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  • Selected Abstracts

    Cross-talk between macro- and microcirculation

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 4 2010
    M. E. Safar
    Abstract Physiologically, macro- and microcirculation differ markedly as macrocirculation deals with pulsatile pressure and flow and microcirculation with steady pressure and flow. Various such haemodynamic aspects correspond to a large heterogeneity in the structure and function of the vascular tree. In the past, diseases such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus were classified on the basis of the structure and function of small and large arteries. The purpose of this paper is to review the cross-talk between the micro- and macrocirculation. We shall discuss this cross-talk from the perspective of the development, physiology and pathology of the entire arterial tree. [source]

    Evaluation of a single-platform microcapillary flow cytometer for enumeration of absolute CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts in HIV-1 infected Thai patients,,

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 5 2007
    Kovit Pattanapanyasat
    Abstract Background: Various assays are used to enumerate peripheral blood absolute CD4+ T-lymphocytes. Flow cytometry is considered the gold standard for this purpose. However, the high cost of available flow cytometers and monoclonal antibody reagents make it difficult to implement such methods in the resource-poor settings. In this study, we evaluated a cheaper, recently developed single-platform microcapillary cytometer for CD4+ T-lymphocyte enumeration, the personal cell analyzer (PCA), from Guava® Technologies. Methods: CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte counts in whole blood samples from 250 HIV-1 infected Thais were determined, using a two-color reagent kit and the Guava PCA, and compared with the results obtained with two reference microbead-based methods from Becton Dickinson Biosciences: the three-color TruCOUNTÔ tube method and the two-color FACSCountÔ method. Statistical correlations and agreements were determined using linear correlation and Bland,Altman analysis. Results: Absolute CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts obtained using the Guava PCA method highly correlated with those obtained using TruCOUNT method (R2 = 0.95, mean bias +13.1 cells/,l, limit of agreement [LOA] ,101.8 to +168.3 cells/,l). Absolute CD8+ T-lymphocyte counts obtained using the Guava PCA method also highly correlated with those obtained with the two reference methods (R2 = 0.92 and 0.88, respectively). Conclusion: This study shows that the enumeration of CD4+ T-lymphocytes using the Guava microcapillary cytometer PCA method performed well when compared with the two reference bead-based methods. However, like the two reference methods, this new method needs substantial technical expertise. © 2007 Clinical Cytometry Society. [source]

    FEM-Simulation of Real and Artificial Microstructures of Mo-Si-B Alloys for Elastic Properties and Comparison with Analytical Methods,

    G. Biragoni
    Various three phase microstructures of Mo-Si-B alloys were simulated in tensile loading conditions using a 2D finite element method to predict the elastic properties of the composite material. Voronoi structures with the same areal fraction of phases as the real microstructures have been generated and simulated similarly. Also, with these Voronoi structures a variation of grain or phase sizes, respectively, was carried out for different compositions in order to study on the elastic properties of the composite. Finally, a comparison was made over the whole temperature range between the above numerical methods, classical analytical approaches and experimentally determined values for Young's modulus E, shear modulus G and Poisson's ratio ,. [source]

    The ,Azirine/Oxazolone Method' on Solid Phase: Introduction of Various ,,, -Disubstituted , -Amino Acids

    Simon Stamm
    Abstract Peptides containing various ,,, -disubstituted , -amino acids, such as , -aminoisobutyric acid (Aib), 1-aminocyclopentane-1-carboxylic acid, , -methylphenylalanine, and 3-amino-3,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2H -pyran-3-carboxylic acid have been synthesized from the N- to the C-terminus by the ,azirine/oxazolone method' under solid-phase conditions. In this convenient method for the synthesis of sterically demanding peptides on solid-phase, 2H -azirin-3-amines are used to introduce the ,,, -disubstituted , -amino acids without the need for additional reagents. Furthermore, the synthesis of poly(Aib) sequences has been explored. [source]

    Enantioselective Copper-Catalysed Allylic Alkylation of Cinnamyl Chlorides by Grignard Reagents using Chiral Phosphine-Phosphite Ligands

