Variety Of Ways (variety + of_way)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Impact of National Aquarium in Baltimore on Visitors' Conservation Attitudes, Behavior, and Knowledge

ABSTRACT This study at the National Aquarium in Baltimore (NAIB) was conducted to assess four key aspects of the visitor experience: (1) incoming conservation knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of NAIB visitors; (2) patterns of use and interaction with exhibition components throughout the NAIB; (3) exiting conservation knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of visitors; and (4) over time, how the NAIB experience altered or affected individuals' conservation knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Three hundred six visitors participated in the study, which was conducted from March through July, 1999. The study utilized four data-collection techniques: (1) face-to-face interviews, (2) Personal Meaning Mapping (PMM), (3) tracking, and (4) follow-up telephone interviews. Participants were a self-selected population and were generally more knowledgeable about, more concerned about, and more involved in conservation-related issues than the general public. However, they were far from conservationists. Visitors in this study clearly absorbed the fundamental conservation message at the NAIB. In fact, the NAIB visit appeared to focus visitors' conservation-related thoughts, while also broadening their understanding of conservation. Changes in visitors' conservation knowledge, understanding, and interests by and large persisted over six to eight weeks after visiting NAIB. The NAIB experience also connected to visitors' lives in a variety of ways following their visit. However, these personal experiences rarely resulted in new conservation actions. In fact, their enthusiasm and emotional commitment to conservation (inspired during the NAIB visit) generally fell back to original levels, presumably in the absence of reinforcing experiences. The findings of this study are guiding subsequent investigations at the NAIB. More generally, the results suggest strategies to enhance current understanding of the impact free-choice learning institutions have on their visiting public. [source]


Yasushi Adachi
Abnormal activation of growth factor receptors and their signal pathways are required for neoplastic transformation and tumor progression. The concept of targeting specific tumorigenic receptors has been validated by successful clinical application of multiple new drugs, such as those acting against HER2/neu, epidermal growth factor receptor 1, and c-Kit. In this review, we focus on the next promising therapeutic molecular target of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I receptor (IGF-Ir). The IGF/IGF-Ir system is an important modifier of cancer cell proliferation, survival, growth, and treatment sensitivity in a number of neoplastic diseases, including human gastrointestinal carcinomas. Preclinical studies demonstrated that downregulation of IGF-Ir signals reversed the neoplastic phenotype and sensitized cells to antitumor treatments. We summarize a variety of ways to disrupt IGF-Ir function. Then, we introduce our strategy of adenoviruses expressing dominant negative of IGF-Ir (IGF-Ir/dn) against gastrointestinal cancers, including stomach, colon, and pancreas. IGF-Ir/dn suppresses tumorigenicity both in vitro and in vivo and increases stressor-induced apoptosis. IGF-Ir/dn expression upregulates chemotherapy-induced apoptosis and these combination therapies with chemotherapy are very effective against tumors in mice. Some drugs blocking IGF-Ir function are now entering clinical trial, thus IGF-Ir might be a candidate for a therapeutic target in several gastrointestinal malignancies. [source]

Effectiveness of interventions to promote continuing professional development for dentists

Helen A Best
Background:, Continuing education is incumbent upon dentists as health professionals, but its promotion may be required, particularly in order to ensure regular professional updating. Continuing professional development may be delivered in a variety of ways, and new strategies and techniques must be evaluated for effectiveness. Aim:, To evaluate the effectiveness of two interventions utilizing the philosophies and techniques of the discipline of Quality Improvement. Method:, A self-assessment instrument (a manual) for quality dental practice was developed using the Delphi technique. A randomized, controlled trial of the interventions was conducted under field conditions for dental practice in Victoria, Australia. Dentists in Test Groups 1 and 2 completed the self-assessment manual, and received relevant references and their own scores for the manual in comparison with empirical standards. Dentists in Test Group 1 also attended a continuing education course on Quality Improvement. Dentists in Control Group 1 completed the manual only and received feedback of their scores. Dentists in Test Groups 1 and 2, and in Control Group 1 completed the manual again after 1 year as a post-intervention follow-up. Dentists in Control Group 2 completed the manual only at 1 year. Results:, The intervention involving self-assessment, receipt of scores and references for the manual resulted in modest improvements in total scores for dentists after 1 year, although a response bias was apparent. Conclusion:, An effective method of facilitating change in quality dental practice was identified. Assessment of strategies and techniques for professional development of dentists should include observation of patterns of participation. [source]

