Vesicular Transport (vesicular + transport)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

High-resolution imaging demonstrates dynein-based vesicular transport of activated trk receptors

Anita Bhattacharyya
Abstract Target-derived neurotrophins signal from nerve endings to the cell body to influence cellular and nuclear responses. The retrograde signal is conveyed by neurotrophin receptors (Trks) themselves. To accomplish this, activated Trks may physically relocalize from nerve endings to the cell bodies. However, alternative signaling mechanisms may also be used. To identify the vehicle wherein the activated Trks are located and transported, and to identify associated motor proteins that would facilitate transport, we use activation-state specific antibodies in concert with immunoelectron microscopy and deconvolution microscopy. We show that the activated Trks within rat sciatic nerve axons are preferentially localized to coated and uncoated vesicles. These vesicles are moving in a retrograde direction and so accumulate distal to a ligation site. The P-Trk containing vesicles, in turn, colocalize with dynein components, and not with kinesins. Collectively, these results indicate activated Trk within axons travel in vesicles and dynein is the motor that drives these vesicles towards the cell bodies. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol 51: 302,312, 2002 [source]

Effect of genipin on the biliary excretion of cholephilic compounds in rats

Masaki Mikami
Aim:, Genipin, a metabolite of geniposide, is reported to stimulate the insertion of multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mrp2) in the bile canalicular membrane, and to cause choleresis by increasing the biliary excretion of glutathione, which has been considered to be a substrate of Mrp2. In the present study, the effect of colchicine on the choleretic effect of genipin was investigated. The effect of genipin on the biliary excretion of the substrates of bile salt export pump and Mrp2 was also studied. Methods:, After bile duct cannulation into rats, genipin was administered at the rate of 0.2 ,mol/min/100 g, and the effect of colchicine pretreatment (0.2 mg/100 g) was examined. Metabolites of genipin in the bile were examined by a thin layer chromatography. Taurocholate (TC), sulfobromophthalein (BSP), and pravastatin were infused at the rate of 1.0, 0.2 and 0.3 ,mol/min/100 g, respectively, and the effect of genipin co-administration was examined. Results:, Genipin increased bile flow and the biliary glutathione excretion, and those increases were not inhibited by colchicine. The biliary excretion of genipin glucuronide was less than 10% of the genipin excreted into bile. The biliary excretion of TC, BSP, and pravastatin was unchanged by genipin co-administration. Conclusion:, It was indicated that colchicine-sensitive vesicular transport has no role on the genipin-induced insertion of Mrp2 to the canalicular membrane. Choleresis of genipin is considered to be mainly due to the increased biliary glutathione excretion by genipin, not by the biliary excretion of glucuronide. TC had no effect on the biliary glutathione excretion. [source]

Up-Regulation of Cell Surface Insulin Receptor by Protein Kinase C-, in Adrenal Chromaffin Cells

Involvement of Transcriptional, Translational Events
Our previous study showed that treatment of cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells with phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (PDBu) or 12- O -tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) caused a rapid (<15 min) and persistent (>15 h) translocation of both conventional (c) protein kinase C-, (PKC-,) and novel PKC-, (but not atypical PKC-,) from cytosol to membranes, whereas thymeleatoxin (TMX) increased the similar but selective membrane association of only cPKC-,. In the present study, chronic (,12 h) treatment of chromaffin cells with PDBu raised cell surface 125I-insulin binding without altering the KD value ; it developed in a concentration (EC50 = 1.9 nM)-and time (t1/2 = 14.6 h)-dependent manner, reaching its maximum 115% increase at 48 h. Either TPA (30 nM) or TMX (EC50 = 6.4 nM) also increased 125I-insulin binding by 97 or 88%, whereas the biologically inactive 4,-TPA had no effect. The increasing effect of PDBu (30 nM for 24 h) on 125I-insulin binding was significantly blocked, even when H7, an inhibitor of PKC, was added at 8 h after the initiation of PDBu treatment. Concurrent treatment with brefeldin A, an inhibitor of vesicular transport from the trans -Golgi network, cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, or 5,6-dichlorobenzimidazole riboside, an inhibitor of RNA synthesis, abolished the PDBu-induced increment of 125I-insulin binding. Western blot analysis, using antibody against the ,-subunit of the insulin receptor, showed that treatment with PDBu (30 nM) or TMX (EC50 = 2.3 nM) increased levels of insulin receptor precursor (~190 kDa ; t1/2 = 7.1 h) and insulin receptor ,-subunit (t1/2 = 15.4 h), causing their almost maximum 52 and 59% rises, respectively, at 24 h. Northern blot analysis revealed that PDBu or TMX increased levels of insulin receptor mRNAs by ~35% as soon as 3 h, producing its monophasic peak ~76% increases at 24 h. All of these increasing effects of PDBu and TMX on 125I-insulin binding and insulin receptor ,-subunit and insulin receptor mRNA levels were entirely prevented by simultaneous treatment with Gö6976, a selective inhibitor of cPKC. These results suggest that long-term activation of cPKC-, up-regulates the density of the cell surface insulin receptor via transcriptional/translational events. [source]