    Wibke Lölsberg
    Abstract The copper(I)-catalysed SN2,-type allylic substitution of E -3-aryl-allyl chlorides (cinnamyl chlorides) using Grignard reagents represents a powerful method for the synthesis of compounds carrying a benzylic stereocentre. By screening a small library of modular chiral phosphine-phosphite ligands a new copper(I)-based catalyst system was identified which allows the performance of such reactions with exceptional high degrees of regio- and enantioselectivity. Best results were obtained using TADDOL-derived ligands (3,mol%), copper(I) bromide,dimethyl sulfide (CuBr,SMe2) (2.5,mol%) and methyl tert -butyl ether (MTBE) as a solvent. Various (1-alkyl-allyl)benzene derivatives were prepared with up to 99% ee (GC) in isolated yields of up to 99%. In most cases the product contained less than 3% of the linear regioisomer (except for ortho -substituted substrates). Both electron-rich and electron-deficient cinnamyl chlorides were successfully employed. The absolute configuration of the products was assigned by comparison of experimental and calculated CD spectra. The substrates were prepared from the corresponding alcohols by reaction with thionyl chloride. Initially formed mixtures of regioisomeric allylic chlorides were homogenised by treatment with CuBr,SMe2 (2.5,mol%) in the presence of triphenyl phosphine (PPh3) (3,mol%) in MTBE at low temperature to give the pure linear isomers. In reactions with methylmagnesium bromide (MeMgBr) an ortho -diphenylphosphanyl-arylphosphite ligand with an additional phenyl substituent in ortho, -position at the aryl backbone proved to be superior. In contrast, best results were obtained in the case of higher alkyl Grignard reagents (such as ethyl-, n -butyl-, isopropyl-, and 3-butenylmagnesium bromides) with a related ligand carrying an isopropyl substituent in ortho, -position. The method was tested on a multi-mmol scale and is suited for application in natural product synthesis. [source]

    Enantioselective Organocatalytic Synthesis of Arylglycines via Friedel,Crafts Alkylation of Arenes with a Glyoxylate Imine

    Dieter Enders
    Abstract The enantioselective organocatalytic synthesis of arylglycines has been developed employing 1,mol% of an enantiopure N -triflyl phosphoramide Brønsted acid as organocatalyst. Various differently substituted phenylglycine derivatives can be synthesized in good to excellent yields and enantiomeric excesses based on a Friedel,Crafts alkylation of electron-rich arenes with a glyoxylate imine. A novel protocol for the deprotection of the N - tert -butylsulfonyl (Bus) group has also been developed. [source]

    Various ,-Oxygen Functionalizations of ,-Dicarbonyl Compounds Mediated by the Hypervalent Iodine(III) Reagent p -Iodotoluene Difluoride with Different Oxygen-Containing Nucleophiles

    Jun Yu
    Abstract p -Iodotoluene difluoride (p -Tol-IF2) has been found to be a general reagent for the effective introduction of various oxygen-containing functionalities including tosyloxy, mesyloxy, acetoxy, phosphoryloxy, methoxy, ethoxy and isopropoxy at the ,-position of ,-dicarbonyl compounds. These transformations can be readily realized by the use of the combined reagent of p -iodotoluene difluoride and various oxygen-containing nucleophilic compounds such as p -toluenesulfonic acid, methanesulfonic acid, acetic acid, diphenyl phosphate, methanol, ethanol and propan-2-ol under mild conditions, respectively. And, the in situ generated hypervalent iodine(III) species via ligand exchange between p -iodotoluene difluoride and the respective oxygen-containing nucleophiles are believed to be the real oxidizing agents in such transformations. [source]

    GC analysis of extractive compounds in beech wood

    Janja Zule
    Abstract Various highly hydrophobic beech wood lipids were characterized and their quantities measured in hexane extracts by GC, using short and long capillary columns. More polar compounds were also identified in acetone extracts. Triglycerides, steryl esters, sterols, unsaturated fatty acids, as well as various monosaccharide units were determined as possible pollutants of papermaking systems. [source]

    Individual Differences in Responses to Ethanol and d-Amphetamine: A Within-Subject Study