,Are You Going to be MISS (or MR) Africa?'Contesting Masculinity in Drum Magazine 1951,1953

GENDER & HISTORY, Issue 1 2001
Lindsay Clowes
DrumDrum magazine was first published in March 1951. Like other magazines, it both reflected and shaped the society from which its audience emerged. During 1951, its audience, mainly urban black readers, was able to push the publication away from its original rural focus towards an urban emphasis. Town living, however, meant different things to different people. Thus, while readers were successful in shifting the focus of the magazine, they were less successful in influencing the way the publication presented urban life. This paper explores the struggle between readers, journalists and editors over the Miss Africa beauty contest announced at the beginning of 1952. Although the magazine reluctantly admitted men to the contest, it discriminated against male entrants in a variety of ways over the course of the year, and subsequent competitions barred male contestants entirely. Despite opposition from male readers who wished to be considered beautiful, the men of Drum were largely successful in asserting their own deeply gendered cultural vision of urban life. [source]

Inferences for Selected Location Quotients with Applications to Health Outcomes

Gemechis Dilba Djira
The location quotient (LQ) is an index frequently used in geography and economics to measure the relative concentration of activities. This quotient is calculated in a variety of ways depending on which group is used as a reference. Here, we focus on a simultaneous inference for the ratios of the individual proportions to the overall proportion based on binomial data. This is a multiple comparison problem and inferences for LQs with adjustments for multiplicity have not been addressed before. The comparisons are negatively correlated. The quotients can be simultaneously tested against unity, and simultaneous confidence intervals can be constructed for the LQs based on existing probability inequalities and by directly using the asymptotic joint distribution of the associated test statistics. The proposed inferences are appropriate for analysis based on sample surveys. Two real data sets are used to demonstrate the application of multiplicity-adjusted LQs. A simulation study is also carried out to assess the performance of the proposed methods to achieve a nominal coverage probability. For the LQs considered, the coverage of the simple Bonferroni-adjusted Fieller intervals for LQs is observed to be almost as good as the coverage of the method that directly takes the correlations into account. El cociente de localización (LQ) es un índice de uso frecuente en las disciplinas de Geografía y Economía para medir la concentración relativa de actividades. El cálculo del cociente se realiza de una variedad de formas, dependiendo del grupo que se utilice como referencia. El presente artículo aborda el problema de realizar inferencias simultáneas con tasas que describen proporciones individuales en relación a proporciones globales, para el caso de datos en escala binomial. Este problema puede ser caracterizado como uno de tipo de comparaciones múltiples (multiple comparison problem). Salvo el estudio presente, no existen precedentes de métodos diseñados para realizar inferencias de LQ que estén ajustados para abordar comparaciones múltiples. Las comparaciones están correlacionadas negativamente. Los cocientes pueden ser evaluados simultáneamente para verificar la propiedad de unidad (unity), y se pueden construir intervalos de confianza simultáneos para un LQ basado en la desigualdad de probabilidades existentes y por medio del uso directo de la distribución asintótica conjunta (asymtotic joint distribution) de los test o pruebas estadísticas asociadas. El tipo de inferencias propuestas por los autores son las adecuadas para el análisis de encuestas por muestreo. Para demostrar la aplicación del LQ desarrollado por el estudio, se utilizan dos conjuntos de datos del mundo real. Asimismo se lleva a cabo un estudio de simulación para evaluar el desempeño de los métodos propuestos con el fin de alcanzar una probabilidad de cobertura nominal (nominal coverage). Para los LQs seleccionados, la cobertura de los intervalos de confianza simples Fieller-Bonferroni ajustados para LQ, producen resultados casi tan buenos como la cobertura de métodos que toma en cuenta las correlaciones directamente. [source]

Modulation of temporally coherent brain networks estimated using ICA at rest and during cognitive tasks