The role of cytoplasmic streaming in symplastic transport

ABSTRACT The distributing of materials throughout a symplastic domain must involve at least two classes of transport steps: plasmodesmatal and cytoplasmic. To underpin the latter, the most obvious candidate mechanisms are cytoplasmic streaming and diffusion. The thesis will be here advanced that, although both candidates clearly do transport cytoplasmic entities, the cytoplasmic streaming per se is not of primary importance in symplastic transport but that its underlying molecular motor activity (of which the streaming is a readily visible consequence) is. Following brief tutorials on low Reynolds number flow, diffusion, and targeted intracytoplasmic transport, the hypothesis is broached that macromolecular and vesicular transport along actin trackways is both the cause of visible streaming and the essential metabolically driven cytoplasmic step in symplastic transport. The concluding discussion highlights four underdeveloped aspects of the active cytoplasmic step: (i) visualization of the real-time transport of messages and metabolites; (ii) enumeration of the entities trafficked; (iii) elucidation of the routing of the messages and metabolites within the cytoplasm; and (iv) transference of the trafficked entities from cytoplasm into plasmodesmata. [source]

Circadian proteomics of the mouse retina

Takahiro Tsuji
Abstract The circadian clock in the retina regulates a variety of physiological phenomena such as disc shedding and melatonin release. Although these events are critical for retinal functions, it is almost unknown how the circadian clock controls the physiological rhythmicity. To gain insight into the processes, we performed a proteomic analysis using 2-DE to find proteins whose levels show circadian changes. Among 415 retinal protein spots, 11 protein spots showed circadian rhythmicity in their intensities. We performed MALDI-TOF MS and NanoLC-MS/MS analyses and identified proteins contained in the 11 spots. The proteins were related to vesicular transport, calcium-binding, protein degradation, metabolism, RNA-binding, and protein foldings, suggesting the clock-regulation of neurotransmitter release, transportation of the membrane proteins, calcium-binding capability, and so on. We also found a rhythmic phosphorylation of N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein and identified one of the amino acid residues modified by phosphorylation. These findings provide a new perspective on the relationship between the physiological functions of the retina and the circadian clock system. [source]

A mass spectrometry based functional assay for the quantitative assessment of ABC transporter activity

Mária Katona
ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters are highly expressed in pharmacological barriers limiting the access of drugs to their targets. Since characterization of a compound as a transporter substrate or inhibitor bears significant consequences in drug development, there is a great need for reliable tools that enable the rapid analysis of the transport susceptibility of drugs. Here we describe a simple but very efficient high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) assay for measuring the ABC transporter-dependent vesicular transport of compounds. In addition, we provide evidence that the requirement for sample preparation can be minimized using desorption electrospray ionization (DESI)-MS, paving the way for a direct, high-throughput investigation of drug-transporter interactions. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Effects of bosentan, an endothelin receptor antagonist, on bile salt export pump and multidrug resistance,associated protein 2

Yuji Mano
Abstract The bile salt export pump (BSEP/Bsep/ABCB11) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2/Mrp2/ABCC2) are involved in bile acid-dependent and -independent bile secretion, respectively. It has been reported that bosentan, an endothelin receptor antagonist, inhibits Bsep, which may lead to cholestatic liver injury due to the intracellular accumulation of bile salts, while increasing bile salt-independent bile flow. Thus, in this study, the effects of bosentan on BSEP/Bsep and MRP2/Mrp2 were evaluated using membrane vesicles derived from Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf) 9 cells, which express these transporters. The adenosine 5,-triphosphate (ATP)-dependent uptake of 3H-taurocholic acid into membrane vesicles for BSEP/Bsep was inhibited by bosentan, and its IC50 values were 76.8 and 101 µM for BSEP and Bsep, respectively. In contrast, bosentan stimulated the MRP2/Mrp2-mediated ATP-dependent vesicular transport of 3H-estradiol 17,-glucuronide by shifting the sigmoidal dependence of transport rate on substrate concentration to a more hyperbolic one. Collectively, these results suggest that bosentan inhibits BSEP in humans with a similar potency to rats, and that increased bile salt-independent flow in rats by bosentan is at least partly attributable to the activation of Mrp2. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Berry anthocyanins and anthocyanidins exhibit distinct affinities for the efflux transporters BCRP and MDR1

