Various Frequencies (various + frequency)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Dynamic compressive properties of porcine temporomandibular joint disc

Eiji Tanaka
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the strain frequency and amplitude on the compressive properties of the porcine temporomandibular joint disc and to determine the time-dependent changes associated with energy dissipation. Seven discs were used for compressive cycle tests, including various frequencies and magnitudes of compressive strain. Each experiment consisted of 25 cycles of loading and unloading. Hysteresis and the instantaneous and steady moduli were calculated. All specimens showed a clear hysteresis and repeatable stress,strain relationships within 19 cycles. The hysteresis at the initial cycle ranged between 35% and 62%, and gradually decreased in subsequent cycles. The instantaneous modulus became larger when the strain frequency and the strain amplitude increased. The steady modulus was approximately one-third of the instantaneous one. It was concluded that the disc has an energy-dissipating function during dynamic compression. [source]

Mechanosensitive hyaluronan secretion: stimulus,response curves and role of transcription,translation,translocation in rabbit joints

A. K. T. Wann
Joint movement was recently shown to stimulate the secretion of the lubricant hyaluronan (HA); also, exercise therapy and intra-articular hyaluronan injections are used to treat moderate osteoarthritis. The present study quantifies the stimulus,response curves for HA secretion in vivo and reports a role of transcription,translation,translocation in the secretory response. After washing out endogenous HA from anaesthetized, cannulated rabbit knees, the joints were cycled passively at various frequencies and durations, with or without intra-articular inhibitors of protein synthesis and Golgi processing. Newly secreted HA was harvested for analysis after 5 h. Joints displayed graded, non-linear stimulus,response curves to both duration and frequency of movement; 1 min duration per 15 min or a frequency of 0.17 Hz raised HA secretion by 42,54%, while rapid (1.5 Hz) or prolonged cycling (9 min per 15 min) raised it by 110,130%. Movement-stimulated secretion and phorbol ester-stimulated secretion were partly inhibited by the translation inhibitor cycloheximide, by the transcription,translation inhibitors actinomycin D and puromycin and by the Golgi translocation inhibitor brefeldin A. There is thus a graded coupling between HA secretion and cyclic joint movement that depends partly on new protein synthesis. This is likely to be important for joint homeostasis, providing protection during repetitive cycling and potentially contributing to exercise therapy for osteoarthritis. [source]

The flow-field downstream of a collapsible tube during oscillation onset

N. K. Truong
Abstract The flow-field immediately downstream of a collapsible tube during oscillation onset starting from the collapsed state was measured using two-dimensional high-speed particle image velocimetry. Both tube and fluid were chosen to produce oscillation at the lowest possible Reynolds number, of just over 300. The flow was examined in the plane formed by the tube axis extended into the downstream pipe and the major axis of the tube collapse cross-section. The resulting time-series of spatial fields of 2D velocity vectors was analysed by frequency content and by proper orthogonal decomposition. Areas of the flow where oscillation initially occurs were identified. Flow disturbances centred at various frequencies were identified, some associated with the growing oscillation arising from the instability of the fluid,structure interaction between the main flow and the tube and others associated with the instability of the confined twin jets emanating from the collapsed-tube throat. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Influence of the frequency parameter on extracellular glutamate and ,-aminobutyric acid in substantia nigra and globus pallidus during electrical stimulation of subthalamic nucleus in rats

François Windels
Abstract High-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) proves to be an efficient treatment for alleviating motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the mechanisms of HFS underlying these clinical effects remain unknown. Using intracerebral microdialysis, we previously reported that HFS induces, in normal rats, a significant increase of extracellular glutamate (Glu) in the globus pallidus (GP in rats or GPe in primates) and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), whereas ,-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was increased only in the SNr. Bradykinesia can be improved by STN stimulation in a frequency-dependent manner, a plateau being reached around 130 Hz. The aim of the present study was to determine whether neurochemical changes are also frequency dependent. Electrical STN stimulation was applied at various frequencies (10, 60, 130, and 350 Hz) in normal rats. The results show that, for Glu, the amplitude of increase detected in GP and SNr is maximal at 130 Hz and is maintained at 350 Hz. No modifications of GABA were observed in GP whatever the frequency applied, whereas, in SNr, GABA increased from 60 to 350 Hz. Our results provide new neurochemical data implicating STN target structures in deep-brain-stimulation mechanisms. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Radiation characteristics of a corrugated horn antenna

Mohammed N. Afsar
Abstract A corrugated horn antenna is modeled using the three-dimensional FDTD method. The computed E-plane radiation pattern shows a good agreement with those measured and calculated using the MoM published in the literature. The H-plane radiation pattern and the cross-polarization patterns for both E- and H-plane are also obtained since the corrugated horn is calculated by a three dimensional model. The radiation characteristics for various frequencies have also been analyzed. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 34: 83,84, 2002; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/mop.10379 [source]