Vince D. Calhoun
Abstract Brain regions which exhibit temporally coherent fluctuations, have been increasingly studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Such networks are often identified in the context of an fMRI scan collected during rest (and thus are called "resting state networks"); however, they are also present during (and modulated by) the performance of a cognitive task. In this article, we will refer to such networks as temporally coherent networks (TCNs). Although there is still some debate over the physiological source of these fluctuations, TCNs are being studied in a variety of ways. Recent studies have examined ways TCNs can be used to identify patterns associated with various brain disorders (e.g. schizophrenia, autism or Alzheimer's disease). Independent component analysis (ICA) is one method being used to identify TCNs. ICA is a data driven approach which is especially useful for decomposing activation during complex cognitive tasks where multiple operations occur simultaneously. In this article we review recent TCN studies with emphasis on those that use ICA. We also present new results showing that TCNs are robust, and can be consistently identified at rest and during performance of a cognitive task in healthy individuals and in patients with schizophrenia. In addition, multiple TCNs show temporal and spatial modulation during the cognitive task versus rest. In summary, TCNs show considerable promise as potential imaging biological markers of brain diseases, though each network needs to be studied in more detail. Hum Brain Mapp, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Individual Generator Modeling in Multimachine Networks and Its Stabilization with SVCs

Jun Zhou Member
Abstract Individual generators with damping windings and shunt static VAR compensators (SVCs) and under disturbances in multimachine power networks are modeled via what we call the model-reference (MR) swing equations. Then stabilization of individual generators is contrived with nonlinear and MR SVCs, by employing the MR swing equations. The SVCs guarantee robust stability against disturbances and uncertainties in generators and from connecting networks, and they can be implemented in a variety of ways. As a specific example, nonlinear and piecewise SVCs are suggested, which can accommodate performances on generators such as swing reduction ratio. Examples illustrate efficacy of the stabilization technique. Copyright © 2010 Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

Use of NANDA, NIC, and NOC in a Baccalaureate Curriculum

Cynthia Finesilver
BACKGROUND For the last 8 years, NANDA, NIC, and NOC have been successfully introduced to students in fundamentals courses at Bellin College of Nursing. As students progress through the curriculum, the classifications are expanded and applied to various client populations in all settings. The faculty expect students to use NANDA, NIC, and NOC in a variety of ways: during preparation for care of clients, documentation of client care, discussion of clients in postconference; in formal nursing process papers; and in the college laboratory setting. MAIN CONTENT POINTS Through the use of standardized languages, which address all steps of the nursing process, students have been able to plan, implement, and evaluate nursing care in all settings, from primary care to specialty care areas. Application of the NANDA, NOC, and NIC frameworks into a baccalaureate curriculum is desirable because the classifications are research based, comprehensive, and based on current nursing practice. NOC and NIC include physiologic, psychosocial, illness prevention and treatment, health promotion, and alternative therapies. Because of the universal and clinically meaningful language, students are able to communicate and document nursing activities in diverse settings and better define the unique actions and value of nursing. Feedback from students and faculty has been positive. Faculty members are encouraged to refine and alter course expectations related to NANDA, NOC, and NIC as needed. Students in the fundamentals courses adapt easily to NANDA, NOC and NIC during small group work and during discussion of common client problems, such as constipation. CONCLUSIONS Although the frameworks are not used as part of the organizing framework, they are used to teach nursing process and increase students' critical thinking and problem-solving capabilities. [source]

From welfare state to welfare society: toward a viable system of welfare in Japan and England

Rosario Laratta
Laratta R. From welfare state to welfare society: toward a viable system of welfare in Japan and England Int J Soc Welfare 2010: 19: 131,141 © 2009 The Author(s), Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and the International Journal of Social Welfare. This article compares the impact that public welfare reforms during the 1980s and 1990s had, and are still having, on the relationship between statutory organisations and the non-profit sector in two developed countries, England and Japan. The author argues that the failure of these reforms clearly shows that, although non-profit organisations may not be able to effectively replace the state in the provision of welfare services, they can contribute, working closely with the statutory organisations, to the shaping, financing and delivery of public services in a variety of ways. It is also interesting to note that, while the public welfare reforms of the late 1990s in England produced a shift away from a culture based on privatisation and contracting-out toward a partnership culture of collaboration between state and non-profit entities, similar reforms in Japan have resulted instead in an uncertain area of deregulation and privatisation. [source]

Training corporate managers to adopt a more autonomy-supportive motivating style toward employees: an intervention study