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 4 2001
    Louis Holdstock
    Background: In some individuals, ethanol (EtOH) produces marked stimulant-like subjective effects resembling those of stimulant drugs, like d-amphetamine (AMP). In this study, we examined the neurochemical basis of these individual differences by examining the same subjects' responses to both EtOH and AMP. A positive correlation between subjects' responses to the two drugs may suggest that AMP and EtOH produce their stimulant-like subjective effects by a shared mechanism. Methods: Twenty-seven volunteers (17 male, 10 female), aged 21,35, received beverages or capsules containing EtOH 0.8 g/kg, AMP 10 or 20 mg, or placebo on four separate sessions in random order and under double-blind conditions. Various self-reported and objective drug effects were measured, including measures sensitive to subjective and cognitive stimulant-like effects. Results: EtOH and AMP produced their prototypical subjective and behavioral effects, including increased ratings of stimulant-like subjective effects, increased heart rate and blood pressure, and improved vigilance performance after AMP and increased ratings of sedative-like subjective effects, increased heart rate and blood pressure, and impaired vigilance performance after EtOH. Consistent with previous reports, there was substantial intersubject variability in subjective responses to EtOH: some subjects reported primarily stimulant-like effects, whereas others reported primarily sedative-like effects. To examine the relationship between these responses to EtOH and subjects' responses to AMP, correlations were examined between effects of EtOH and AMP. For all subjects together, there was a significant positive correlation between responses to EtOH and 20 mg AMP on the ARCI A scale (a measure of stimulant-like subjective effects;r= 0.41, p < 0.05). Among only those subjects who reported primarily stimulant-like effects from EtOH, the correlation between EtOH and AMP was 0.64 (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Subjects who experience pronounced stimulant-like effects from EtOH also report greater stimulant effects from AMP, suggesting that these effects may be mediated through similar mechanisms. These correlations between the drugs' effects were not observed on other measures, such as DSST or vigilance task performance or heart rate. This may indicate that these other effects are mediated by separate mechanisms. The study illustrates a novel approach to studying the neurochemical basis of drug effects. [source]

    Site-specific mutation of the interferon sensitivity-determining region (ISDR) modulates hepatitis C virus replication

    T. Kohashi
    Summary., The number of amino acid substitutions in the interferon sensitivity-determining region (ISDR) in the nonstructural 5A (NS5A) gene of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is closely associated with the interferon (IFN) response and viral load. Several HCV replicon-based studies have reported that ISDR sequences had an influence on viral replication in vitro. However, it is unclear as to how different ISDR sequences affect HCV replication. Various clinically observed ISDR sequences were introduced into HCV replicons and their contribution to viral replication was investigated using a colony formation assay and/or a transient replication assay. A mapping study of the ISDR was performed to identify the amino acid positions that critically affect replication. While no colonies were formed in the colony formation assay using HCV replicons with few mutations (0, 1 and 3) in the ISDR, numerous colonies (>200) appeared when using constructs with six mutations. Introduction of various distinct ISDR sequences with multiple mutations resulted in replication enhancement in transient assays. A mapping study identified several specific sites in the ISDR that critically affected replication, including codon 2209 which, in patients, was closely associated with a strong response to IFN. ISDR sequences associated with a clinical IFN response and viral load modulated the replication of HCV replicons, suggesting the importance of the ISDR sequence in HCV infection. [source]

    Control of stereochemical structures of silicon-containing polymeric systems,

    Yusuke Kawakami
    Abstract Various optically active silicon compounds have been synthesized or separated, and used to synthesize silicon-containing polymers with well-controlled stereochemical structures. Hydrosilylation, anionic ring-opening polymerization and cross-coupling reactions have been used to synthesize optically active and/or stereoregular silicon-containing polymers. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Design, Synthesis, and In-Vivo Pharmacological Screening of N,3-(Substituted Diphenyl)-5-phenyl-1H -pyrazoline-1-carbothioamide Derivatives

    ARCHIV DER PHARMAZIE, Issue 3 2009
    Nadeem Siddiqui
    Abstract Various 3,5-(substituted diphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-pyrazole-1-carbothioic acid phenylamides were synthesized starting from substituted acetophenones. Structures of the compounds were confirmed on the basis of spectral data. The compounds were evaluated for their anticonvulsant and antidepressant activity. Interestingly, out of 26 compounds, four (3f, 3g, 3t, and 3u) were found to protect 100% of the animals in the MES screen at a dose of 25 mg/kg. They were also found to have appreciable anticonvulsant activity in scPTZ screen. Two compounds, 3j and 3o, significantly reduced the duration of the immobility time at 25 mg/kg dose, when compared to control. [source]

    Host plant toxicity affects developmental rates in a polyphagous fruit fly: experimental evidence

