Velocity Dispersion (velocity + dispersion)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Velocity Dispersion

  • stellar velocity dispersion

  • Terms modified by Velocity Dispersion

  • velocity dispersion profile

  • Selected Abstracts

    Velocity dispersions of dwarf spheroidal galaxies: dark matter versus MOND

    Ewa L.
    We present predictions for the line-of-sight velocity dispersion profiles of dwarf spheroidal galaxies and compare them to observations in the case of the Fornax dwarf. The predictions are made in the framework of standard dynamical theory of spherical systems with different velocity distributions. The stars are assumed to be distributed according to Sérsic laws with parameters fitted to observations. We compare predictions obtained assuming the presence of dark matter haloes (with density profiles adopted from N -body simulations) with those resulting from Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). If the anisotropy of velocity distribution is treated as a free parameter, observational data for Fornax are reproduced equally well by models with dark matter and with MOND. If stellar mass-to-light ratio of 1 M,/L, is assumed, the required mass of the dark halo is , two orders of magnitude larger than the mass in stars. The derived MOND acceleration scale is . In both cases a certain amount of tangential anisotropy in the velocity distribution is needed to reproduce the shape of the velocity dispersion profile in Fornax. [source]

    Seismic wave properties in time-dependent porosity homogeneous media

    G. Quiroga-Goode
    SUMMARY It is quantified the properties of seismic waves in fully saturated homogeneous porous media within the framework of Sahay's modified and reformulated poroelastic theory. The computational results comprise amplitude attenuation, velocity dispersion and seismic waveforms. They show that the behaviour of all four waves modelled as a function of offset, frequency, porosity, fluid viscosity and source bandwidth depicts realistic dissipation within the sonic,ultrasonic band. Therefore, it appears that there is no need to include material heterogeneity to model attenuation. By inference it is concluded that the fluid viscosity effects may be enhanced by dynamic porosity. [source]

    The influence of fluid-sensitive dispersion and attenuation on AVO analysis

    Mark Chapman
    SUMMARY Analysis of seismic data suggests that hydrocarbon deposits are often associated with higher than usual values of attenuation, but this is generally ignored during amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) analysis. The effect can be modelled with equivalent medium theory based on the squirt flow concept, but the excess attenuation is associated with strong velocity dispersion. Consequently, when we study reflections from the interface between such an equivalent medium and an elastic overburden we find that the reflection coefficient varies with frequency. The impact of this variation depends on the AVO behaviour at the interface; class I reflections tend to be shifted to higher frequency while class III reflections have their lower frequencies amplified. We calculate synthetic seismograms for typical models using the reflectivity method for materials with frequency dependent velocities and attenuations, and find that these effects are predicted to be detectable on stacked data. Two field data sets show frequency anomalies similar to those predicted by the analysis, and we suggest that our modelling provides a plausible explanation of the observations. [source]


    ABSTRACT An ultrasonic technique was used to study the changes of the rheological properties of dough during fermentation at 37C and compared with the extensional properties of fermented dough obtained from tensile tests carried out in a Universal Testing Maching. The velocity and attenuation of a longitudinal wave (P-wave) propagated through the dough samples were measured and analyzed to obtain the viscoelastic moduli of the dough; the storage modulus M' and the loss modulus M". These moduli include both the bulk and the shear moduli. A wavelet analysis also was used to determine the effect of frequency on the ultrasonic-based viscoelastic moduli and the effect of the fermentation process on the ultrasonic velocity dispersion. A decrease in ultrasonic velocity was observed with increasing fermentation times. Ultrasonic waves were strongly attenuated in the dough subjected to long fermentation times and fermentation had a large influence on the viscoelastic moduli of the dough. The ultrasonic velocity increased with increasing frequency, clearly showing the viscoelastic nature of the fermented dough. The analysis also showed significant ultrasonic velocity dispersion upon fermentation. Ultrasonic measurements yielded results that agreed with those obtained from conventional rheology commonly used to characterize the extensional properties of dough. Both tests clearly showed the loss of elasticity by the dough samples upon fermentation. [source]

    Structures in the fundamental plane of early-type galaxies

    D. Fraix-Burnet
    ABSTRACT The fundamental plane of early-type galaxies is a rather tight three-parameter correlation discovered more than 20 yr ago. It has resisted both a global and precise physical interpretation despite a consequent number of works, observational, theoretical or using numerical simulations. It appears that its precise properties depend on the population of galaxies in study. Instead of selecting a priori these populations, we propose to objectively construct homologous populations from multivariate analyses. We have undertaken multivariate cluster and cladistic analyses of a sample of 56 low-redshift galaxy clusters containing 699 early-type galaxies, using four parameters: effective radius, velocity dispersion, surface brightness averaged over effective radius and Mg2 index. All our analyses are consistent with seven groups that define separate regions on the global fundamental plane, not across its thickness. In fact, each group shows its own fundamental plane, which is more loosely defined for less diversified groups. We conclude that the global fundamental plane is not a bent surface, but made of a collection of several groups characterizing several fundamental planes with different thicknesses and orientations in the parameter space. Our diversification scenario probably indicates that the level of diversity is linked to the number and the nature of transforming events and that the fundamental plane is the result of several transforming events. We also show that our classification, not the fundamental planes, is universal within our redshift range (0.007,0.053). We find that the three groups with the thinnest fundamental planes presumably formed through dissipative (wet) mergers. In one of them, this(ese) merger(s) must have been quite ancient because of the relatively low metallicity of its galaxies, Two of these groups have subsequently undergone dry mergers to increase their masses. In the k-space, the third one clearly occupies the region where bulges (of lenticular or spiral galaxies) lie and might also have formed through minor mergers and accretions. The two least diversified groups probably did not form by major mergers and must have been strongly affected by interactions, some of the gas in the objects of one of these groups having possibly been swept out. The interpretation, based on specific assembly histories of galaxies of our seven groups, shows that they are truly homologous. They were obtained directly from several observables, thus independently of any a priori classification. The diversification scenario relating these groups does not depend on models or numerical simulations, but is objectively provided by the cladistic analysis. Consequently, our classification is more easily compared to models and numerical simulations, and our work can be readily repeated with additional observables. [source]