Patricia L. Hardré
Management style is treated in a variety of ways across the training and development literature. Yet few studies have tested the training-based malleability of management style in a for-profit, authentic work context. The present research tested whether or not training intervention would help managers adopt a more autonomy-supportive motivating style toward employees and whether or not the employees of these managers would, in turn, show greater autonomous motivation and workplace engagement. Using an intervention-based experimental design, 25 managers from a Fortune 500 company received training consistent with self-determination theory on how to support the autonomy of the 169 employees they supervised. Five weeks after the managers in the experimental group participated in the training, they displayed a significantly more autonomy-supportive managerial style than did nontrained managers in a control group. Further, the employees they supervised showed, 5 weeks later, significantly more autonomous motivation and greater workplace engagement than did employees supervised by control-group managers. We discuss the malleability of managers' motivating styles, the benefits to employees when managers become more autonomy supportive, and recommendations for future training interventions and research. [source]

Local Capitalisms, Local Citizenship and Translocality: Rescaling from Below in the Pearl River Delta Region, China

Abstract Chinese economic reforms have profoundly changed the scale at which things get done. Much of the existing literature on scale has concentrated on the politics of rescaling from above. Less has been written about rescaling initiatives from below, the focus of this study. It distinguishes three important localisms. Local capitalisms treats capitalism as subordinate to local social and political processes that provide crucial conditions of existence. Local citizenship sees processes of entitlement and exclusion as accomplished locally rather than through national frameworks. Translocality describes the ways in which claims are made on the loyalties of those possessing capital but residing elsewhere and the promotion of the place through image-building and physical/social infrastructural enhancements. These three distinct localisms overlap and interact in a variety of ways to shape a new social and spatial order in post-reform China. A detailed study of the practices of localism in the Dongguan city-region reveals the ways in which the emergence of capitalism has been dependent on pre-existing social connections and based on villages and townships. The entitlements of citizenship are polarized between the local hukou population and the migrant workers irrespective of the national definition of social safety net and regardless of the physical presence of the individuals. Résumé En Chine, les réformes économiques ont profondément modifié l'échelon auquel les choses se font. Les publications traitant de cet aspect se consacrent en général aux politiques de redimensionnement venues des instances supérieures, et abordent plus rarement les initiatives venues d'en bas, objets de cette étude. Cette dernière distingue trois localismes importants: les capitalismes locaux, le capitalisme apparaissant subordonné aux processus sociaux et politiques locaux qui déterminent les conditions d'existence; la citoyenneté locale pour qui les processus d'habilitation et d'exclusion s'effectuent au plan local et non en fonction de cadres nationaux; la translocalité qui décrit comment est sollicitée la loyauté de ceux qui possèdent le capital mais résident ailleurs, et comment des projets de création d'image et d'infrastructure matérielle ou sociale dynamisent la promotion du lieu. Ces trois localismes se chevauchent et interagissent diversement, façonnant un nouvel ordre social et spatial dans la Chine de l'après-réforme. Une étude détaillée du localisme pratiqué dans la ville de Dongguan fait apparaître les modalités d'un capitalisme émergent, dépendant des liens sociaux existants et basé sur des villages ou municipalités. L'accès à la citoyenneté définit un clivage entre la population locale ayant son hukou et les travailleurs migrants, indépendamment de la notion nationale de filet de protection sociale ou de la présence physique des individus. [source]

Information technology and transformations in social security policy and administration: A review

Paul Henman
In this paper we analyse the interactive relationship between technology, administration and policy in social security. Focusing on new and emerging information and computing technologies, we show how they have been shaped and adopted by social security institutions in different countries, and explore their differential impact on recipients and staff, on organizational structures, and on policy and practice. We conclude that similar technologies have been adopted in a variety of ways to address different economic, social, political and organizational objectives and that, although these differences are becoming more blurred, different patterns have been associated with different welfare state regimes. [source]

Clinicians' Views on Reproductive Needs and Services for Teens With Negative Pregnancy Tests

Alison Moriarty Daley MSN
ISSUES AND PURPOSE To explore services available to adolescent girls at the time of the negative pregnancy test (NPT) in an urban community. DESIGN AND METHODS Clinicans focus groups were conducted to identify the needs of adolescents at the time of a NPT result. RESULTS Teens access care in a variety of ways, services provided at the time of a NPT were agency and clinical dependent, and strategies for follow-up care often were unstructured. Few services were available for parents or partners. Barriers included difficulty communicating with agencies, lack of staff trained to work with adolescents, and time/financial constraints. CONCLUSION Adolescents need comprehensive, teen-friendly reproductive care at the time of a NPT results. [source]

