Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Kinds of Valence

  • affective valence
  • bond valence
  • negative valence

  • Terms modified by Valence

  • valence band
  • valence bands
  • valence basis set
  • valence bond
  • valence effects
  • valence electron
  • valence state
  • valence states

  • Selected Abstracts

    Six independent factors of personality variation: a response to Saucier

    Michael C. Ashton
    We address the concerns raised by Saucier about our proposed six-factor structure of personality. First, we dispute Saucier's new interpretation of the Negative Valence factor as a meaningful dimension of personality variation. We explain that Negative Valence terms may distort the structure of personality-descriptive terms, and that the substantive variance of Honesty is weakly correlated with Negative Valence. Also, we point out that our proposed six factors are (like the Big Five) roughly orthogonal, and that the occurrence of rotational variants within this six-dimensional space is not problematic. We argue that in terms of comprehensiveness, parsimony, independence of factors, and replicability across languages, our proposed six-factor model so far seems to be the optimal structure of personality characteristics. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Valence and valence,core interactions in transition-metal diatomic molecules

    Edward A. Boudreaux
    Abstract In this study, the correlation between open-shell valence and closed-shell valence-core electrons is shown to be significant, with regard to an adequate description of the bonding in transition metal diatomic molecules. The SCMEH-MO (self-consistent modified extended Huckel molecular orbital) method is well suited for partitioning these two influences, in terms of their independent and collective effects on the electrons within the occupied mo-s. Two test cases, Cr2 and Mo2 are presented to demonstrate the nature and magnitude of these valence/valence-core interactions. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem, 2005 [source]

    Valence and extra-valence orbitals in main group and transition metal bonding

    C. R. Landis
    Abstract We address the issue first raised by Maseras and Morokuma with regard to the questionable treatment of empty p-orbitals in the algorithm for natural atomic/bond orbitals (NAOs, NBOs) and associated natural population analysis. We quantify this issue in terms of the numerical error (root-mean-square density deviation) resulting from the two alternative treatments of empty p-sets, leading to distinct NAOs, atomic charges, and idealized Lewis structural representations. Computational application of this criterion to a broad spectrum of main group and transition group species (employing both single- and multi-structure resonance models) reveals the interesting general pattern of (i) relatively insignificant differences for normal-valent species, where a single resonance structure is usually adequate, but (ii) clear superiority of the standard NAO algorithm for hypervalent species, where multi-resonance character is pronounced. These comparisons show how the divisive issue of "valence shell expansion" in transition metal bonding is deeply linked to competing conceptual models of hypervalency (viz., "p-orbital participation" in skeletal hybridization vs. 3c/4e resonance character). The results provide a quantitative measure of superiority both for the standard NAO evaluation of atomic charges as well as the general 3c/4e (A: B-C , A-B :C resonance) picture of main- and transition-group hypervalency. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem, 2007 [source]

    The Factor Structure of Chinese Personality Terms

    Xinyue Zhou
    ABSTRACT From the Contemporary Chinese Dictionary, 3,159 personality descriptors were selected and then ranked by the frequency of use. Among those, the top 413 terms with the highest frequency were administered to two independent large samples in China for self-ratings and peer ratings to explore the emic Chinese personality structure as well as to test the universality of other models. One- and two-factor structures found in previous studies of other languages were well replicated. Previous structures with more than two factors were not well replicated, but six- and seven-factor models were at least as well supported as the Big Five. Emic analysis indicated that a seven-factor structure was the most informative structure relatively salient across subsamples of self-ratings and peer ratings, across original and ipsatized data, and across differences in variable selections. These factors can be called Extraversion, Conscientiousness/Diligence, Unselfishness, Negative Valence, Emotional Volatility, Intellect/Positive Valence, and Dependency/Fragility. [source]

    Relationship between the Bond Valence and the Temperature Coefficient of the Resonant Frequency in the Complex Perovskite (Pb1,xCax)[Fe0.5(Nb1,yTay)0.5]O3