    Cosmology and cluster halo scaling relations

    Pablo A. Araya-Melo
    ABSTRACT We explore the effects of dark matter and dark energy on the dynamical scaling properties of galaxy clusters. We investigate the cluster Faber,Jackson (FJ), Kormendy and Fundamental Plane (FP) relations between the mass, radius and velocity dispersion of cluster-sized haloes in cosmological N -body simulations. The simulations span a wide range of cosmological parameters, representing open, flat and closed Universes. Independently of the cosmology, we find that the simulated clusters are close to a perfect virial state and do indeed define an FP. The fitted parameters of the FJ, Kormendy and FP relationships do not show any significant dependence on ,m and/or ,,. One outstanding effect is the influence of ,m on the thickness of the FP. Following the time evolution of our models, we find slight changes of FJ and Kormendy parameters in high-,m universe, along with a slight decrease of FP fitting parameters. We also see an initial increase of the FP thickness followed by a convergence to a nearly constant value. The epoch of convergence is later for higher values of ,m, while the thickness remains constant in the low- ,m , models. We also find a continuous increase of the FP thickness in the standard cold dark matter cosmology. There is no evidence that these differences are due to the different power spectrum slopes at cluster scales. From the point of view of the FP, there is little difference between clusters that quietly accreted their mass and those that underwent massive mergers. The principal effect of strong mergers is to significantly change the ratio of the half-mass radius rhalf to the harmonic mean radius rh. [source]

    An optimized H, index for disentangling stellar population ages

    J. L. Cervantes
    ABSTRACT We have defined a new H, absorption index definition, H,o, which has been optimized as an age indicator for old and intermediate age stellar populations. Rather than using stellar spectra, we employed for this purpose a library of stellar population spectral energy distributions of different ages and metallicities at moderately high resolution. H,o provides us with improved abilities for lifting the age,metallicity degeneracy affecting the standard H, Lick index definition. The new index, which has also been optimized against photon noise and velocity dispersion, is fully characterized with wavelength shift, spectrum shape, dust extinction and [,/Fe] abundance ratio effects. H,o requires spectra of similar qualities as those commonly used for measuring the standard H, Lick index definition. Aiming at illustrating the use and capabilities of H,o as an age indicator we apply it to Milky Way globular clusters and to a well selected sample of early-type galaxies covering a wide range in mass. The results shown here are particularly useful for applying this index and understand the involved uncertainties. [source]

    Global properties of the rich cluster ABCG 209 at z, 0.2. Spectroscopic and photometric catalogue

    A. Mercurio
    ABSTRACT This paper is aimed at giving an overview of the global properties of the rich cluster of galaxies ABCG 209. This is achieved by complementing the already available data with new medium-resolution spectroscopy and near-infrared (NIR) photometry which allow us to (i) analyse in detail the cluster dynamics, distinguishing among galaxies belonging to different substructures and deriving their individual velocity distributions, using a total sample of 148 galaxies in the cluster region, of which 134 belonging to the cluster; (ii) derive the cluster NIR luminosity function; (iii) study the Kormendy relation and the photometric plane of cluster early-type galaxies (ETGs). Finally we provide an extensive photometric (optical and NIR) and spectroscopic data set for such a complex system to be used in further analyses investigating the nature, formation and evolution of rich clusters of galaxies. The present study shows that the cluster is characterized by a very high value of the line-of-sight velocity dispersion: ,v= 1268+93,84 km s,1, that results in a virial mass of Mvir= 2.95+0.80,0.78× 1015 h,170 M, within Rvir= 3.42 h,170 Mpc. The analysis of the velocity dispersion profile shows that such high value of ,v is already reached in the central cluster region. There is evidence of three significant substructures, the primary one having a velocity dispersion of ,v= 847+52,49 km s,1, which makes it consistent with mass estimates from weak lensing analyses. This observational scenario confirms that ABCG 209 is presently undergoing strong dynamical evolution with the merging of two or more subclumps. This interpretation is also supported by the detection of a radio halo suggesting that there is a recent or ongoing merging. Cluster ETGs follow a Kormendy relation whose slope is consistent with previous studies both at optical and NIR wavelengths. We investigate the origin of the intrinsic scatter of the photometric plane due to trends of stellar populations, using line indices as indicators of age, metallicity and ,/Fe enhancement. We find that the chemical evolution of galaxies could be responsible for the intrinsic dispersion of the photometric plane. [source]

    The tightening of wide binaries in dSph galaxies through dynamical friction as a test of the dark matter hypothesis