The effects of technology shocks on hours and output: a robustness analysis

Fabio Canova
We analyze the effects of neutral and investment-specific technology shocks on hours and output. Long cycles in hours are removed in a variety of ways. Hours robustly fall in response to neutral shocks and robustly increase in response to investment-specific shocks. The percentage of the variance of hours (output) explained by neutral shocks is small (large); the opposite is true for investment-specific shocks. ,News shocks' are uncorrelated with the estimated technology shocks. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Patients' experiences of the impact of periodontal disease

Louise K. O'Dowd
O'Dowd LK, Durham J, McCracken GI, Preshaw PM. Patients' experiences of the impact of periodontal disease. J Clin Periodontol 2010; 37: 334,339. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2010.01545.x. Abstract Aim: To examine critically patients' experiences of the impact of periodontal disease on their daily lives. Material and Methods: Semi-structured interviews of a purposive sample of patients with periodontal conditions were conducted using a flexible evolving topic guide. Data collection and analysis were an inductive, iterative process that occurred concurrently. The data were organized in a framework and recurrent themes identified. Interviews occurred until it was felt that no new themes or ideas were being expressed by respondents (n=14). Results: Effects of periodontal disease on patients' daily lives included impairment, functional limitation, discomfort and disability (including physical, psychosocial and social disability). A large number of the emergent themes from the analysis were relevant to the domains of Locker's conceptual model of oral health. The domain within Locker's model that had no data relevant to it in the context of periodontal disease was death. Two additional themes emerged that appeared unrelated to Locker's model, these were stigma and retrospective regret. Conclusion: Periodontal disease reportedly affects patients' lives in a negative manner in a variety of ways. This is of relevance in the management of patients with periodontitis. [source]

Life-Cycle Assessment of Biosolids Processing Options

Gregory M. Peters
Summary Biosolids, also known as sewage sludge, are reusable organic materials separated from sewage during treatment. They can be managed in a variety of ways. Different options for biosolids handling in Sydney, Australia, are compared in this study using life-cycle assessment. Two key comparisons are made: of system scenarios (scenario 1 is local dewatering and lime amendment; scenario 2 is a centralized drying system) and of technologies (thermal drying versus lime amendment). The environmental issues addressed are energy consumption, global warming potential (GWP), and human toxicity potential (HTP). Scenario 2 would consume 24% more energy than scenario 1. This is due to the additional electricity for pumping and particularly the petrochemical methane that supplements biogas in the drier. A centralized system using the same technologies as scenario 1 has approximately the same impacts. The GWP and HTP of the different scenarios do not differ significantly. The assessment of technology choices shows significant differences. The ample supply of endogenous biogas at North Head sewage treatment plant for the drying option allows reductions, relative to the lime-amendment option, of 68% in energy consumption, 45% in GWP, and 23% in HTP. Technology choices have more significant influence on the environmental profile of biosolids processing than does the choice of system configurations. Controlling variables for environmental improvement are the selection of biogas fuel, avoidance of coalsourced electrical energy, minimization of trucking distances, and raising the solids content of biosolids products. [source]

Sheep foraging behavior in response to interactions among alkaloids, tannins and saponins

Tiffanny D Lyman
Abstract BACKGROUND: A mixture of plant species adds biochemical diversity to pastures that may enhance productivity while decreasing reliance on herbicides and insecticides. All plants contain secondary metabolites (PSMs) that interact in plant communities in a variety of ways. Our objective was to determine if PSM diversity enhanced food intake when sheep were allowed to select from foods that varied in concentrations of tannins, saponins, and alkaloids. We hypothesized that intake of foods containing alkaloids would increase when sheep were offered supplemental foods with tannins and saponins. The alkaloid gramine is proteinaceous in nature, tannins bind to proteins in the gut, which enhances excretion of proteins, so we hypothesized tannins would bind to gramine and enhance its excretion from the body. The alkaloid ergotamine is steroidal, saponins have a high affinity for binding to lipid and steroidal compounds in the gut and then being excreted, so we hypothesized saponins would bind to ergotamine and enhance its excretion from the body. RESULTS: We found that sheep fed either gramine or ergotamine in combination with tannin- or saponin-containing foods had higher intakes of food than sheep offered only foods with gramine or ergotamine. CONCLUSION: These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that animals can neutralize the negative effects of alkaloids by ingesting tannins and saponins. Our results show that PSMs can complement one another to increase a herbivore's intake of unpalatable plant species, with the potential to maintain healthy animals and bio-diverse landscapes. Copyright © 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Corporate Travel Medicine: Benefit Analysis of On-Site Services