    Heung Soo Park
    The temperature coefficient of the resonant frequency (TCF) of complex perovskite (Pb1,xCax)[Fe0.5(Nb1,yTay)0.5]O3 ceramics (x= 0.5, 0.55; 0.0 ,y, 1.0) was investigated, relative to the bond valence of the A- and B-site ions in the ABO3 perovskite structure (such as the barium-, strontium-, and calcium-based complex perovskites). The TCF of these complex perovskite compounds varied with the bond valence of the A- and B-sites and the tolerance factor (t) in the perovskite structure. In the tilted region (t < 1.0), the tilting of the oxygen octahedra increased and the TCF decreased, because of the increased bond valence of the B-site. Also, the dependence of TCF on the bond valence of the A-site was similar to its dependence on t. [source]

    Candidate Valence and Ideological Positions in U.S. House Elections

    Walter J. Stone
    We examine the relationship between the valence qualities of candidates and the ideological positions they take in U.S. House elections based on a study of the 2006 midterm elections. Our design enables us to distinguish between campaign and character dimensions of candidate valence and to place candidates and districts on the same ideological scale. Incumbents with a personal-character advantage are closer ideologically to their district preferences, while disadvantaged challengers take more extreme policy positions. Contrary to conventional wisdom, challengers can reap electoral rewards by taking more extreme positions relative to their districts. We explore a possible mechanism for this extremism effect by demonstrating that challengers closer to the extreme received greater financial contributions, which enhanced their chances of victory. Our results bear on theories of representation that include policy and valence, although the interactions between these two dimensions may be complex and counterintuitive. [source]

    Memory, Maternal Representations, and Internalizing Symptomatology Among Abused, Neglected, and Nonmaltreated Children

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 3 2008
    Kristin Valentino
    A depth-of-processing incidental recall task for maternal-referent stimuli was utilized to assess basic memory processes and the affective valence of maternal representations among abused (N = 63), neglected (N = 33), and nonmaltreated (N = 128) school-aged children (ages 8,13.5 years old). Self-reported and observer-rated indices of internalizing symptoms were also assessed. Abused children demonstrated impairments in recall compared to neglected and nonmaltreated children. Although abused, neglected, and nonmaltreated children did not differ in valence of maternal representations, positive and negative maternal schemas related to internalizing symptoms differently among subgroups of maltreated children. Valence of maternal schema was critical in differentiating those with high and low internalizing symptomatology among the neglected children only. Implications for clinical intervention and prevention efforts are underscored. [source]

    Electron-Doping Through LaIII -for-SrII Substitution in (Sr1-xLax)2FeTaO6: Effects on the Valences and Ordering of the B-Site Cations, Fe and Ta.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 16 2006
    E.-L. Rautama
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract, please click on HTML or PDF. [source]

    Impaired selection of relevant positive information in depression

    Sara M. Levens Ph.D.
    Abstract Background: A hallmark characteristic of depression is the inability to regulate the effect of emotional material on cognition. Previous research has demonstrated that depressed individuals are less able than are nondepressed persons to expel irrelevant negative information from working memory (WM), thereby exacerbating the effects of negative content on cognition. The primary goal of this study was to examine whether depressed individuals are also impaired at selecting relevant positive content in the context of representations competing for resources in WM; such an impairment would limit depressed persons' ability to use positive material to ameliorate the cognitive effects of negative information. Methods: We administered a Recency-probes task with neutral, positive, and negative words to 20 currently depressed and 22 never-depressed participants. This task assesses the selection of relevant content in WM by inducing interference between current and prior representations of a stimulus in WM. Reaction times to interference and noninterference trials were compared across valence and group to assess how effectively depressed individuals select task-relevant emotional content to resolve interference. Results: Compared to never-depressed controls, depressed individuals were impaired in selecting task-relevant positive stimuli; the performance of the two groups was comparable for selecting task-relevant neutral and negative stimuli. Conclusions: Findings indicate that a valence-specific deficit in WM may contribute to the inability of depressed individuals to regulate emotion, and provide empirical support for formulations that implicate positive insensitivity in the maintenance of depression. Depression and Anxiety, 2009. Published 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The influence of attachment representation on parental perception and interpretation of infant emotions: A multilevel approach

    Gottfried Spangler
    Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate parental perception and interpretation of infant emotional expression depending on their attachment representation. Forty-six parents' responses to infant pictures depicting positive, neutral, and negative emotions were assessed on the level of affective judgments (valence, arousal), mimic responses (facial muscle activity), and of the eyelid reflex (using the startle paradigm). Results revealed small differences between parents of different attachment representations with respect to their subjective evaluations. However, secure parents, as compared to insecure ones, showed a positive bias in their mimic responses to infant pictures. The modulation of the startle response indicated a negative evaluation of negative infant emotion expressions in dismissing parents, while an augmentation of the startle response to negative infant emotions could not be observed in secure and preoccupied parents. The findings highlight the role of attachment experiences for emotional information processing in parents and its consequences for parental behavior. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 52: 411,423, 2010. [source]

    Do great apes use emotional expressions to infer desires?