    X. Hernandez
    ABSTRACT We estimate the time-scales for orbital decay of wide binaries embedded within dark matter haloes, due to dynamical friction against the dark matter particles. We derive analytical scalings for this decay and calibrate and test them through the extensive use of N -body simulations, which accurately confirm the predicted temporal evolution. For density and velocity dispersion parameters as inferred for the dark matter haloes of local dSph galaxies, we show that the decay time-scales become shorter than the ages of the dSph stellar populations for binary stars composed of 1 M, stars, for initial separations larger than 0.1 pc. Such wide binaries are conspicuous and have been well measured in the solar neighbourhood. The prediction of the dark matter hypothesis is that they should now be absent from stellar populations embedded within low velocity dispersion, high-density dark mater haloes, as currently inferred for the local dSph galaxies, having since evolved into tighter binaries. Relevant empirical determinations of this will become technically feasible in the near future, and could provide evidence to discriminate between dark matter particle haloes or modified gravitational theories, to account for the high dispersion velocities measured for stars in local dSph galaxies. [source]

    A model of cloud fragmentation

    George B. Field
    ABSTRACT We present a model in which the supersonic motions observed in molecular clouds are driven by gravitational energy released as large structures fragment into smaller ones. The fragmentation process begins in large molecular clouds, and continues down to fragments of a critical mass defined as the mass at which gravitational confinement may be replaced by pressure confinement. The power laws that describe the scaling of density, mass, and number spectra of the fragments are given in terms of the observed velocity dispersion of the fragments. The results agree with observations over the range from several to about a third of a million solar masses. [source]

    Observational biases in Lagrangian reconstructions of cosmic velocity fields

    G. Lavaux
    ABSTRACT Lagrangian reconstruction of large-scale peculiar velocity fields can be strongly affected by observational biases. We develop a thorough analysis of these systematic effects by relying on specially selected mock catalogues. For the purpose of this paper, we use the Monge,Ampère,Kantorovitch (MAK) reconstruction method, although any other Lagrangian reconstruction method should be sensitive to the same problems. We extensively study the uncertainty in the mass-to-light assignment due to incompleteness (missing luminous mass tracers), and the poorly determined relation between mass and luminosity. The impact of redshift distortion corrections is analysed in the context of MAK and we check the importance of edge and finite-volume effects on the reconstructed velocities. Using three mock catalogues with different average densities, we also study the effect of cosmic variance. In particular, one of them presents the same global features as found in observational catalogues that extend to 80 h,1 Mpc scales. We give recipes, checked using the aforementioned mock catalogues, to handle these particular observational effects, after having introduced them into the mock catalogues so as to quantitatively mimic the most densely sampled currently available galaxy catalogue of the nearby Universe. Once biases have been taken care of, the typical resulting error in reconstructed velocities is typically about a quarter of the overall velocity dispersion, and without significant bias. We finally model our reconstruction errors to propose an improved Bayesian approach to measure ,m in an unbiased way by comparing the reconstructed velocities to the measured ones in distance space, even though they may be plagued by large errors. We show that, in the context of observational data, it is possible to build a nearly unbiased estimator of ,m using MAK reconstruction. [source]

    Comparative study between N -body and Fokker,Planck simulations for rotating star clusters , I. Equal-mass system

    Eunhyeuk Kim
    ABSTRACT We have carried out N -body simulations for rotating star clusters with equal mass and compared the results with Fokker,Planck models. These two different approaches are found to produce fairly similar results, although there are some differences with regard to the detailed aspects. We confirmed the acceleration of the core collapse of a cluster due to an initial non-zero angular momentum and found a similar evolutionary trend in the central density and velocity dispersion in both simulations. The degree of acceleration depends on the initial angular momentum. Angular momentum is being lost from the cluster due to the evaporation of stars with a large angular momentum on a relaxation time-scale. [source]

    The polar ring galaxy AM1934,563 revisited,

    Noah Brosch
    ABSTRACT We report long-slit spectroscopic observations of the dust-lane polar ring galaxy AM1934,563 obtained with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) during its performance verification phase. The observations target the spectral region of the H,, [N ii] and [S ii] emission lines, but also show deep Na i absorption lines, that we interpret as being produced by stars in the galaxy. We derive rotation curves along the major axis of the galaxy that extend out to about 8 kpc from the centre for both the gaseous and the stellar components, using the emission and absorption lines. We derive similar rotation curves along the major axis of the polar ring and point out differences between these and the ones of the main galaxy. We identify a small diffuse object visible only in H, emission and with a low velocity dispersion as a dwarf H ii galaxy and argue that it is probably metal poor. Its velocity indicates that it is a fourth member of the galaxy group in which AM1934,563 belongs. We discuss the observations in the context of the proposal that the object is the result of tidal mater transfer from a major neighbour galaxy and point out some observational discrepancies from this explanation. We argue that an alternative scenario that could better fit the observations may be the slow accretion of cold intergalactic gas, focused by a dense filament of galaxies in which this object is embedded. Given the pattern of rotation we found, with the asymptotic rotation of the gas in the ring being slower than that in the disc while both components have approximately the same extent, we point out that AM1934,563 may be a galaxy in which a dark matter halo is flattened along the galactic disc and the first object in which this predicted behaviour of polar ring galaxies in dark matter haloes is fulfilled. [source]