Timothy S. Prince
Background: Corporations with employees who travel internationally address their travel-related medical needs in a variety of ways. Options utilized include corporate medical departments, local health departments, and local clinics, both contracted and independent. Methods: A travel clinic at a university medical center routinely provided preventive travel medicine services for many of the local companies. Two of these companies had on-site medical clinics which routinely saw patients for occupational and personal health reasons. At these companies, the university travel clinic assisted in moving employee travel medicine services to the on-site clinic. Direct and indirect costs for new, predeparture employee travel care at each company were compared before, and after, the move on-site. Results: When measured per patient, total cost savings associated with the on-site travel clinic were greater than 15% at both companies (17%, 25%), primarily due to the value of the employees' time saved with decreased travel. Utilization increased at one company by 24% over the first 8 months and lead to higher overall cost, but this cost increase was only 4%. Informal assessments of the value of the on-site service at both companies was uniformly positive. Conclusion: For certain corporate settings, on-site clinics may be effective ways of providing travel medicine services. [source]

Developing a Service-Learning Curriculum for Linguistics

Colleen M. Fitzgerald
Service-learning integrates community service into a credit-earning course to enrich the learning experience and pair practice with theory in some content area. Linguistics courses offer tremendous potential for service-learning because there are a variety of ways in which language-related theory can be put into practice. This paper outlines the development of a service-learning curriculum for linguistics courses. While examples come from a project where students tutored adult second language learners of English, the activities in this paper extend well to other linguistics courses. Reflection is essential to service-learning, so necessary background and examples of it as a structured learning tool appear here. A second assessment tool, an anonymous online survey taken before and after tutoring, was used to explore any impact on language and diversity attitudes. More generally, service-learning has the potential to positively affect career development, to generate a sense of civic engagement, to facilitate greater understanding of other cultures and races and to make a difference in local communities. [source]

Language Processing in Frontotemporal Dementia: A Brief Review

Jonathan E. Peelle
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a neurodegenerative condition that presents with a number of distinct behavioral phenotypes. Here we review language-processing deficits in three subgroups of FTD patients: progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), semantic dementia (SD), and nonaphasic FTD patients with a disorder of social and executive functioning (SOC/EXEC). These three clinical subgroups have contrasting patterns of regional cortical atrophy that can be linked to their language impairments. PNFA patients' disease includes left ventral inferior frontal cortex, resulting in impaired grammatical processing. SD patients demonstrate a profound impairment for semantic knowledge related to atrophy of the left temporal lobe. SOC/EXEC patients' frontal atrophy tends to be more right lateralized and is associated with declines in executive functioning. SOC/EXEC patients' limited executive resources impact language processing in a variety of ways, including slowed grammatical processing and impaired narrative discourse. FTD patients therefore provide converging evidence regarding dissociable components of language processing and their neuroanatomical bases. [source]

Accommodating differences: variations in differentiated literacy instruction in Grade 2/3 classrooms

LITERACY, Issue 1 2008
Ruthanne Tobin
Abstract Although teachers are acutely aware of variance in students' literacy needs, many are unsure exactly how to support these needs in the dynamic classroom. This study reports on compelling evidence from Grade 2/3 classrooms in which teachers differentiated instruction in a variety of ways to benefit all students. In particular, teachers provided additional scaffolding for struggling literacy learners by offering a menu of tiered work products, expert tutoring and additional supports. At the base of instruction were common essential understandings grounded in best literacy practices: shared reading and writing, guided reading, excellent texts and literacy centres. The article emphasises the critical importance of responding to the needs of diverse and at-risk learners in the regular classroom. Differentiated instruction is suggested as a powerful organising framework in the language arts classroom. [source]

The Quenched Instationary Polymerization Systems (QUIPS)