    David Buttelmann
    Although apes understand others' goals and perceptions, little is known about their understanding of others' emotional expressions. We conducted three studies following the general paradigm of Repacholi and colleagues (1997, 1998). In Study 1, a human reacted emotionally to the hidden contents of two boxes, after which the ape was allowed to choose one of the boxes. Apes distinguished between two of the expressed emotions (happiness and disgust) by choosing appropriately. In Studies 2 and 3, a human reacted either positively or negatively to the hidden contents of two containers; then the ape saw him eating something. When given a choice, apes correctly chose the container to which the human had reacted negatively, based on the inference that the human had just eaten the food to which he had reacted positively , and so the other container still had food left in it. These findings suggest that great apes understand both the directedness and the valence of some human emotional expressions, and can use this understanding to infer desires. [source]

    Analysis of effect of electrolyte types on electrokinetic energy conversion in nanoscale capillaries

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 3 2010
    Reiyu Chein
    Abstract An analytical study on the effect of electrolyte types on the electrokinetic energy conversion is presented using nanoscale cylindrical capillary, which is either positively or negatively charged. The sign of surface charge determines the role and concentration magnitude of ions in the capillary and the energy conversion performance. Our study shows that the electrokinetic energy conversion performance (maximum efficiency, pressure rise and streaming potential) are approximately identical for 1:1 (KCl), 2:1 (CaCl2) and 3:1 (LaCl3) electrolytes when capillary is positively charged. For negatively charged capillary, energy conversion performance degrades significantly with the increase of counter-ion valence. For both positively and negatively charged capillaries, higher maximum efficiency can be resulted in low bulk concentration and surface charge density regimes. However, high maximum pressure rise generation for the pumping is found in the low bulk concentration and high surface charge density regimes. For the electric power generation, higher maximum streaming potential is found when both bulk concentration and surface charge density are low. [source]

    Optimal separation times for electrical field flow fractionation with Couette flows

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 20 2008
    Jennifer Pascal
    Abstract The prediction of optimal times of separation as a function of the applied electrical field and cation valence have been studied for the case of field flow fractionation [Martin M., Giddings J. C., J. Phys. Chem. 1981, 85, 727] with charged solutes. These predictions can be very useful to a priori design or identify optimal operating conditions for a Couette-based device for field flow fractionation when the orthogonal field is an electrical field. Mathematically friendly relationships are obtained by applying the method of spatial averaging to the solute species continuity equation; this is accomplished after the role of the capillary geometrical dimensions on the applied electrical field equations has been assessed [Oyanader M. A., Arce P., Electrophoresis 2005; 26, 2857]. Moreover, explicit analytical expressions are derived for the effective parameters, i.e. diffusivity and convective velocity as functions of the applied (orthogonal) electrical field. These effective transport parameters are used to study the effect of the cation valence of the solutes and of the magnitude of the applied orthogonal electrical field on the values of the optimal time of separation. These parameters play a significant role in controlling the optimal separation time, leading to a family of minimum values, for particular magnitudes of the applied orthogonal electrical field. [source]