    New scaling relations in cluster radio haloes and the re-acceleration model

    R. Cassano
    ABSTRACT In this paper we derive new expected scaling relations for clusters with giant radio haloes in the framework of the re-acceleration scenario in a simplified, but physically motivated, form, namely: radio power (PR) versus size of the radio emitting region (RH), and PR versus total cluster mass (MH) contained in the emitting region and cluster velocity dispersion (,H) in this region. We search for these correlations by analysing the most recent radio and X-ray data available in the literature for a well-known sample of clusters with giant radio haloes. In particular we find a good correlation between PR and RH and a very tight ,geometrical' scaling between MH and RH. From these correlations PR is also expected to scale with MH and ,H and this is confirmed by our analysis. We show that all the observed trends can be well reconciled with expectations in the case of a slight variation of the mean magnetic field strength in the radio halo volume with MH. A byproduct correlation between RH and ,H is also found, and can be further tested by optical studies. In addition, we find that observationally RH scales non-linearly with the virial radius of the host cluster, and this immediately means that the fraction of the cluster volume which is radio emitting increases with cluster mass and thus that the non-thermal component in clusters is not self-similar. [source]

    H i imaging of galaxies in X-ray bright groups

    Chandreyee Sengupta
    ABSTRACT Environment plays an important role in the evolution of the gas contents of galaxies. Gas deficiency of cluster spirals and the role of the hot intracluster medium in stripping gas from these galaxies is a well-studied subject. Loose groups with diffuse X-ray emission from the intragroup medium (IGM) offer an intermediate environment between clusters and groups without a hot IGM. These X-ray bright groups have smaller velocity dispersion and lower temperature than clusters, but higher IGM density than loose groups without diffuse X-ray emission. A single-dish comparative study of loose groups with and without diffuse X-ray emission from the IGM, showed that the galaxies in X-ray bright groups have lost more gas on average than the galaxies in non X-ray bright groups. In this paper we present GMRT H i observations of 13 galaxies from four X-ray bright groups: NGC 5044, 720, 1550 and IC1459. The aim of this work is to study the morphology of H i in these galaxies and to see if the hot IGM has in any way affected their H i content or distribution. In addition to disturbed H i morphology, we find that most galaxies have shrunken H i discs compared to the field spirals. This indicates that IGM-assisted stripping processes like ram pressure may have stripped gas from the outer edges of the galaxies. [source]

    A search for the third lensed image in JVAS B1030+074

    M. Zhang
    ABSTRACT Central gravitational image detection is very important for the study of the mass distribution of the inner parts (,100 pc) of lens galaxies. However, the detection of such images is extremely rare and difficult. We present a 1.7-GHz High Sensitivity Array (HSA) observation of the double-image radio lens system B1030+074. The data are combined with archive Very Long Baseline Array and global very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations, and careful consideration is given to the effects of noise, cleaning and self-calibration. An upper limit is derived for the strength of the central image of 180 ,Jy (90 per cent confidence level), considerably greater than would have been expected on the basis of a simple analysis. This gives a lower limit of ,103 for the ratio of the brightest image to the central image. For cusped models of lens mass distributions, we have made use of this non-detection to constrain the relation between inner power-law slope , of the lensing galaxy mass profile, and its break radius rb. For rb > 130 pc the power-law slope is required to be close to isothermal (, > 1.8). A flatter inner slope is allowed if a massive black hole is present at the centre of the lensing galaxy, but the effect of the black hole is small unless it is ,10 times more massive than that implied by the relation between black hole mass and stellar velocity dispersion. By comparing four epochs of VLBI observations, we also detected possible superluminal motion in the jet in the brighter image A. The B jet remains unresolved, as expected from a simple lens model of the system. [source]

    On the relative motions of dense cores and envelopes in star-forming molecular clouds

    Ben A. Ayliffe
    ABSTRACT Hydrodynamical simulations of star formation indicate that the motions of protostars through their natal molecular clouds may be crucial in determining the properties of stars through competitive accretion and dynamical interactions. Walsh, Myers & Burton recently investigated whether such motions might be observable in the earliest stages of star formation by measuring the relative shifts of line-centre velocities of low- and high-density tracers of low-mass star-forming cores. They found very small (,0.1 km s,1) relative motions. In this paper, we analyse the hydrodynamical simulation of Bate, Bonnell & Bromm and find that it also gives small relative velocities between high-density cores and low-density envelopes, despite the fact that competitive accretion and dynamical interactions occur between protostars in the simulation. Thus, the simulation is consistent with the observations in this respect. However, we also find some differences between the simulation and the observations. Overall, we find that the high-density gas has a higher velocity dispersion than that observed by Walsh et al. We explore this by examining the dependence of the gas velocity dispersion on density and its evolution with time during the simulation. We find that early in the simulation the gas velocity dispersion decreases monotonically with increasing density, while later in the simulation, when the dense cores have formed multiple objects, the velocity dispersion of the high-density gas increases. Thus, the simulation is in best agreement with the observations early on, before many objects have formed in each dense core. [source]

    Voids in the 2dFGRS and ,CDM simulations: spatial and dynamical properties

    L. Ceccarelli
    ABSTRACT We perform a statistical study on the distribution and dynamics of voids in the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS). Our statistics are tested and calibrated using mock 2dFGRS catalogues. We analyse the dynamics around voids in mock and real 2dFGRS surveys. The void,galaxy cross-correlation redshift-space distortions show evidence of the continuing growth of voids, confirming another prediction of the hierarchical clustering scenario. A non-linear outflow model can be used to provide quantitative estimates of the outflow velocities around 2dFGRS voids. These results are consistent with maximum outflows of 110, 210 and 270 km s,1 for voids of ,rvoid,= 7.5, 12.5 and 17.5 Mpc h,1, assuming a galaxy bias of b= 1. As an application for future surveys, our study of the mock catalogues shows that direct measurements of the expansion of voids can be obtained using peculiar velocity data. We find that it would also be possible to detect differences in the velocity dispersion of galaxies in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the void walls. [source]