Irene Schnöll-Bitai
Abstract The common element of quenched instationary polymerization systems is that at a given time all radicals present are deactivated by an efficient and fast quench reaction. Quenched instationary polymerizations can be carried out in a variety of ways distinguished by the way periods differing in their initiation characteristics are combined. The total chain length distribution of the resulting polymer is always the sum of the quenched radical and polymer chain length distribution. This distribution is either completely or at least partially dominated by the contribution of the quenched radical spectrum. Depending on the experimental conditions monomodal or multimodal distributions are obtained which can be characterized by their extrema (maximum, points of inflection) and peak widths (absolute, relative). The location of the extrema are related to the experimental parameters and can be used in an unambiguous way for the direct determination of the rate constant of propagation. Absolute peak widths (defined as the difference between two succeeding points of inflection) are invariant quantities with respect to the number, molar mass and hyper distribution which is only true for Poisson (and narrow Gauss) distributions. Relative peak widths are a valuable tool for the direct determination of axial dispersion which occurs in size exclusion chromatography. Comparison of experimental and ideal relative peak widths can be used for the direct determination of the axial dispersion. The influence of the type of termination and [R0] (termination by combination) on the total (number) chain length distribution for single , -pulse initiation. [source]

The role of hybridization in evolution

N. H. Barton
Abstract Hybridization may influence evolution in a variety of ways. If hybrids are less fit, the geographical range of ecologically divergent populations may be limited, and prezygotic reproductive isolation may be reinforced. If some hybrid genotypes are fitter than one or both parents, at least in some environments, then hybridization could make a positive contribution. Single alleles that are at an advantage in the alternative environment and genetic background will introgress readily, although such introgression may be hard to detect. ,Hybrid speciation', in which fit combinations of alleles are established, is more problematic; its likelihood depends on how divergent populations meet, and on the structure of epistasis. These issues are illustrated using Fisher's model of stabilizing selection on multiple traits, under which reproductive isolation evolves as a side-effect of adaptation in allopatry. This confirms a priori arguments that while recombinant hybrids are less fit on average, some gene combinations may be fitter than the parents, even in the parental environment. Fisher's model does predict heterosis in diploid F1s, asymmetric incompatibility in reciprocal backcrosses, and (when dominance is included) Haldane's Rule. However, heterosis arises only when traits are additive, whereas the latter two patterns require dominance. Moreover, because adaptation is via substitutions of small effect, Fisher's model does not generate the strong effects of single chromosome regions often observed in species crosses. [source]

(Re)making space for kiwi: beyond ,fortress conservation' in Northland

Lyndsay Blue
Abstract Mainstream conservation has been long dominated globally by the protected area paradigm. This approach has been widely challenged in recent years, and new conservation initiatives have emerged. The situation is mirrored in New Zealand, where ongoing biodiversity loss has prompted reappraisal. Within this context, we highlight the plight of kiwi, focusing on Northland and efforts there to (re)make space for this iconic bird which is at risk of extinction. While the state has primarily responded by fortifying ,islands' on public conservation land, Far North communities are working in a variety of ways and localities, both within and beyond ,the fortress', to secure a future for the ,people's bird'. [source]

On the usage and measurement of landscape connectivity

OIKOS, Issue 1 2000
Lutz Tischendorf
This paper examines the usage and measurement of "landscape connectivity" in 33 recent studies. Connectivity is defined as the degree to which a landscape facilitates or impedes movement of organisms among resource patches. However, connectivity is actually used in a variety of ways in the literature. This has led to confusion and lack of clarity related to (1) function vs structure, (2) patch isolation vs landscape connectivity and, (3) corridors vs connectivity. We suggest the term connectivity should be reserved for its original purpose. We highlight nine studies; these include modeling studies that actually measured connectivity in accordance with the definition, and empirical studies that measured key components of connectivity. We found that measurements of connectivity provide results that can be interpreted as recommending habitat fragmentation to enhance landscape connectivity. We discuss reasons for this misleading conclusion, and suggest a new way of quantifying connectivity, which avoids this problem. We also recommend a method for reducing sampling intensity in landscape-scale empirical studies of connectivity. [source]

Discourse Resistance And Negotiation By Indigenous Australians

PEACE & CHANGE, Issue 2 2003
John Synott
In the context of intercultural relations, the boundaries between dominant and subordinated communities are constructed in a variety of ways. Language frames, or discourses, understood from a sociological rather than a linguistic perspective can be considered to constitute one of the main processes for determining the character of intercultural boundaries. Using this theoretical perspective, this article examines a number of discourses that have contributed to the construction of social relations between Australian Aborigines and the dominant nonindigenous cultural groups in Australia. Examples from the colonial period show the way in which indigenous people were oppressed along racial boundaries, even as they resisted, while more recent instances chart the process of indigenous people in renegotiating social relations and in asserting the process of self-determination and cultural celebration. [source]