    Divanadium(V) and Trapped Valence Linear Tetravanadium(IV,V,V,IV) Complexes

    Anindita Sarkar
    Abstract In an acetonitrile/water mixture, reactions of the N,N,-bis(diacetyl)hydrazine (H2diah), bis(acetylacetonato)oxidovanadium(IV) [VO(acac)2] and monodentate N -coordinating heterocycles (hc) in a 1:2:2 mol ratio provide yellow divanadium(V) complexes of formula [(hc)O2V(,-diah)VO2(hc)] (1, hc = imidazole; 2, hc = pyrazole; 3, hc = 3,5-dimethyl pyrazole). On the other hand, in the same solvent mixture reactions of the same reagents in a 1:4:2 mol ratio produce green linear tetravanadium(IV,V,V,IV) complexes of formula [(acac)2OV(,-O)VO(hc)(,-diah)(hc)OV(,-O)VO(acac)2] (4, hc = imidazole; 5, hc = pyrazole; 6, hc = 3,5-dimethyl pyrazole). The complexes 1,6 have been characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, and various spectroscopic and electrochemical measurements. The X-ray crystal structures of 1, 3 and 6 have been determined. In all three structures, the diazine ligand diah2, is in trans configuration. Metal-centred bond parameters are consistent with the localized electronic structure of the two trans -bent {OV(,-O)VO}3+ cores present in 6. The pentavalent metal centres in 1, 3 and 6 are in a distorted trigonal-bipyramidal N2O3 coordination environment, while the terminal tetravalent metal centres in 6 are in a distorted octahedral O6 coordination sphere. The eight-line EPR spectra of the tetravanadium species (4,6) in dimethyl sulfoxide at ambient temperature indicate the rare valence localized electronic structure in the fluid phase. All the complexes are redox active and display metal-centred electron transfer processes in dimethyl sulfoxide solution. A reduction within ,0.78 to ,0.94 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) is observed for the divanadium(V) species 1,3, while a reduction and an oxidation are observed in the potential ranges ,0.82 to ,0.90 V and 0.96 to 1.12 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), respectively, for the tetravanadium species 4,6. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2009) [source]

    HUMAN STUDY: Heavy drinking relates to positive valence ratings of alcohol cues

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Carmen Pulido
    ABSTRACT A positive family history of alcohol use disorders (FH) is a robust predictor of personal alcohol abuse and dependence. Exposure to problem-drinking models is one mechanism through which family history influences alcohol-related cognitions and drinking patterns. Similarly, exposure to alcohol advertisements is associated with alcohol involvement and the relationship between affective response to alcohol cues and drinking behavior has not been well established. In addition, the collective contribution that FH, exposure to different types of problem-drinking models (e.g. parents, peers) and personal alcohol use have on appraisal of alcohol-related stimuli has not been evaluated with a large sample. We investigated the independent effects of FH, exposure to problem-drinking models and personal alcohol use on valence ratings of alcohol pictures in a college sample. College students (n = 227) completed measures of personal drinking and substance use, exposure to problem-drinking models, FH and ratings on affective valence of 60 alcohol pictures. Greater exposure to non-familial problem-drinkers predicted greater drinking among college students (, = 0.17, P < 0.01). However, personal drinking was the only predictor of valence ratings of alcohol pictures (, = ,0.53, P < 0.001). Personal drinking level predicted valence ratings of alcohol cues over and above FH, exposure to problem-drinking models and demographic characteristics. This suggests that positive affective responses to alcohol pictures are more a function of personal experience (i.e. repeated heavy alcohol use) than vicarious learning. [source]

    Dehydration and Dehydrogenation of Alcohols with Mononuclear Cationic Vanadium Oxides in the Gas Phase and Energetics of VOnH0/+ (n = 2, 3),

    Marianne Engeser
    Abstract The ion/molecule reactions of selected alcohols with the vanadium oxide cations VO+ and VO2+ are studied by Fourier-transform ion-cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry. Dehydrogenation is the dominating reaction pathway for methanol and allyl alcohols. With larger or less unsaturated alcohols, dehydration and carbocation formations prevail. While the valence in VO+ remains unchanged during alcohol dehydrogenation, VO2+ is reduced to VIII. Thermochemical data for VO2H0/+, VO3H and VO3H2+ are derived by means of ICR bracketing. The experimental results are further complemented by ab initio calculations using density functional theory. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2007) [source]

    A cardiac signature of emotionality

    Stefan Koelsch
    Abstract Human personality has brain correlates that exert manifold influences on biological processes. This study investigates relations between emotional personality and heart activity. Our data demonstrate that emotional personality is related to a specific cardiac amplitude signature in the resting electrocardiogram (ECG). Two experiments using functional magnetic resonance imaging show that this signature correlates with brain activity in the amygdala and the hippocampus during the processing of musical stimuli with emotional valence. Additionally, this cardiac signature correlates with subjective indices of emotionality (as measured by the Revised Toronto Alexithymia Scale), and with both time and frequency domain measures of the heart rate variability. The results demonstrate intricate connections between emotional personality and the heart by showing that ECG amplitude patterns provide considerably more information about an individual's emotionality than previously believed. The finding of a cardiac signature of emotional personality opens new perspectives for the investigation of relations between emotional dysbalance and cardiovascular disease. [source]