    The clustering of narrow-line AGN in the local Universe

    Cheng Li
    ABSTRACT We have analysed the clustering of ,90 000 narrow-line active galactic nuclei (AGN) drawn from the Data Release 4 (DR4) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our analysis addresses the following questions. (i) How do the locations of galaxies within the large-scale distribution of dark matter influence ongoing accretion on to their central black holes? (ii) Is AGN activity triggered by interactions or mergers between galaxies? We compute the cross-correlation between AGN and a reference sample of galaxies drawn from the DR4. We compare this to results for control samples of inactive galaxies matched simultaneously in redshift, stellar mass, concentration, velocity dispersion and mean stellar age, as measured by the 4000-Å break strength. We also compare near-neighbour counts around AGN and around the control galaxies. On scales larger than a few Mpc, AGN have almost the same clustering amplitude as the control sample. This demonstrates that AGN host galaxies and inactive control galaxies populate dark matter haloes of similar mass. On scales between 100 kpc and 1 Mpc, AGN are clustered more weakly than the control galaxies. We use mock catalogues constructed from high-resolution N -body simulations to interpret this antibias, showing that the observed effect is easily understood if AGN are preferentially located at the centres of their dark matter haloes. On scales less than 70 kpc, AGN cluster marginally more strongly than the control sample, but the effect is weak. When compared to the control sample, we find that only one in 100 AGN has an extra neighbour within a radius of 70 kpc. This excess increases as a function of the accretion rate on to the black hole, but it does not rise above the few per cent level. Although interactions between galaxies may be responsible for triggering nuclear activity in a minority of nearby AGN, some other mechanism is required to explain the activity seen in the majority of the objects in our sample. [source]

    The formation of molecular clouds in spiral galaxies

    C. L. Dobbs
    ABSTRACT We present smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of molecular cloud formation in spiral galaxies. These simulations model the response of a non-self-gravitating gaseous disc to a galactic potential. The spiral shock induces high densities in the gas, and considerable structure in the spiral arms, which we identify as molecular clouds. We regard the formation of these structures as due to the dynamics of clumpy shocks, which perturb the flow of gas through the spiral arms. In addition, the spiral shocks induce a large velocity dispersion in the spiral arms, comparable with the magnitude of the velocity dispersion observed in molecular clouds. We estimate the formation of molecular hydrogen, by post-processing our results and assuming the gas is isothermal. Provided the gas is cold (T, 100 K), the gas is compressed sufficiently in the spiral shock for molecular hydrogen formation to occur in the dense spiral arm clumps. These molecular clouds are largely confined to the spiral arms, since most molecular gas is photodissociated to atomic hydrogen upon leaving the arms. [source]

    Discovery and analysis of three faint dwarf galaxies and a globular cluster in the outer halo of the Andromeda galaxy,

    N. F. Martin
    ABSTRACT We present the discovery of three faint dwarf galaxies and a globular cluster in the halo of the Andromeda galaxy (M31), found in our MegaCam survey that spans the southern quadrant of M31, from a projected distance of ,50 to ,150 kpc. Though the survey covers 57 deg2, the four satellites lie within 2° of one another. From the tip of the red giant branch (RGB), we estimate that the globular cluster lies at a distance of 631 ± 58 kpc from the Milky Way and along with a ,100 kpc projected distance from M31 we derive a total distance of 175 ± 55 kpc from its host, making it the farthest M31 globular cluster known. It also shows the typical characteristics of a bright globular cluster, with a half-light radius of 2.3 ± 0.2 pc and an absolute magnitude in the V band of MV,0=,8.5 ± 0.3. Isochrone fitting reveals that it is dominated by a very old population with a metallicity of [Fe/H],,1.3. The three dwarf galaxies are revealed as overdensities of stars that are aligned along the RGB tracks in their colour,magnitude diagrams. These satellites are all very faint, with absolute magnitudes in the range ,7.3 ,MV,0,,6.4, and show strikingly similar characteristics with metallicities of [Fe/H],,1.4 and half-light radii of ,120 ± 45 pc, making these dwarf galaxies two to three times smaller than the smallest previously known satellites of M31. Given their faintness, their distance is difficult to constrain, but we estimate them to be between 740 and 955 kpc which places them well within the virial radius of the host galaxy. The panoramic view of the MegaCam survey can provide an unbiased view of the satellite distribution of the Andromeda galaxy and, extrapolating from its coverage of the halo, we estimate that up to 45 ± 20 satellites brighter than MV,,6.5 should be orbiting M31. Hence faint dwarf galaxies cannot alone account for the missing satellites that are predicted by , cold dark matter models, unless they reside in dark matter minihaloes that are more massive than the typical masses of 107 M, currently inferred from their central radial velocity dispersion. [source]

    An extensive study of dynamical friction in dwarf galaxies: the role of stars, dark matter, halo profiles and MOND