    Various, non-exclusive mechanisms have been invoked to explain the observed association between host plant use and speciation in insect species. In the Afrotropical genus Ceratitis (Diptera: Tephritidae), morphological, molecular, and biochemical data suggest that evolutionary radiation of stenophagous clades originates from their ability to exploit toxic hosts. To test whether, and to what extent, the development and fitness of Ceratitis fasciventris, a polyphagous congener known to infest over 43 host species, is adversely affected by host plant toxicity, we compared the rates of development, survival, and reproduction of captive bred individuals in four media that differ in alkaloid concentration. Despite reduced pupal and adult sizes, C. fasciventris larvae developing under low alkaloid concentrations successfully developed to the adult stage, probably as a result of accelerated pupation and ensuing restricted exposure to the toxic environment. High alkaloid concentrations, however, impaired their developmental process and prevented subsequent reproduction. The adverse effects of host plant toxicity on larval development in polyphagous fruit flies indicate that high alkaloid concentrations pose a significant constraint on host use by polyphagous Ceratitis species. © 2009 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 97, 728,737. [source]

    Stereoselective Synthesis of Various ,-Selenoglycosides Using in situ Production of ,-Selenolate Anion.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 21 2007
    Masahiro Nanami
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract, please click on HTML or PDF. [source]

    Environmentally Friendly and Efficient Synthesis of Various 1,4-Dihydropyridines in Pure Water.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 30 2006
    Guan-Wu Wang
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract, please click on HTML or PDF. [source]

    Mn(III)-Based C,C Bond Formation: Regioselective ,,-Allylation of Various ,,,-Unsaturated, ,- and ,-Alkoxy ,,,-Unsaturated Ketones.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 49 2005
    Cihangir Tanyeli
    Abstract For Abstract see ChemInform Abstract in Full Text. [source]

    Mn(III) Acetate-Mediated Regioselective Benzylation of Various ,,,-Unsaturated and ,-Alkoxy-,,,-Unsaturated Ketones.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 1 2004
    Cihangir Tanyeli
    Abstract For Abstract see ChemInform Abstract in Full Text. [source]

    Facile Syntheses of Various Per- or Polyfluoroalkylated Internal Acetylene Derivatives.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 1 2004
    Tsutomu Konno
    Abstract For Abstract see ChemInform Abstract in Full Text. [source]

    Copper-Catalyzed Amine,Alkyne,Alkyne Addition Reaction: An Efficient Method For the Synthesis of ,,,-Alkynyl-,-amino Acid Derivatives

    Lei Zhou
    Abstract A simple and efficient method for the synthesis of ,,,-alkynyl-,-amino acid derivatives by a copper-catalyzed three-component amine,alkyne,alkyne addition reaction was developed. Various ,,,-alkynyl-,-amino acid derivatives were synthesized in moderate to good yields in one step. With chiral prolinol derivatives employed as the amine component, excellent diastereoselectivities (up to >99:1 diastereomeric ratio (dr)) were obtained. The scope of the reaction and further transformations of the resulting amino acid derivatives, such as deprotection and cyclization are also described. [source]

    Rhodium(I)-Catalysed Intramolecular [2+2+2] Cyclotrimerisations of 15-, 20- and 25-Membered Azamacrocycles: Experimental and Theoretical Mechanistic Studies

    Anna Dachs
    Abstract Number of members makes a difference: The [2+2+2] intramolecular cyclotrimerisation of a new series of 20- and 25-membered azamacrocycles catalysed by the Wilkinson's catalyst are reported (see scheme). The 20- and 25-membered azamacrocycles show different reactivity. Why? Theoretical calculations give insight into the reactivity differences observed for the 20- and 25-membered macrocycles. A new series of 20- and 25-membered polyacetylenic azamacrocycles have been satisfactorily prepared and completely characterised by spectroscopic methods. Various [2+2+2] cyclotrimerisation processes catalysed by the Wilkinson's catalyst, [RhCl(PPh3)3], were tested in the above-mentioned macrocycles. The 25-membered azamacrocycle (like the previously synthesised 15-membered azamacrocyle) led to the expected cyclotrimerised compound in contrast to the 20-membered macrocycle, which is characterised by its lack of reactivity. The difference in reactivity of the 15-, 20- and 25-membered macrocycles has been rationalised through density functional theory calculations. S,ha sintetitzat i caracteritzat espectroscòpicament una nova sèrie de macrocicles nitrogenats poliacetilènics de 20- i 25-membres. Amb aquests macrocicles s'han dut a terme les reaccions de ciclotrimerització [2+2+2] catalitzades pel catalitzador de Wilkinson, [RhCl(PPh3)3]. El macrocicle nitrogenat de 25-membres (de la mateixa manera que el macrocicle nitrogenat de 15-membres) permet l,obtenció del compost ciclotrimeritzat. Per contra, el macrocicle de 20-membres es caracteritza per la seva falta de reactivitat. El diferent comportament de reactivitat dels macrocicles de 15-, 20-, i 25-membres ha estat estudiat mitjançant càlculs teòrics basats en la teoria del funcional de la densitat. [source]

