Useful Therapeutic Strategy (useful + therapeutic_strategy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Effect of Exogenous and Endogenous Antioxidants on 3-Nitropionic Acid-Inducedin vivo Oxidative Stress and Striatal Lesions

Insights into Huntington's Disease
Abstract: 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is an irreversible inhibitor of complex II in the mitochondria. 3-NP toxicity has gained acceptance as an animal model of Huntington's disease (HD). In the present study, we confirmed that rats injected with 3-NP (20 mg/kg, i.p., daily for 4 days) exhibit increased oxidative stress in both striatum and cortical synaptosomes as well as lesions in the striatum. Synaptosomal membrane proteins from rats injected with 3-NP exhibited a decrease in W/S ratio, the relevant electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) parameter used to determine levels of protein oxidation, and western blot analysis for protein carbonyls revealed direct evidence of increased synaptosomal protein oxidation. Treatment of rats with the brain-accessible free radical spin trap 5-diethoxyphosphoryl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline N -oxide (DEPMPO; 30 mg/kg, i.p., daily 2 h before 3-NP injection) or with N -acetylcysteine (NAC; 100 mg/kg, i.p., daily 2 h before 3-NP injection), a known glutathione precursor, before 3-NP treatments protects against oxidative damage induced by 3-NP as measured by EPR and western blot analysis for protein carbonyls. Furthermore, both DEMPMPO and NAC treatments before 3-NP administration significantly reduce striatal lesion volumes. These data suggest oxidative damage is a prerequisite for striatal lesion formation and that antioxidant treatment may be a useful therapeutic strategy against 3-NP neurotoxicity and perhaps against HD as well. [source]

Treatment of cartilage with ,-aminopropionitrile accelerates subsequent collagen maturation and modulates integrative repair

Kevin B. McGowan
Abstract Integrative repair of cartilage was previously found to depend on collagen synthesis and maturation. ,-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) treatment, which irreversibly blocks lysyl oxidase, inhibited the formation of collagen crosslinks, prevented development of adhesive strength, and caused a buildup of GuHCl-extractable collagen crosslink precursors. This buildup of crosslink precursor in the tissue may be useful for enhancing integrative repair. We tested in vitro the hypothesis that pre-treatment of cartilage with BAPN, followed by washout before implantation, could be a useful therapeutic strategy to accelerate subsequent collagen maturation. In individual cartilage disks, collagen processing was reversibly blocked by BAPN treatment (0.1 mM) as indicated by a BAPN-induced increase in the total and proportion of incorporated radiolabel that was extractable by 4 M guanidine-HCl, followed by a decrease, within 3,4 days of BAPN washout, in the proportion of extractable radiolabel to control levels. With a similar pattern, integration between pairs of apposed cartilage blocks was reversibly blocked by BAPN treatment, and followed by an enhancement of integration after BAPN washout. The low and high levels of integration were associated with enrichment in [3H]proline in a form that was susceptible and resistant, respectively, to extraction. With increasing duration up to 7 days after BAPN pre-treatment, the levels of [3H]proline extraction decreased, and the development of adhesive strength increased. Thus, BAPN can be used to modulate integrative cartilage repair. 2004 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]

Acceleration of cartilage repair by genetically modified chondrocytes over expressing bone morphogenetic protein-7

Chisa Hidaka
Background: Cartilage has a limited capacity to heal. Although chondrocyte transplantation is a useful therapeutic strategy, the repair process can be lengthy. Previously we have shown that over expression of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) in chondrocytes by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer leads to increased matrix synthesis and cartilage-like tissue formation in vitro. In this context we hypothesized that implantation of genetically modified chondrocytes expressing BMP-7 would accelerate the formation of hyaline-like repair tissue in an equine model of cartilage defect repair. Methods: Chondrocytes treated with adenovirus vector encoding BMP-7 (AdBMP-7) or as control, an adenovirus vector encoding an irrelevant gene (Escherichia coli cytosine deaminase, AdCD) were implanted into extensive (15 mm diameter) articular cartilage defects in the patellofemoral joints of 10 horses. Biopsies were performed to evaluate early healing at 4 weeks. At the terminal time point of 8 months, repairs were assessed for morphology, MRI appearance, compressive strength, biochemical composition and persistence of implanted cells. Results: Four weeks after surgery AdBMP-7-treated repairs showed an increased level of BMP-7 expression and accelerated healing, with markedly more hyaline-like morphology than control. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the repair tissue 8 months after surgery showed that few implanted cells persisted. By this time, the controls had healed similarly to the AdBMP-7-treated defects, and no difference was detected in the morphologic, biochemical or biomechanical properties of the repair tissues from the two treatment groups. Conclusions: Implantation of genetically modified chondrocytes expressing BMP-7 accelerates the appearance of hyaline-like repair tissue in experimental cartilage defects. Clinical relevance: Rehabilitation after cell-based cartilage repair can be prolonged, leading to decreased patient productivity and quality of life. This study shows the feasibility of using genetically modified chondrocytes to accelerate cartilage healing. 2003 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]

Aurora A selective inhibitor MLN8237 suppresses the growth and survival of HTLV-1-infected T-cells in vitro

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 5 2010
Mariko Tomita
Aurora A kinase plays an essential role in the proper assembly and function of the mitotic spindle. We have shown previously that Aurora A expression is increased aberrantly in human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected T-cell lines and primary adult T-cell leukemia cells, and a pan-Aurora kinase inhibitor, which inhibits both Aurora A and Aurora B kinases, reduces viability and induces apoptosis in these cells. However, the specific effects of Aurora A inhibition on HTLV-1-infected T-cells are poorly understood. In this study, we addressed this question by comparing the effects of MLN8237, a selective inhibitor of Aurora A, on cell viability, cell cycle progression, and induction of apoptosis in HTLV-1-infected and -uninfected T-cell lines. MLN8237 reduced the viability of HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines within 24 h, but its effects on that of HTLV-1-uninfected T-cell lines were moderate. MLN8237 induced early apoptosis of HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines without induction of polyploidy. It induced p53 and p21 expression in HTLV-1-infected but not in -uninfected T-cell lines, suggesting that MLN8237-treated HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines exit from mitosis and activate a p53-dependent postmitotic G1 checkpoint, leading to G1 arrest followed by the induction of apoptosis. Our results suggest that specific inhibition of Aurora A kinase is a potentially useful therapeutic strategy in the treatment of adult T-cell leukemia and that further in vivo exploration is warranted. (Cancer Sci 2010; 101: 1204,1211) [source]