    F. J. Sánchez-Salcedo
    ABSTRACT We investigate the in-spiralling time-scales of globular clusters (GCs) in dwarf spheroidal (dSph) and dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies, due to dynamical friction (DF). We address the problem of these time-scales having been variously estimated in the literature as much shorter than a Hubble time. Using self-consistent two-component (dark matter and stars) models, we explore mechanisms which may yield extended DF time-scales in such systems in order to explain why dwarf galaxies often show GC systems. As a general rule, dark matter and stars both give a comparable contribution to the dynamical drag. By exploring various possibilities for their gravitational make-up, it is shown that these studies help to constrain the parameters of the dark matter haloes in these galaxies, as well as to test alternatives to dark matter. Under the assumption of a dark halo having a central density core with a typical King core radius somewhat larger than the observed stellar core radius, DF time-scales are naturally extended upwards of a Hubble time. Cuspy dark haloes yield time-scales ,4.5 Gyr, for any dark halo parameters in accordance with observations of stellar line-of-sight velocity dispersion in dSph galaxies. We confirm, after a detailed formulation of the DF problem under the alternative hypothesis of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) and in the lack of any dark matter, that due to the enhanced dynamical drag of the stars, the DF time-scales in MOND would be extremely short. Taking the well-measured structural parameters of the Fornax dSph and its GC system as a case study, we conclude that requiring DF time-scales comparable to the Hubble time strongly favours dark haloes with a central core. [source]

    The NOAO Fundamental Plane Survey , III.

    Variations in the stellar populations of red-sequence galaxies from the cluster core to the virial radius
    ABSTRACT We analyse absorption line-strength indices for ,3000 red-sequence galaxies in 94 nearby clusters to investigate systematic variations of their stellar content with location in the host cluster. The data are drawn from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) Fundamental Plane Survey. Our adopted method is a generalization of that introduced by Nelan et al. to determine the global age,mass and metallicity,mass relations from the same survey. We find strong evidence for a change in galaxy properties, at fixed mass, over a range from the cluster centre to the virial radius, R200. For example, red-sequence galaxies further out in the clusters have weaker Mgb5177 (at ,8, significance) and stronger H, and H, absorption (,3,, ,4,) than galaxies of the same velocity dispersion in the cluster cores. The Fe5270 and Fe5335 indices show only very weak trends with radius. Using a total of 12 indices, the pattern of cluster-centric gradients is considered in light of their different dependences on stellar age and chemical composition. The measured gradients for all 12 indices can be reproduced by a model in which red-sequence galaxies at ,1 R200 have on average younger ages (by 15 ± 4 per cent) and lower ,-element abundance ratios (by 10 ± 2 per cent) than galaxies of the same velocity dispersion but located near the cluster centres. For the total metallicity, Z/H, no significant gradient is found (2 ± 3 per cent larger at R200 than in the cores). There are hints that the age trend may be stronger for galaxies of lower mass and/or for galaxies with more discy morphology. We show, however, that the trends cannot be driven primarily by changes in the morphological mix as a function of radius. The cluster-centric age and [,/Fe] gradients are in the sense expected if galaxies in the cluster core were accreted at an earlier epoch than those at larger radii, and if this earlier accretion contributed to an earlier cessation of star formation. The size of the observed age trend is comparable to predictions from semi-analytic models of hierarchical galaxy formation. [source]

    The SAURON project , VI.

    Line strength maps of 48 elliptical, lenticular galaxies
    ABSTRACT We present absorption line strength maps of 48 representative elliptical and lenticular galaxies obtained as part of a survey of nearby galaxies using our custom-built integral-field spectrograph, SAURON, operating on the William Herschel Telescope. Using high-quality spectra, spatially binned to a constant signal-to-noise ratio, we measure four key age, metallicity and abundance ratio sensitive indices from the Lick/IDS system over a two-dimensional field extending up to approximately one effective radius. A discussion of calibrations and offsets is given, along with a description of error estimation and nebular emission correction. We modify the classical Fe5270 index to define a new index, Fe5270S, which maximizes the useable spatial coverage of SAURON. Maps of H,, Fe5015, Mg b and Fe5270S are presented for each galaxy. We use the maps to compute average line strengths integrated over circular apertures of one-eighth effective radius, and compare the resulting relations of index versus velocity dispersion with previous long-slit work. The metal line strength maps show generally negative gradients with increasing radius roughly consistent with the morphology of the light profiles. Remarkable deviations from this general trend exist, particularly the Mg b isoindex contours appear to be flatter than the isophotes of the surface brightness for about 40 per cent of our galaxies without significant dust features. Generally, these galaxies exhibit significant rotation. We infer from this that the fast-rotating component features a higher metallicity and/or an increased Mg/Fe ratio as compared to the galaxy as a whole. The H, maps are typically flat or show a mild positive outwards radial gradient, while a few galaxies show strong central peaks and/or elevated overall H, strength likely connected to recent star formation activity. For the most prominent post-starburst galaxies, even the metal line strength maps show a reversed gradient. [source]

    A deep kinematic survey of planetary nebulae in the Andromeda galaxy using the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph

