Varying Intensities (varying + intensity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The grobal in the sporting glocal

Abstract This article provides a counterpoint to analyses of contemporary sport culture that falsely polarize the global and the local, in a manner that tends to privilege, and indeed romanticize, expressions of the sporting local. Rather than treating them as mutually exclusive categories, this discussion seeks to further the understanding of the constitutive interdependence linking the (sporting) global and the (sporting) local. In looking to further the understanding of the contemporary sporting landscape, we offer an alternative approach that reinscribes the influence of the global in shaping structures, practices, and experiences of the sporting local. The processual and empirical continuum through which we conceptualize globalization is bounded by grobalization (the imperialistic ambitions of nations, corporations, organizations, and the like and their desire, indeed need, to impose themselves on various geographic areas) and glocalization (the interpenetration of the global and the local, resulting in unique outcomes in different geographic areas): the grobal and the glocal. We discuss four sport scenarios, and illustrate the manner in which they exhibit , in varying inflections and to varying intensities , the necessary, but never guaranteed, interpenetrative relationship between the grobal and the glocal. This is achieved by both problematizing the very possibility of the sporting local within conditions of intensive and extensive globalization (leading to the concept of the glocal), and simultaneously explicating the importance of the global (through the concept of the grobal) to the structure and experience of everyday sport cultures. [source]

Lectin histochemical studies on the olfactory epithelium and vomeronasal organ in the Japanese striped snake, Elaphe quadrivirgata

Daisuke Kondoh
Abstract The olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ of the Japanese striped snake were examined by lectin histochemistry. Of the 21 lectins used in the study, all lectins except succinylated-wheat germ agglutinin (s-WGA) showed similar binding patterns in the vomeronasal receptor cells and the olfactory receptor cells with varying intensities. The binding patterns of s-WGA varied among individuals in the vomeronasal and olfactory receptor cells, respectively. Four lectins, Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin-II (BSL-II), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), Sophora japonica agglutinin (SJA), and Erythrina cristagalli lectin (ECL) stained secretory granules and the organelles in the olfactory supporting cells and did not stain them in the vomeronasal supporting cells. These results suggest that the glycoconjugate moieties are similar in the vomeronasal and olfactory receptor cells of the Japanese striped snake. J. Morphol., 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The effects of cattle grazing on plant-pollinator communities in a fragmented Mediterranean landscape

OIKOS, Issue 3 2006
Betsy Vulliamy
The main aims of this study were to assess grazing impacts on bee communities in fragmented mediterranean shrubland (phrygana) and woodland habitats that also experience frequent wildfires, and to explain the mechanisms by which these impacts occur. Fieldwork was carried out in 1999 and 2000 on Mount Carmel, in northern Israel, a known hot-spot for bee diversity. Habitats with a range of post-burn ages and varying intensities of cattle grazing were surveyed by transect recording, grazing levels, and the diversity and abundance of both flowers and bees were measured. The species richness of both bees and flowers were highest at moderate to high grazing intensities, and path-analysis indicated that the effects of both grazing and fire on bee diversity were mediated mainly through changes in flower diversity, herb flowers being more important than shrubs. The abundance of bees increased with intensified grazing pressure even at the highest levels surveyed. Surprisingly though, changes in bee abundance at high grazing levels were not caused directly by changes in flower cover. The variation in bee abundance may have been due to higher numbers of solitary bees from the family Halictidae in grazed sites, where compacted ground (nesting resource) and composites (forage resource) were abundant. The effects of grazing on plants were clearest in the intermediate-aged sites, where cattle inhibited the growth of some of the dominant shrubs, creating or maintaining more open patches where light-demanding herbs could grow, thus allowing a diverse flora to develop. Overall, bee communities benefit from a relatively high level of grazing in phrygana. Although bee and flower diversity may decrease under very heavy grazing, the present levels of grazing on Mount Carmel appear to have only beneficial effects on the bee community. [source]

ErbB receptor dimerization, localization, and co-localization in mouse lung type II epithelial cells,

Katja Zscheppang MSc
Abstract ErbB receptors are crucial for embryonic neuronal and cardiac development. ErbB receptor ligands neuregulin (NRG) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) play a major role in the developing lung, specifically in mesenchymal induced fetal surfactant synthesis by type II epithelial cells. Different erbB receptor ligands cause diverse biologic effects by stimulating specific erbB-dimers. It is not known how dimerization, cellular localization, and co-localization of erbB dimers are regulated in type II epithelial cells. We hypothesized that erbB receptors have a distinct dimerization, localization, and co-localization pattern in type II cells. In mouse type II epithelial cells, which express all four erbB receptors, erbB1 and erbB4 were the preferred dimerization partners. These dimerization patterns were ligand independent. Confocal microscopy showed these transmembrane receptors exhibited a strong nuclear localization. In non-stimulated cells, both erbB1 and erbB2 were predominantly localized to the nucleus and less intensely to the cytoplasm. However, erbB1 was mainly found in the nucleoli, whereas erbB2 spared the nucleolar region. ErbB3 was exclusively located in the nucleoli. ErbB4 was diffusely located in nucleus and cytoplasm, and like erbB2 spared the nucleolar region. Short stimulation with either EGF or NRG led to a more pronounced nuclear staining for erbB1, erbB2, and erbB4. All four receptors co-localized with each other after stimulation, but with varying intensity. The two known stimulators of fetal surfactant synthesis, NRG and NRG-containing fibroblast conditioned medium, changed cellular localization of the dimerization partners erbB4 and erbB2 in a distinct fashion. We conclude that erbB receptors have a receptor-specific localization and dimerization pattern in type II epithelial cells. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2006; 41:1205,1212. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]