Values Available (value + available)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Acute and chronic toxicity of nickel to marine organisms: Implications for water quality criteria

John W. Hunt
Abstract Acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted to determine the effects of nickel on three U.S. west coast marine species: a fish (the topsmelt, Atherinops affinis), a mollusk (the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens), and a crustacean (the mysid, Mysidopsis intii). The 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) for topsmelt was 26,560 mg/L, and the chronic value for the most sensitive endpoint in a 40-d exposure was 4,270 mg/L. The median effective concentration (EC50) for 48-h abalone larval development was 145.5 ,g/L, and the chronic value for juvenile growth in a 22-d exposure through larval metamorphosis was 26.43 mg/L. The mysid 96-h LC50 was 148.6 ,g/L, and the chronic value for the most sensitive endpoint in a 28-d, whole life-cycle exposure was 22.09 ,g/L. The abalone and mysid acute values were lower than other values available in the literature. Acute-tochronic ratios for nickel toxicity to the three species were 6.220, 5.505, and 6.727, respectively, which were similar to the only other available saltwater value of 5.478 (for Americamysis [Mysidopsis] bahia) and significantly lower than the existing values of 35.58 and 29.86 for freshwater organisms. Incorporation of data from the present study into calculations for water quality criteria would lower the criterion maximum concentration and raise the criterion continuous concentration for nickel. [source]

Spontaneous radiative decay rates in Ga-like ions

E. Charro
Abstract The analysis of forbidden lines, such as E2 and M1, in the atomic spectra emitted by certain ions is important for the study of the plasma in astrophysical objects and fusion devices. Atomic data, such as wavelengths and transition rates for 4p3/2 , 4p1/2 emission lines in the gallium sequence have been calculated with the Relativistic Quantum Defect Orbital (RQDO) method. The present results are tested by comparison with other theoretical values available in the literature. The regularity of the transition intensities along the isoelectronic sequence for both (E2 and M1) lines, as well as their relative magnitude, are also analyzed. M1 transitions were found to dominate by at least a factor of ten times, being in many cases bigger that this. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem, 2008 [source]

An investigation of the role of scale values in the DS/AHP method of multi-criteria decision making

Malcolm J. Beynon
Abstract DS/AHP is a method of multi-criteria decision making based on the Dempster,Shafer theory of evidence and the analytic hierarchy process. Central to the utilization of DS/AHP is the composing of preference judgements on identified groups of decision alternatives (DA) across a number of criteria against all the DA present in the problem in question. This paper exposits a series of results whose objectives are to aid in the development of an effective set of preference scale values for use within DS/AHP. These results relate directly to the concomitant level of ignorance (uncertainty) with the judgements made on a single criterion. Two particular directions of investigation are undertaken, firstly in determining the necessary number of scale values available and secondly finding the necessary differences between scale values, dependent on whether an arithmetic or geometric progression is the basis for the scale values. Through an example, the implications and utilization of these results within DS/AHP are illustrated. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Radius of gyration of plasmid DNA isoforms from static light scattering

David R. Latulippe
Abstract Despite the extensive interest in applications of plasmid DNA, there have been few direct measurements of the root mean square radius of gyration, RG, of different plasmid isoforms over a broad range of plasmid size. Static light scattering data were obtained using supercoiled, open-circular, and linear isoforms of 5.76, 9.80, and 16.8,kbp plasmids. The results from this study extend the range of RG values available in the literature to plasmid sizes typically used for gene therapy and DNA vaccines. The experimental data were compared with available theoretical expressions based on the worm-like chain model, with the best-fit value of the apparent persistence length for both the linear and open-circular isoforms being statistically identical at 46,nm. A new expression was developed for the radius of gyration of the supercoiled plasmid based on a model for linear DNA using an effective contour length that is equal to a fraction of the total contour length. These results should facilitate the development of micro/nano-fluidic devices for DNA manipulation and size-based separation processes for plasmid DNA purification. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2010;107: 134,142. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]