    H. R. Merrett
    ABSTRACT We present a catalogue of positions, magnitudes and velocities for 3300 emission-line objects found by the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph in a survey of the Andromeda galaxy, M31. Of these objects, 2615 are found likely to be planetary nebulae (PNe) associated with M31. The survey area covers the whole of M31's disc out to a radius of . Beyond this radius, observations have been made along the major and minor axes, and the Northern Spur and Southern Stream regions. The calibrated data have been checked for internal consistency and compared with other catalogues. With the exception of the very central, high surface brightness region of M31, this survey is complete to a magnitude limit of m5007, 23.75, 3.5 mag into the PN luminosity function. We have identified emission-line objects associated with M31's satellites and other background galaxies. We have examined the data from the region tentatively identified as a new satellite galaxy, Andromeda VIII, comparing it to data in the other quadrants of the galaxy. We find that the PNe in this region have velocities that appear to be consistent with membership of M31 itself. The luminosity function of the surveyed PNe is well matched to the usual smooth monotonic function. The only significant spatial variation in the luminosity function occurs in the vicinity of M31's molecular ring, where the luminosities of PNe on the near side of the galaxy are systematically ,0.2 mag fainter than those on the far side. This difference can be explained naturally by a modest amount of obscuration by the ring. The absence of any difference in luminosity function between bulge and disc suggests that the sample of PNe is not strongly populated by objects whose progenitors are more massive stars. This conclusion is reinforced by the excellent agreement between the number counts of PNe and the R -band light. The number counts of kinematically selected PNe also allow us to probe the stellar distribution in M31 down to very faint limits. There is no indication of a cut-off in M31's disc out to beyond four scalelengths, and no signs of a spheroidal halo population in excess of the bulge out to 10 effective bulge radii. We have also carried out a preliminary analysis of the kinematics of the surveyed PNe. The mean streaming velocity of the M31 disc PNe is found to show a significant asymmetric drift out to large radii. Their velocity dispersion, although initially declining with radius, flattens out to a constant value in the outer parts of the galaxy. There are no indications that the disc velocity dispersion varies with PN luminosity, once again implying that the progenitors of PNe of all magnitudes form a relatively homogeneous old population. The dispersion profile and asymmetric drift results are shown to be mutually consistent, but require that the disc flares with radius if the shape of its velocity ellipsoid remains invariant. [source]

    Forming supermassive black holes by accreting dark and baryon matter

    Jian Hu
    ABSTRACT Given a large-scale mixture of self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) particles and baryon matter distributed in the early Universe, we advance here a two-phase accretion scenario for forming supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with masses around ,109 M, at high redshifts z(,6). The first phase is conceived to involve a rapid quasi-spherical and quasi-steady Bondi accretion of mainly SIDM particles embedded with baryon matter on to seed black holes (BHs) created at redshifts z, 30 by the first generation of massive Population III stars; this earlier phase rapidly gives birth to significantly enlarged seed BH masses of during z, 20,15, where ,0 is the cross-section per unit mass of SIDM particles and Cs is the velocity dispersion in the SIDM halo referred to as an effective ,sound speed'. The second phase of BH mass growth is envisaged to proceed primarily via baryon accretion, eventually leading to SMBH masses of MBH, 109 M,; such SMBHs may form either by z, 6 for a sustained accretion at the Eddington limit or later at lower z for sub-Eddington mean accretion rates. In between these two phases, there is a transitional yet sustained diffusively limited accretion of SIDM particles which in an eventual steady state would be much lower than the accretion rates of the two main phases. We intend to account for the reported detections of a few SMBHs at early epochs, e.g. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) 1148+5251 and so forth, without necessarily resorting to either super-Eddington baryon accretion or very frequent BH merging processes. Only extremely massive dark SIDM haloes associated with rare peaks of density fluctuations in the early Universe may harbour such early SMBHs or quasars. Observational consequences are discussed. During the final stage of accumulating a SMBH mass, violent feedback in circumnuclear environs of a galactic nucleus leads to the central bulge formation and gives rise to the familiar empirical MBH,,b correlation inferred for nearby normal galaxies with ,b being the stellar velocity dispersion in the galactic bulge; in our scenario, the central SMBH formation precedes that of the galactic bulge. [source]

    The distribution and kinematics of early high-, peaks in present-day haloes: implications for rare objects and old stellar populations

    Jürg Diemand
    ABSTRACT We show that the hierarchical assembly of cold dark matter haloes preserves the memory of the initial conditions. Using N -body cosmological simulations, we demonstrate that the present-day spatial distribution and kinematics of objects that formed within early(z, 10) protogalactic systems (old stars, satellite galaxies, globular clusters, massive black holes, etc.) depends mostly on the rarity of the peak of the primordial density field to which they originally belonged. Only for objects forming at lower redshifts does the exact formation site within the progenitor halo (e.g. whether near the centre or in an extended disc) become important. In present-day haloes, material from the rarer early peaks is more centrally concentrated and falls off more steeply with radius compared to the overall mass distribution, has a lower velocity dispersion, moves on more radial orbits, and has a more elongated shape. Population II stars that formed within protogalactic haloes collapsing from ,2.5, fluctuations would follow today an r,3.5 density profile with a half-light radius of 17 kpc and a velocity anisotropy that increases from isotropic in the inner regions to nearly radial at the halo edge. This agrees well with the radial velocity dispersion profile of Galaxy halo stars from the recent work of Battaglia et al. and with the anisotropic orbits of nearby halo stars. [source]

    The 2dF QSO Redshift Survey , XIV.