A Dreiseitel
Background and purpose:, Dietary anthocyanins hold great promise in the prevention of chronic disease but factors affecting their bioavailability remain poorly defined. Specifically, the role played by transport mechanisms at the intestinal and blood,brain barriers (BBB) is currently unknown. Experimental approach:, In the present study, 16 anthocyanins and anthocyanidins were exposed to the human efflux transporters multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), using dye efflux, ATPase and, for BCRP, vesicular transport assays. Key results:, All test compounds interacted with the BCRP transporter in vitro. Of these, seven emerged as potential BCRP substrates (malvidin, petunidin, malvidin-3-galactoside, malvidin-3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin-3-galactoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside) and 12 as potential inhibitors of BCRP (cyanidin, peonidin, cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, malvidin, pelargonidin, delphinidin, petunidin, delphinidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3,5-diglucoside, malvidin-3-galactoside). Malvidin, malvidin-3-galactoside and petunidin exhibited bimodal activities serving as BCRP substrates at low concentrations and, at higher concentrations, as BCRP inhibitors. Effects on MDR1, in contrast, were weak. Only aglycones exerted mild inhibitory activity. Conclusions and implications:, Although the anthocyanidins under study may alter pharmacokinetics of drugs that are BCRP substrates, they are less likely to interfere with activities of MDR1 substrates. The present data suggest that several anthocyanins and anthocyanidins may be actively transported out of intestinal tissues and endothelia, limiting their bioavailability in plasma and brain. [source]

Short- and long-term differential effects of neuroprotective drug NS-7 on voltage-dependent sodium channels in adrenal chromaffin cells

Hiroki Yokoo
In cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, NS-7 [4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-methyl-6-(5-piperidinopentyloxy) pyrimidine hydrochloride], a newly-synthesized neuroprotective drug, inhibited veratridine-induced 22Na+ influx via voltage-dependent Na+ channels (IC50=11.4 ,M). The inhibition by NS-7 occurred in the presence of ouabain, an inhibitor of Na+,K+ ATPase, but disappeared at higher concentration of veratridine, and upon the washout of NS-7. NS-7 attenuated veratridine-induced 45Ca2+ influx via voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (IC50=20.0 ,M) and catecholamine secretion (IC50=25.8 ,M). Chronic (12 h) treatment of cells with NS-7 increased cell surface [3H]-STX binding by 86% (EC50=10.5 ,M; t1/2=27 h), but did not alter the KD value; it was prevented by cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, or brefeldin A, an inhibitor of vesicular transport from the trans -Golgi network, but was not associated with increased levels of Na+ channel ,- and ,1 -subunit mRNAs. In cells subjected to chronic NS-7 treatment, 22Na+ influx caused by veratridine (site 2 toxin), ,-scorpion venom (site 3 toxin) or ,-scorpion venom (site 4 toxin) was suppressed even after the extensive washout of NS-7, and veratridine-induced 22Na+ influx remained depressed even at higher concentration of veratridine; however, either ,- or ,-scorpion venom, or Ptychodiscus brevis toxin-3 (site 5 toxin) enhanced veratridine-induced 22Na+ influx as in nontreated cells. These results suggest that in the acute treatment, NS-7 binds to the site 2 and reversibly inhibits Na+ channels, thereby reducing Ca2+ channel gating and catecholamine secretion. Chronic treatment with NS-7 up-regulates cell surface Na+ channels via translational and externalization events, but persistently inhibits Na+ channel gating without impairing the cooperative interaction between the functional domains of Na+ channels. British Journal of Pharmacology (2000) 131, 779,787; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0703622 [source]

Endosomal sorting complex required for transport proteins in cancer pathogenesis, vesicular transport, and non-endosomal functions

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 7 2008
Nobuyuki Tanaka
Endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) proteins form a multicomplex sorting machinery that controls multivesicular body (MVB) formation and the sorting of ubiquitinated membrane proteins to the endosomes. Being sorted to the MVB generally results in the lysosome-dependent degradation of cell-surface receptors, and defects in this machinery induce dysregulated receptor traffic and turnover. Recent lessons from gene targeting and silencing methodologies have implicated the ESCRT in normal development, cell differentiation, and growth, as well as in the budding of certain enveloped viruses. Furthermore, it is becoming apparent that the dysregulation of ESCRT proteins is involved in the development of various human diseases, including many types of cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we summarize the roles of ESCRT proteins in MVB sorting processes and the regulation of tumor cells, and we discuss some of their other functions that are unrelated to vesicular transport. (Cancer Sci 2008; 99: 1293,1303) [source]

Synthesis and Evaluation of Acyl Protein Thioesterase 1 (APT1) Inhibitors

Markus Biel Dipl.-Chem.
Abstract Lipid-modified proteins play decisive roles in important biological processes such as signal transduction, organisation of the cytoskeleton and vesicular transport. Lipidation of these proteins is essential for correct biological function. Among the modifications with lipids, prenylation and myristoylation are well understood. However, the machinery of palmitoylation is still under investigation. Recently, an enzyme, acyl protein thioesterase 1 (APT1), that may play a regulatory role in the palmitoylation cycle of H-Ras and G-protein , subunits, was purified. Motivated by this work, several inhibitors of APT1 were designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated leading to highly active compounds. [source]