    Role of cortical cannabinoid CB1 receptor in conditioned taste aversion memory

    Tali Kobilo
    Abstract The brain endocannabinoid system has been shown to play a role in memory, though the extent to which this role generalizes over different types and processes of memory is not yet determined. Here we show that the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) plays differential roles in acquisition, extinction and reconsolidation of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory in the rat insular cortex, which contains the taste cortex. Activation of the CB1 receptor in the insular cortex inhibits acquisition and reconsolidation but not extinction, whereas blockade of the CB1 receptor promotes memory and blocks extinction of CTA, while having no apparent effect on reconsolidation. The CB1 ligands used in this study were incapable of substituting the unconditioned stimulus in CTA training. All in all, the data raise the possibility that the state of activity of the CB1 receptor in the insular cortex contributes to the encoding of hedonic valence that enters into association with taste items. [source]

    Personality and lexical decision times for evaluative words

    Peter Borkenau
    Abstract We studied personality influences on accessibility of pleasant and unpleasant stimuli in a sample of 129 students. Self-reports and reports by knowledgeable informants on extraversion, neuroticism, approach temperament and avoidance temperament were combined with a go/no-go lexical decision task that included pleasant, unpleasant and neutral words, and two response modes, manual and vocal. The data were analysed using multilevel modelling. Extraversion and approach temperament predicted faster identification of pleasant words than of neutral and of unpleasant words. Vocal responses took longer than manual responses, but mode of response did not interact with the valence of the words. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Individual differences and social norms: the distinction between reciprocators and prosocials

    Marco Perugini
    Reciprocity is in this contribution compared with cooperation, hostility, and prosociality, in order to distinguish its peculiar theoretical and empirical characteristics. Two studies are presented. Study 1 (n,=,166) is based on the distinction between the mechanism of reciprocity and the consequent behaviour that this mechanism produces. It is shown that participants have a clear implicit theory of the personality traits underlying reciprocal behaviour, and these traits are well differentiated with respect to traits underlying cooperation and hostility. Study 2 (n,=,134) is based on the distinction between reciprocity as a goal and reciprocity as a strategy to achieve equality. Results show that individuals with high internalization of the norm of reciprocity allocate payoffs as a function of the valence of other's past behaviour, whereas this feature is irrelevant for individuals with high prosocial orientation. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Test anxiety, evaluative stress, and susceptibility to distraction from threat

    Edmund Keogh
    Examinations are perhaps one of the main methods of assessment in education. Unfortunately, there are some individuals who are so fearful of such events that performance is impaired. Test anxiety is believed to be the trait that predisposes individuals to react negatively to examinations and tests. One way in which it is believed that test anxiety affects performance is by increasing susceptibility to distraction from task-irrelevant material. However, few studies have directly investigated this impairment. An experiment was therefore conducted to investigate susceptibility to distraction in high and low test-anxious students. The task used was based on one developed by Mathews, May, Mogg and Eysenck (1990), which distinguishes between focused attention and selective search. In order to determine whether a specific susceptibility to distraction exists, the distractors were varied in terms of valence and relevance to examinations. Since test anxiety is a situation-specific trait, an evaluation-related stressor was used to trigger test-anxious reactions. A specific susceptibility to distraction from threat was found amongst high test-anxious participants who received the evaluation-related stressor. However, this effect was only found when participants were using focused attention. This suggests that the disturbed performance often found to be associated with test anxiety might be due to an inability to ignore threatening material when attempting to focus attentional resources. These results are discussed in light of current theories of test anxiety and implications for educational practice. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The role of valence in the perception of agency and communion

    Caterina Suitner
    Social judgments necessarily carry evaluative connotations that may mask other dimensions of interest. With reference to bi-dimensional models of stereotype content, we analyzed the role of valence in the study of agency and communion. Because agency and communion are both positively evaluated dimensions, we hypothesize that valence may function as a "third variable" that obscures their obverse relation. In Study 1, investigating people's lay understanding of agency and communion, ratings of 130 adjectives revealed a positive correlation between the two dimensions, unless valence was controlled for, in which case the correlation became negative. In Study 2, exemplifying the role of valence in the case of gender stereotyping, a word frequency analysis of Italian language revealed that more agentic traits were more likely to occur in masculine and more communal traits in feminine form, but again this link emerged only after controlling for valence. This research highlights the importance of controlling for valence when studying the distinct roles of agency and communion in social perception. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Towards an operationalization of the fundamental dimensions of agency and communion: Trait content ratings in five countries considering valence and frequency of word occurrence