    From Metacyclophanes to Cyclacenes: Synthesis and Properties of [6.8]3Cyclacene

    Birgit Esser Dr.
    Abstract Conjugated belts: [6.8]3cyclacene as the first hydrocarbon cyclacene was synthesized in a de novo strategy. Various [23]metacyclophanes are described as intermediates. The synthetic approach was extended to larger cyclacenes, and [24]metacyclophanes as precursors of [6.8]4cyclacene were synthesized. In this article we show synthetic pathways to [6.8]ncyclacenes demonstrated by the de novo synthesis of [6.8]3cyclacene as the first purely hydrocarbon cyclacene and of precursors for [6.8]4cyclacene. The design of the de novo synthesis by exploring alternative pathways is discussed and various precursors are shown. Crucial to the synthesis of [6.8]3cyclacene were two cyclization steps. The first is a Wittig trimerization reaction which yielded the hexamethyl substituted all - cis -[23]metacyclophanetriene. For the second cyclization step the methyl groups were converted to aldehyde functionalities by two subsequent oxidation steps of N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) bromination and oxidation with 2-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX). The final cyclization of the second set of double bonds was achieved by a McMurry-coupling reaction. Towards the synthesis of [6.8]4cyclacene different synthetic pathways to methyl substituted all - cis -[24]metacyclophanetetraenes were explored. Insights into the structures of [23]metacyclophanetri- and [24]metacyclophanetetraenes were gained by X-ray crystallographic investigations on various intermediates. A crystallographic analysis of [6.8]3cyclacene revealed a D3h symmetrical structure with planar benzene rings and a formation of tubular structures in the solid state. [source]

    Design and Synthesis of Cyclopeptide Analogues of the Potent Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor FR235222

    CHEMMEDCHEM, Issue 10 2007
    Luigi Gomez-Paloma Prof.
    Abstract Various structurally modified analogues of FR235222 (1), a natural tetrapeptide inhibitor of mammalian histone deacetylases, were prepared in a convergent approach. The design of the compounds was aimed to investigate the effect of structural modifications of the tetrapeptide core involved in enzyme binding in order to overcome some synthetic difficulties connected with the natural product 1. The modifications introduced could also help identify key structural features involved in the mechanism of action of these compounds. The prepared molecules were subjected to in,vitro pharmacological tests, and their potency was tested on cultured cells. Two of the components of the array were found to be more potent than the parent compound 1 and almost as efficient as trichostatin,A (TSA). These results demonstrate that it is possible to synthesize highly active cyclic tetrapeptides using commercially available amino acids (with the exception of 2-amino-8-oxodecanoic acid, Ahoda). The nature of the residue in the second position of the cyclic peptide and the stereochemistry of the Ahoda tail are important for the inhibitory activity of this class of cyclic tetrapeptide analogues. [source]

    Live Video Montage with a Rotating Camera

    Zilong Dong
    Abstract High-quality video editing usually requires accurate layer separation in order to resolve occlusions. However, most of the existing bilayer segmentation algorithms require either considerable user intervention or a simple stationary camera configuration with known background, which is difficult to meet for many real world online applications. This paper demonstrates that various visually appealing montage effects can be online created from a live video captured by a rotating camera, by accurately retrieving the camera state and segmenting out the dynamic foreground. The key contribution is that a novel fast bilayer segmentation method is proposed which can effectively extract the dynamic foreground under rotational camera configuration, and is robust to imperfect background estimation and complex background colors. Our system can create a variety of live visual effects, including but not limited to, realistic virtual object insertion, background substitution and blurring, non-photorealistic rendering and camouflage effect. A variety of challenging examples demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. [source]