Quantitative analysis of the microscale of auxetic foams

N. Gaspar
Abstract The auxetic foams first produced by Lakes have been modelled in a variety of ways, each model trying to reproduce some observed feature of the microscale of the foams. Such features include bent or broken ribs or inverted angles between ribs. These models can reproduce the Poisson's ratio or Poisson's function of auxetic foam if the model parameters are carefully chosen. However these model parameters may not actually reflect the internal structure of the foams. A big problem is that measurement of parameters such as lengths and angles is not straightforward within a 3-d sample. In this work a sample of auxetic foam has been imaged by 3-d X-ray computed tomography. The resulting image is translated to a form that emphasises the geometrical structure of connected ribs. This connected rib data are suitably analysed to describe both the microstructural construction of auxetic foams and the statistical spread of structure, that is, the heterogeneity of an auxetic foam. From the analysis of the microstructure, observations are made about the requirements for microstructural models and comparisons made to previous existing models. From the statistical data, measures of heterogeneity are made that will help with future modelling that includes the heterogeneous aspect of auxetic foams. (© 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Weak alignment offers new NMR opportunities to study protein structure and dynamics

Ad Bax
Protein solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can be conducted in a slightly anisotropic environment, where the orientational distribution of the proteins is no longer random. In such an environment, the large one-bond internuclear dipolar interactions no longer average to zero and report on the average orientation of the corresponding vectors relative to the magnetic field. The desired very weak ordering, on the order of 10,3, can be induced conveniently by the use of aqueous nematic liquid crystalline suspensions or by anisotropically compressed hydrogels. The resulting residual dipolar interactions are scaled down by three orders of magnitude relative to their static values, but nevertheless can be measured at high accuracy. They are very precise reporters on the average orientation of bonds relative to the molecular alignment frame, and they can be used in a variety of ways to enrich our understanding of protein structure and function. Applications to date have focused primarily on validation of structures, determined by NMR, X-ray crystallography, or homology modeling, and on refinement of structures determined by conventional NMR approaches. Although de novo structure determination on the basis of dipolar couplings suffers from a severe multiple minimum problem, related to the degeneracy of dipolar coupling relative to inversion of the internuclear vector, a number of approaches can address this problem and potentially can accelerate the NMR structure determination process considerably. In favorable cases, where large numbers of dipolar couplings can be measured, inconsistency between measured values can report on internal motions. [source]

Comparison of two anoxia models in rainbow trout cells by a 2-DE and MS/MS-based proteome approach

Tune Wulff Dr.
Abstract In the literature, a variety of ways have been used to obtain anoxia, and most often results are compared between studies without taking into consideration how anoxia has been obtained. Here, we provide a comprehensive study of two types of anoxia, using a proteomics approach to compare changes in protein expression. The two investigated situations were 30,min of chemical anoxia (10,mM NaN3) followed by reoxygenation overnight (CR) and 2,h of N2 -induced anoxia (achieved by flushing with N2) followed by reoxygenation overnight (NR), after which samples were resolved by 2-DE. Forty-five protein spots changed their abundance in response to CR and 35 protein spots changed their abundance in response to NR, but only six proteins changed their abundance in response to both stimuli. By the means of MS/MS, 40 protein spots were identified including proteins involved in processes like cell protection and protein synthesis. It was also revealed that the level of a number of keratins was down-regulated. This study therefore provides a valuable comparison of two different anoxia models and shows that great care should be taken when comparing the effects of anoxia in studies that have used different types and durations of anoxia. [source]

Sufism in West Africa

Rüdiger Seesemann
Sufism had a decisive influence on the development and spread of Islam in West Africa. Although it has been the subject of a considerable number of academic works, Sufism in West Africa remains understudied and often misunderstood. French and British colonial views of Islam had a lasting impact on the perception of Sufism in Africa, resulting in its depreciation as a kind of "popular" Islam of the ignorant masses. A closer look at eminent West African Sufi leaders and their movements, including the Qadiriyya, the Tijaniyya, and the Muridiyya, reveals that Sufism articulated itself in a variety of ways over the past three centuries, and that it continues to be a formidable spiritual, intellectual, and social force in many countries in the Western parts of the African continent. [source]