish tissue mineralization. Suppression subtractive hybridization, combined with mirror orientation selection, identified 194 cDNA clones representing 20 different genes up-regulated during the mineralization of the VSa16 extracellular matrix. One of these genes accounted for 69% of the total number of clones obtained and was later identified as theS. aurata osteopontin-like gene. The 2138-bp full-length S. aurata osteopontin-like cDNA was shown to encode a 374 amino-acid protein containing domains and motifs characteristic of osteopontins, such as an integrin receptor-binding RGD motif, a negatively charged domain and numerous post-translational modifications (e.g. phosphorylations and glycosylations). The common origin of mammalian osteopontin and fish osteopontin-like proteins was indicated through an in silico analysis of available sequences showing similar gene and protein structures and was further demonstrated by their specific expression in mineralized tissues and cell cultures. Accordingly, and given its proven association with mineral formation and its characteristic protein domains, we propose that the fish osteopontin-like protein may play a role in hard tissue mineralization, in a manner similar to osteopontin in higher vertebrates. [source]

Zebrafish Cx35: Cloning and characterization of a gap junction gene highly expressed in the retina

Elizabeth McLachlan
Abstract The vertebrate connexin gene family encodes protein subunits of gap junction channels, which provide a route for direct intercellular communication. Consequently, gap junctions play a vital role in many developmental and homeostatic processes. Aberrant functioning of gap junctions is implicated in many human diseases. Zebrafish are an ideal vertebrate model to study development of the visual system as they produce transparent embryos that develop rapidly, thereby facilitating morphological and behavioral testing. In this study, zebrafish connexin35 has been cloned from a P1 artificial chromosome (PAC) library. Sequence analysis shows a high degree of similarity to the Cx35/36 orthologous group, which are expressed primarily in nervous tissue, including the retina. The gene encodes a 304-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular weight of approximately 35 kDa. Injection of zebrafish Cx35 RNA into paired Xenopus oocytes elicited intercellular electrical coupling with weak voltage sensitivity. In development, Cx35 is first detectable by Northern analysis and RT-PCR, at 2 days post-fertilization (2 dpf), and in the adult it is expressed in the brain and retina. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the Cx35 protein is expressed in two sublaminae of the inner plexiform layer of the adult retina. A similar pattern was seen in the 4 and 5 dpf retina, but no labeling was detected in the retina of earlier embryos. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]