    Middleware adaptation with the Delphoi service

    Jason Maassen
    Abstract Grid middleware needs to adapt to changing resources for a large variety of operations. Currently, however, there is only low-level information available about Grid resources, coming from various but functionally isolated monitoring and information systems. In this paper, we present the Delphoi service. It provides a unified interface to the necessary information, and also matches the abstraction level needed by middleware services to adapt their behavior. We describe Delphoi's architecture, the information it provides, and we evaluate the quality of its performance information. Delphoi has been developed as part of the EC-funded GridLab project and is currently being deployed on the project's testbed for adding adaptivity to GridLab's middleware services. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Crystal structure of a polar nematogen 4-(trans- 4-undecylcyclohexyl) isothiocyanatobenzene

    S. Biswas
    Abstract Crystal and molecular structures of a nematogenic compound 4-(trans- 4-undecylcyclohexyl) isothiocyanatobenzene (11CHBT) have been determined by direct methods using single crystal X-ray diffraction data. The compound (C24H37N1S1) crystallizes in the monoclinic system with the space group P21/c and Z = 4. The unit cell parameters are a = 5.5539(11) Å, b = 8.1341(10) Å, c = 51.494(5) Å, and (= 91.127(14)0. The structure was refined to Rw = 0.051. The molecule is found to be slightly bow-shaped though the alkyl chain is in all- trans conformation. The phenyl ring and the alkyl chain are planar and the cyclohexyl group is in chair conformation. The isothiocyanato groups are almost linear. Parallel imbricated mode of packing of the molecules is found in the crystalline state which is precursor to the nematic phase structure. There are many van der Waals' interactions particularly in the isothiocyanato benzene part of the molecule. Of the various associated pairs of molecules the one having anti-parallel configuration with overlaps in the isothiocyanato phenyl group probably exists in both the crystalline and the nematic phases. (© 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Rigidity of commonly used dental trauma splints

    Christine Berthold
    We evaluated the rigidity of various commonly used splints in vitro Material and Methods:, An acrylic resin model was used. The central incisors simulated injured teeth, with increased vertical and horizontal mobility. The lateral incisors and canines stimulated uninjured teeth. Tooth mobility was measured with the Periotest® device. Vertical and horizontal measurements were made before and after splinting, and the difference between values was defined as the splint effect. We evaluated 4 composite splints, 3 wire-composite splints, a titanium trauma splint, a titanium ring splint, a bracket splint, and 2 Schuchardt splints Results:, For all injured teeth and all splints, there was a significant splint effect for the vertical and horizontal dimensions (P < 0.05). For injured teeth, the composite splints produced the largest changes in vertical tooth mobility; wire-composite splints 1 and 2, using orthodontic wires, produced the smallest vertical splint effects. For uninjured teeth, the Schuchardt 1 splint and the bracket splint produced the largest splint effects; wire-composite splints 1 and 2 produced only a slight change in tooth mobility. Composite splints 2 and 3 produced the largest horizontal splint effects for injured teeth, and the 4 composite splints produced the largest horizontal splint effects for uninjured teeth. The most horizontally flexible splints were the titanium trauma splint and wire-composite splints 1 and 2. Conclusions:, According to the current guidelines and within the limits of an in vitro study, it can be stated that flexible or semirigid splints such as the titanium trauma splint and wire-composite splints 1 and 2 are appropriate for splinting teeth with dislocation injuries and root fractures, whereas rigid splints such as wire-composite splint 3 and the titanium ring splint can be used to treat alveolar process fractures. [source]

    Cloning and characterization of voltage-gated calcium channel alpha1 subunits in Xenopus laevis during development

    Brittany B. Lewis
    Abstract Voltage-gated calcium channels play a critical role in regulating the Ca2+ activity that mediates many aspects of neural development, including neural induction, neurotransmitter phenotype specification, and neurite outgrowth. Using Xenopus laevis embryos, we describe the spatial and temporal expression patterns during development of the 10 pore-forming alpha1 subunits that define the channels' kinetic properties. In situ hybridization indicates that CaV1.2, CaV2.1, CaV2.2, and CaV3.2 are expressed during neurula stages throughout the neural tube. These, along with CaV1.3 and CaV2.3, beginning at early tail bud stages, and CaV3.1 at late tail bud stages, are detected in complex patterns within the brain and spinal cord through swimming tadpole stages. Additional expression of various alpha1 subunits was observed in the cranial ganglia, retina, olfactory epithelium, pineal gland, and heart. The unique expression patterns for the different alpha1 subunits suggests they are under precise spatial and temporal regulation and are serving specific functions during embryonic development. Developmental Dynamics 238:2891,2902, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Influx of calcium through L-type calcium channels in early postnatal regulation of chloride transporters in the rat hippocampus