    Andrea E. Abele
    Despite many convergences in theorizing and research on the two fundamental dimensions of social judgment the operationalizations differ considerably across studies and possible confounds (valence, frequency of word occurrence) are not always controlled. The present study was meant as a first step towards a more standardized operationalization by providing trait words which are clearly distinct in content (agency and communion) but comparable in valence and frequency of word occurrence in written language across different countries. We created a pool of 304 trait adjectives and reduced this pool in several pretests to a list of 69 trait words. These were clearly different in content and covered a large range of valence. In the main study N,=,548 participants from five countries (Belgium, Germany, Italy, Poland and USA) rated the 69 trait words on agency, communion and valence. The results were quite consistent across countries. The trait adjectives' agency ratings and communion ratings were negatively correlated; valence was correlated with communal content, but not with agentic content; word frequency was barely related to the content ratings. Cluster analyses suggest four clusters of trait words. Based on these findings we propose sets of agentic and communal trait words which do not differ in valence and word frequency. These item-sets can serve as a first step towards a standardized operationalization of the two fundamental content dimensions across languages. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Nonconscious influences of religion on prosociality: a priming study

    Isabelle Pichon
    Past literature on the automaticity of social behavior indicates that priming a concept automatically activates related behavioral schemas. In the two present studies we examined the impact of religion on prosociality. In the first study, we tested the impact of subliminal priming of religious concepts on prosocial behavior intentions. We found a main effect of this priming, moderated by valence: prosocial behavior tendencies were stronger when positive religious words had previously been subliminally primed. In the second study, we examined the accessibility of prosocial concepts, after the supraliminal activation of religion. Indeed, we found that not only were religion-related attributes more accessible when primed, but positive religious primes were also able to activate prosocial concepts. While previous research has shown the religion-prosociality link at the explicit level and in terms of the role of individual religiousness, these results indicate that religious concepts by themselves can nonconsciously activate prosocial behavioral schemas. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Attitude learning through exploration: advice and strategy appraisals

    J. Richard Eiser
    Processes of attitude learning were investigated through a game requiring discrimination between good and bad objects, where feedback about object valence (involving gain or loss) is contingent on approach. Previous research demonstrates a preponderance of false-negative errors, with some good objects (,learning asymmetry') and most novel objects (,generalization asymmetry') being judged as bad, but provides no direct evidence concerning how participants appraise alternative strategies and their own performance. To compare alternative strategies, participants received advice, supposedly from a previous participant, that most objects were bad and should be avoided, or good and should be approached. Learning and generalization asymmetries were replicated, especially among participants who followed the former (risk-averse) advice. Additionally, participants' evaluations of their own game strategy were inversely related to amount of negative feedback (the number of bad objects approached), but unrelated to positive feedback (from good objects approached), pointing to the salience of negative information for self-appraisals. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Illusory and spurious correlations: distinct phenomena or joint outcomes of exemplar-based category learning?

    Thorsten Meiser
    Stereotype formation about novel groups was analyzed with trivariate stimulus distributions that were generated by group membership, valence of behavior, and a context variable. Within this stimulus setting, we manipulated the confounding role of the context variable and the distinctiveness of events in terms of their relative infrequency. The experimental procedure allowed us to analyze illusory and spurious correlations in a joint framework, to conduct focused tests for memory effects of relative infrequency and to investigate the detection of covariations with the context variable. The results revealed that illusory and spurious correlations were formed without enhanced memory for infrequent events and with existing covariations of the confounding context factor being well extracted. These observations suggest that illusory and spurious correlations can be understood without assuming specific cognitive processes that are tied to the particular characteristics of a given stimulus distribution, such as enhanced memory in the case of relative infrequency and neglect of a context variable in the case of a confounding factor. Instead, computer simulations with an exemplar-based learning model demonstrated that exemplar-based category learning may provide a coherent and integrative theoretical framework for illusory correlations, spurious correlations and true contingency learning in social cognition. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Priming uniquely human emotions and the in-group (but not the out-group) activates humanity concepts

