Useful Tumor Marker (useful + tumor_marker)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Spurious hypercalcitoninemia in patients with nodular thyroid disease induced by heterophilic antibodies

Jung Min Kim MD
Abstract Background Serum calcitonin is the most useful tumor marker for the diagnosis and follow-up of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Spurious hypercalcitoninemia caused by heterophilic antibody interference (HAI) is rarely found in patients without MTC. Methods We studied 2 patients with hypercalcitoninemia and thyroid nodules, but no evidence of MTC on fine-needle aspiration cytology. We performed calcium stimulation tests, measured serum calcitonin with another calcitonin kit, performed dilution tests, and remeasured serum calcitonin after applying heterophilic blocking tubes. Results In a 31-year-old woman with no response to the calcium stimulation test, serum calcitonin was <5 pg/mL using another kit. After we applied heterophilic blocking tubes, the serum calcitonin level decreased to normal range. We concluded that patient had spurious hypercalcitoninemia. In a 63-year-old woman, all tests revealed that the patient had true hypercalcitoninemia. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy that revealed MTC. Conclusions We suggest that patients suspected for spurious hypercalcitoninemia should undergo further investigation due to HAI. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2010 [source]

Demonstration of hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) mRNA expression in pineal parenchymal tumors: Histochemical in situ hybridization

Itaru Tsumanuma
The expression of hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), an enzyme catalyzing the final step of melatonin biosynthesis, was examined in three pineoblastomas and five pineocytomas by in situ hybridization analysis. Distinct hybridization signals for HIOMT mRNA, though weaker than in normal pineal gland pinealocytes, were detected in two of the three pineoblastoma and three of the five pineocytoma cases. Of the pineoblastomas, hybridization signals were observed in most tumor cells of one case, while in another, signals were detected in occasional cells clustered or scattered throughout the neoplastic field. Of the pineocytomas, signals were detected in most tumor cells of two cases, while in one case, signals were detected only in occasional cells. Among these specimens, one pineoblastoma and one pineocytoma were also analyzed using northern blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses. In the northern blot analysis, an apparently single band corresponding to the size of HIOMT mRNA was detected in both pineoblastoma and pineocytoma RNA blots. In the RT-PCR analysis, three species of HIOMT mRNA generated via alternative splicing were detected in both tumors. These results suggest that the neoplastic cells of pineoblastomas and pineocytomas often retain the ability to express HIOMT mRNA, as in normal pinealocytes, and that HIOMT is a useful tumor marker for the diagnosis of pineal parenchymal tumors. [source]

Preoperative serum midkine concentration is a prognostic marker for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 7 2003
Hideaki Shimada
High preoperative serum midkine concentration is associated with poor survival in patients with esophageal cancer, even after radical surgery, and thus may have prognostic value. Midkine (MK), a heparin-binding growth factor, is expressed in numerous cancer tissues, and serum MK (S-MK) concentrations are increased in patients with various neoplasms. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of S-MK in patients with esophageal squamous cell cancer (SCC). S-MK was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 135 healthy controls, 16 patients with benign esophageal disease, and 93 patients with primary esophageal SCC before surgery. The serum concentrations of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), SCC antigen (SCC-Ag), and cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA21,1) were also evaluated. All patients with esophageal SCC underwent radical esophagec-tomy. Tumor MK expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 14 fresh tumor specimens. To determine whether S-MK is of value as a prognostic factor, the authors conducted a survival analysis using Cox's proportional hazards model. S-MK values in patients with esophageal SCC were significantly higher than those in healthy controls (417342 pg/ml vs. 15476 pg/ml, P<0.001). Using 300 pg/ml as the cut-off value (representing the mean +2 standard deviations of the S-MK of healthy controls), 61% of patients with esophageal SCC were classified as positive. MK expression by the tumor was significantly associated with high level of S-MK. High S-MK (,300 pg/ml) was associated with tumor size, immunoreactivity and poor survival. Multivariate analysis indicated that S-MK was an independent prognostic factor. S-MK may be a useful tumor marker for esophageal SCC. Increased preoperative S-MK in patients with esophageal SCC is associated with poor survival. [source]

Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the maxillary sinus,A case report and nude mouse transplantable model,

Kazuma Noguchi DDS
Abstract Background A rare case of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SNEC) arising in the maxillary sinus is presented, and a SNEC tumor line serially transplantable in nude mice was established. Tumor marker for SNEC is also discussed. Methods The tumor tissues obtained from operated material were heterotransplanted subcutaneously into nude mice. Histopathologic studies and immunoradiometric assays for NSE and pro-GRP in serum were performed. Results The primary lesion was composed of tumor nests of small cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and was positive for NSE and chromogranin A immunohistochemically. Serum levels of NSE and pro-GRP changed dynamically, reflecting the clinical status. Nude mouse tumor showed similar histologic features to those of original tumor and expressed NSE. Neuroendocrine granules were detected in tumor cells in electron microscopy. Serum NSE level in nude mice was elevated in proportion to the relative tumor weight. Conclusions Serum NSE and pro-GRP were useful tumor markers for extrapulmonary SNEC. A SNEC tumor transplantable in nude mice would provide a valuable model for characterization of this lesion. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]