    Jennifer G. Bray
    Abstract During the early postnatal period, GABAB receptor activation facilitates L-type calcium current in rat hippocampus. One developmental process that L-type current may regulate is the change in expression of the K+Cl, co-transporter (KCC2) and N+K+2Cl, co-transporter (NKCC1), which are involved in the maturation of the GABAergic system. The present study investigated the connection between L-type current, GABAB receptors, and expression of chloride transporters during development. The facilitation of L-type current by GABAB receptors is more prominent in the second week of development, with the highest percentage of cells exhibiting facilitation in cultures isolated from 7 day old rats (37.5%). The protein levels of KCC2 and NKCC1 were investigated to determine the developmental timecourse of expression as well as expression following treatment with an L-type channel antagonist and a GABAB receptor agonist. The time course of both chloride transporters in culture mimics that seen in hippocampal tissue isolated from various ages. KCC2 levels increased drastically in the first two postnatal weeks while NKCC1 remained relatively stable, suggesting that the ratio of the chloride transporters is important in mediating the developmental change in chloride reversal potential. Treatment of cultures with the L-type antagonist nimodipine did not affect protein levels of NKCC1, but significantly decreased the upregulation of KCC2 during the first postnatal week. In addition, calcium current facilitation occurs slightly before the large increase in KCC2 expression. These results suggest that the expression of KCC2 is regulated by calcium influx through L-type channels in the early postnatal period in hippocampal neurons. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 2009 [source]

    Hippocampal lesions impair spatial memory performance, but not song,A developmental study of independent memory systems in the zebra finch

    David J. Bailey
    Abstract Songbirds demonstrate song- and spatial-learning, forms of memory that appear distinct in formal characteristics and fitting the descriptions and criteria of procedural and episodic-like memory function, respectively. As in other vertebrates, the neural pathways underlying these forms of memory may also be dissociable, and include the corresponding song circuit and hippocampus (HP). Whether (or not) these two memory systems interact is unknown. Interestingly, the HP distinguishes itself as a site of immediate early gene expression in response to song and as a site of estrogen synthesis, a steroid involved in song learning. Thus, an interaction between these memory systems and their anatomical substrates appears reasonable to hypothesize, particularly during development. To test this idea, juvenile male or female zebra finches received chemical lesions of the HP at various points during song learning, as did adults. Song structure, singing behavior, song preference, and spatial memory were tested in adulthood. Although lesions of the HP severely compromised HP-dependent spatial memory function across all ages and in both sexes, we were unable to detect any effects of HP lesions on song learning, singing, or song structure in males. Interestingly, females lesioned as adults, but not as juveniles, did lose the characteristic preference for their father's song. Since compromise of the neural circuits that subserve episodic-like memory does very little (if anything) to affect procedural-like (song learning) memory, we conclude that these memory systems and their anatomical substrates are well dissociated in the developing male zebra finch. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 2009 [source]

    Contrasting alternative hypotheses about rodent cycles by translating them into parameterized models

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 3 2001
    Peter Turchin
    Ecologists working on population cycles of arvicoline (microtine) rodents consider three ecological mechanisms as the most likely explanations of this long-standing puzzle in population ecology: maternal effects, interaction with specialist predators, and interaction with the food supply. Each of these hypotheses has now been translated into parameterized models, and has been shown to be capable of generating second-order oscillations (that is, population cycles driven by delayed density dependence). This development places us in a unique situation for population ecology. We can now practice "strong inference" by explicitly and quantitatively comparing the predictions of the three rival hypotheses with data. In this review, we contrast the ability of each hypothesis to explain various empirically observed features of rodent cycles, with a particular emphasis on the well-studied case of Microtus agrestis and other small rodents in Fennoscandia (Finland, Sweden and Norway). Our conclusion is that the current evidence best supports the predation hypothesis. [source]