    Jeroen Vaes
    Documenting the behavioural consequences of infra-humanization, Vaes, Paladino, Castelli, Leyens, and Giovanazzi (2003) found that, in comparison to in-group members, out-group members are discriminated against when they express uniquely human emotions. It was assumed that expressing a uniquely human emotion makes an in-group member, at least tacitly, more human than an out-group member. Two studies tested this assumption and found, as predicted, that the human concept was more activated in an in-group compared to an out-group context when group members were associated with uniquely human emotions. The possible impact of valence was controlled for, showing that both positive and negative emotions endorsed the same effects (Study 1) and that the activation of the human concept was not a side effect of increased positivity (Study 2). The discussion focuses on the implications of the present studies and suggests new avenues of research. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Perceived legitimacy of intergroup status differences: its prediction by relative ingroup prototypicality

    Ulrike Weber
    Research demonstrates that the perceived legitimacy of intergroup status differences has profound effects on intergroup attitudes, emotions and behavior. However, there has only been little intergroup research that predicts the perception of legitimacy. We hypothesize that the perception of legitimate or illegitime status relations depends upon the perceived relative prototypicality of the ingroup for the inclusive category. Since the prototype of the inclusive category provides a normative comparison standard for subgroup evaluation, similarity to this standard (i.e. prototypicality) should be positively evaluated and used to justify high status. A first study in a natural intergroup context (N,=,67) offered correlational data in support of the predicted relationship. The second study (N,=,60), using Germans as ingroup with Poles as outgroup and Europe as inclusive category, demonstrated that the link between prototypicality and legitimacy is contingent upon the valence of the inclusive category. In order to elucidate the causal direction, the third study manipulated relative prototypicality in an artificial intergroup context (N,=,94) and introduced status as a moderator variable. Overall, we found strong support for the hypothesis that legitimacy is related to prototypicality and that this relation is moderated by ingroup status and valence of the inclusive category. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Ethnophaulisms for ethnic immigrant groups: the contributions of group size and familiarity

    Brian Mullen
    An archival analysis was conducted on the ethnophaulisms for ethnic immigrant groups as a function of the size and the familiarity of those groups. Cognitive representation was operationalized as the degree of complexity in, and the valence of, the ethnophaulisms applied to ethnic immigrant groups in the United States during each of 15 consecutive 10-year time periods. Group size was operationalized as the number of first-generation persons in these ethnic groups during each of these same 15 10-year time periods. Familiarity was operationalized in terms of the number of times each ethnic immigrant group was mentioned in social histories and popular songs for each of these same 15 10-year time periods. Ethnophaulisms for smaller groups tended to be less complex and more negative and ethnophaulisms for less familiar groups tended to be less complex and more negative. Analyses delineate the interrelations between ethnic immigrant group size, ethnic immigrant group familiarity, and the cognitive representations of these groups. The implications of these results for research on intergroup perceptions are discussed. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Physicochemical factors controlling the release of dissolved organic carbon from columns of forest subsoils

    J.-M. Münch
    Summary Retention of dissolved organic carbon in soil depends on the chemical and physical environment. We studied the release of organic carbon from three carbonate-free forest subsoil materials (Bs1, Bs2, Bg) in unsaturated column experiments as influenced by (i) variations of the flow regime and (ii) varied chemical properties of the irrigation solution. We investigated the effect of flow initiation, constant irrigation, interruptions to flow, and variation in the effective pore water velocity on the release of organic C. The influence of ionic strength and cation valence in the irrigation solution was studied by stepped pulses of NaCl and CaCl2. The release of C from all materials was characterized by an initial large output and a decline to constant concentrations under long-term irrigation. Interrupting the flow increased its release when flow was resumed. The release from the Bs1 material was not related to the duration of the interruption. The Bs2 material, in contrast, released organic carbon in a way that was successfully described by a kinetic first-order model. Increased pore water velocity decreased the concentrations of C in the effluent from it. The pH of the irrigation solution had negligible effects on the mobilization of C. Increased ionic strength reduced the release, whereas rinsing with distilled water increased the concentrations of C in the effluent. The response of dissolved C to pulses of weak solutions, however, was sensitive to the type of cation in the previous step with strong solutions. The results suggest that the release of organic matter in the soils depends on its colloidal properties. [source]