    Structure, evolution from the two-point correlation function
    ABSTRACT In this paper we present a clustering analysis of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) using over 20 000 objects from the final catalogue of the 2dF QSO Redshift Survey (2QZ), measuring the redshift-space two-point correlation function, ,(s). When averaged over the redshift range 0.3 < z < 2.2 we find that ,(s) is flat on small scales, steepening on scales above ,25 h,1 Mpc. In a WMAP/2dF cosmology (,m= 0.27, ,,= 0.73) we find a best-fitting power law with s0= 5.48+0.42,0.48 h,1 Mpc and ,= 1.20 ± 0.10 on scales s= 1 to 25 h,1 Mpc. We demonstrate that non-linear redshift-space distortions have a significant effect on the QSO ,(s) at scales less than ,10 h,1 Mpc. A cold dark matter model assuming WMAP/2dF cosmological parameters is a good description of the QSO ,(s) after accounting for non-linear clustering and redshift-space distortions, and allowing for a linear bias at the mean redshift of bQ(z= 1.35) = 2.02 ± 0.07. We subdivide the 2QZ into 10 redshift intervals with effective redshifts from z= 0.53 to 2.48. We find a significant increase in clustering amplitude at high redshift in the WMAP/2dF cosmology. The QSO clustering amplitude increases with redshift such that the integrated correlation function, , within 20 h,1 Mpc is and . We derive the QSO bias and find it to be a strong function of redshift with bQ(z= 0.53) = 1.13 ± 0.18 and bQ(z= 2.48) = 4.24 ± 0.53. We use these bias values to derive the mean dark matter halo (DMH) mass occupied by the QSOs. At all redshifts 2QZ QSOs inhabit approximately the same mass DMHs with MDH= (3.0 ± 1.6) × 1012 h,1 M,, which is close to the characteristic mass in the Press,Schechter mass function, M*, at z= 0. These results imply that L*Q QSOs at z, 0 should be largely unbiased. If the relation between black hole (BH) mass and MDH or host velocity dispersion does not evolve, then we find that the accretion efficiency (L/LEdd) for L*Q QSOs is approximately constant with redshift. Thus the fading of the QSO population from z, 2 to ,0 appears to be due to less massive BHs being active at low redshift. We apply different methods to estimate, tQ, the active lifetime of QSOs and constrain tQ to be in the range 4 × 106,6 × 108 yr at z, 2. We test for any luminosity dependence of QSO clustering by measuring ,(s) as a function of apparent magnitude (equivalent to luminosity relative to L*Q). However, we find no significant evidence of luminosity-dependent clustering from this data set. [source]

    Stellar velocity dispersion in narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies

    V. Botte
    ABSTRACT Several authors have recently explored, for narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s), the relationship between black hole mass (MBH) and stellar velocity dispersion (,*). Their results are more or less in agreement and seem to indicate that NLS1s fill the region below the fit obtained by Tremaine et al., showing a range of ,* similar to that of Seyfert 1 galaxies, and a lower MBH. Until now, the [O iii] width has been used in place of the stellar velocity dispersion, but some indications have begun to arise against the effectiveness of the gaseous kinematics in representing the bulge potential, at least in NLS1s. Bian & Zhao have stressed the urgency of producing true ,* measurements. Here, we present new stellar velocity dispersions obtained through direct measurements of the Ca ii absorption triplet (,8550 Å) in the nuclei of eight NLS1 galaxies. The resulting ,* values and a comparison with ,[O III] confirm our suspicion that [O iii] typically overestimates the stellar velocity dispersion. We demonstrate that NLS1s follow the MBH,,* relation as Seyfert 1, quasars and non-active galaxies. [source]

    The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: correlation functions, peculiar velocities and the matter density of the Universe

    Ed Hawkins
    ABSTRACT We present a detailed analysis of the two-point correlation function, ,(,, ,), from the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS). The large size of the catalogue, which contains ,220 000 redshifts, allows us to make high-precision measurements of various properties of the galaxy clustering pattern. The effective redshift at which our estimates are made is zs, 0.15, and similarly the effective luminosity, Ls, 1.4L*. We estimate the redshift-space correlation function, ,(s), from which we measure the redshift-space clustering length, s0= 6.82 ± 0.28 h,1 Mpc. We also estimate the projected correlation function, ,(,), and the real-space correlation function, ,(r), which can be fit by a power law (r/r0), with r0= 5.05 ± 0.26 h,1 Mpc, ,r= 1.67 ± 0.03. For r, 20 h,1 Mpc, , drops below a power law as, for instance, is expected in the popular , cold dark matter model. The ratio of amplitudes of the real- and redshift-space correlation functions on scales of 8,30 h,1 Mpc gives an estimate of the redshift-space distortion parameter ,. The quadrupole moment of ,(,, ,) on scales 30,40 h,1 Mpc provides another estimate of ,. We also estimate the distribution function of pairwise peculiar velocities, f(v), including rigorously the significant effect due to the infall velocities, and we find that the distribution is well fit by an exponential form. The accuracy of our ,(,, ,) measurement is sufficient to constrain a model, which simultaneously fits the shape and amplitude of ,(r) and the two redshift-space distortion effects parametrized by , and velocity dispersion, a. We find ,= 0.49 ± 0.09 and a= 506 ± 52 km s,1, although the best-fitting values are strongly correlated. We measure the variation of the peculiar velocity dispersion with projected separation, a(,), and find that the shape is consistent with models and simulations. This is the first time that , and f(v) have been estimated from a self-consistent model of galaxy velocities. Using the constraints on bias from recent estimates, and taking account of redshift evolution, we conclude that , (L=L*, z= 0) = 0.47 ± 0.08, and that the present-day matter density of the Universe, ,m, 0.3, consistent with other 2dFGRS estimates and independent analyses. [source]