Useful Technology (useful + technology)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Comparative analysis of virulence determinants and mass spectral profiles of Finnish and Lithuanian endodontic Enterococcus faecalis isolates

A. Reynaud af Geijersstam
Introduction:, Putative virulence factors of Enterococcus faecalis have been proposed by several workers and, by analogy, these have been linked to strains of endodontic origin. However, their distribution within the cell population is unknown. In the present study, isolates were taken from the dental root canals of two defined human populations, Lithuanian and Finnish, and examined for a range of virulence properties. In addition, surface-associated molecules and intracellular proteins were compared using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization/mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and ProteinChipTM capture/MS (SELDI-TOF-MS), respectively. Methods:, Twenty-three Lithuanian and 35 Finnish dental root canal isolates were included. The esp, gelE, ace and efaA genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction, and cytolysin and gelatinase phenotypes were determined by hydrolysis of horse blood agar and gelatine agar, respectively. Protein extracts and surface-associated molecules of whole cells were analysed by SELDI-TOF-MS and MALDI-TOF-MS, respectively. Results:, Presence of esp (n = 15), cytolysin (n = 9), ace (n = 55) and efaA (n = 58) was not statistically different in the two samples, whereas gelE and gelatinase production was detected more frequently in the Finnish material (chi-squared, P < 0.01). Analysis of protein profiles by SELDI-TOF-MS showed clustering of cytolysin-producing strains, whereas MALDI-TOF-MS generated profiles that clustered according to the samples' origin and, furthermore, to atypical quinupristin,dalfopristin susceptibility. Conclusion:, A high prevalence of virulence factors was demonstrated in both population types. SELDI-TOF-MS and MALDI-TOF-MS proved useful in distinguishing between different E. faecalis phenotypes and they may be useful technologies for elucidating the eco-distribution of E. faecalis in humans. [source]

Comparison of LiDAR waveform processing methods for very shallow water bathymetry using Raman, near-infrared and green signals

Tristan Allouis
Abstract Airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) bathymetry appears to be a useful technology for bed topography mapping of non-navigable areas, offering high data density and a high acquisition rate. However, few studies have focused on continental waters, in particular, on very shallow waters (<2,m) where it is difficult to extract the surface and bottom positions that are typically mixed in the green LiDAR signal. This paper proposes two new processing methods for depth extraction based on the use of different LiDAR signals [green, near-infrared (NIR), Raman] of the SHOALS-1000T sensor. They have been tested on a very shallow coastal area (Golfe du Morbihan, France) as an analogy to very shallow rivers. The first method is based on a combination of mathematical and heuristic methods using the green and the NIR LiDAR signals to cross validate the information delivered by each signal. The second method extracts water depths from the Raman signal using statistical methods such as principal components analysis (PCA) and classification and regression tree (CART) analysis. The obtained results are then compared to the reference depths, and the performances of the different methods, as well as their advantages/disadvantages are evaluated. The green/NIR method supplies 42% more points compared to the operator process, with an equivalent mean error (,42,cm verusu ,45,cm) and a smaller standard deviation (253,cm verusu 335,cm). The Raman processing method provides very scattered results (standard deviation of 403,cm) with the lowest mean error (,31,cm) and 40% more points. The minimum detectable depth is also improved by the two presented methods, being around 1,m for the green/NIR approach and 05,m for the statistical approach, compared to 15,m for the data processed by the operator. Despite its ability to measure other parameters like water temperature, the Raman method needed a large amount of reference data to provide reliable depth measurements, as opposed to the green/NIR method. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Strength recovery of machined Al2O3/SiC composite ceramics by crack healing

ABSTRACT Alumina is used in various fields as a machine component. However, it has a low fracture toughness, which is a weakness. Thus, countless cracks may be initiated randomly by machining, and these cracks decrease the component's mechanical properties and reliability. To overcome this problem, a crack-healing ability could be a very useful technology. In this study, Al2O3/SiC composite was sintered. This alumina exhibits excellent crack-healing ability. Small specimens for a bending test were made from the Al2O3/SiC. A semicircular groove was machined using a diamond ball-drill. The machining reduced the local fracture stress from approximately 820,300 MPa. The machined specimens were crack-healed under various conditions. The fracture stress of these specimens after crack healing was evaluated systematically from room temperature (RT) to 1573 K. It was found that the local fracture stress of the machined specimen recovered almost completely after crack healing. Therefore, it was concluded that crack healing could be an effective method for improving the structural integrity of machined alumina and reducing machining costs. [source]

A dictation system for reporting prescribing errors in community pharmacies

Amanda G. Kennedy assistant professor of medicine
ABSTRACT Objective To pilot and evaluate dictation as a novel method of reporting prescribing errors in community pharmacies. Setting Seven community pharmacies in northwestern Vermont. Method An intervention reporting form was developed and implemented in seven community pharmacies. Using a crossover design, pharmacists reported by both dictation and paper methods for six weeks each. The primary objective was to determine if dictation stimulated more prescribing error reports than a paper-based reporting method. Secondary objectives included a qualitative assessment of dictation feasibility, pharmacist satisfaction with reporting in general, pharmacist preference for a dictation or paper reporting method, and a content description of the prescribing errors reported. Key findings Pharmacists completed a total of 72 reports, describing 80 interventions, during the 12-week study. Thirty-three reports were dictated and 39 were completed on paper (P= 0.56). There were no differences in completeness of reports between paper and dictation (P = 0.62). Seven out of the nine pharmacists (78%) stated they preferred the paper method to dictation. Conclusion Dictation does not appear to increase prescribing error reporting as compared with a paper method. Implementing dictation in community pharmacies proved feasible although most of the pharmacists in this study preferred the paper method. Further investigation to explore dictation as a useful technology in community pharmacies is warranted. [source]

Photodegradation of the Volatile Organic Compounds in the Gas Phase: A Review

Madhumita Bhowmick Ray
A review of photodegradation processes suitable for the treatment of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) present in the effluents from air-stripping and soil-vapor extraction is presented. This paper outlines and summarizes the essential factors such as kinetics and mechanism, intermediates of degradation processes, and reactor modeling which lead to the successful application of this useful technology. In addition, the effects of operating parameters such as humidity, temperature, additives and types of VOCs are discussed. The review also identifies the areas where further work is needed. [source]

Functional analysis and treatment of low rate problem behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities

Jonathan Tarbox
Extensive research has validated the standard functional analysis as a useful technology for identifying the function of problem behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities. The assessment of low rate problem behavior is one area that has yet to receive a significant amount of research. Some problem behaviors may occur at rates too low to be observed during a standard functional analysis, despite the fact that they may be highly destructive behaviors. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of initiating functional analysis sessions contingent on the occurrence of bursts of problem behavior for producing interpretable functional analysis results. While a standard functional analysis did not produce definitive results with respect to behavioral function, the ,low rate' functional analysis produced interpretable results for all three participants. Two of the three participants were available for the evaluation of treatments based on their functional analysis results. Function-based treatments suppressed rates of problem behavior for both participants. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Susceptibility of mouse minute virus to inactivation by heat in two cell culture media types

Marc Schleh
Abstract Viral contaminations of biopharmaceutical manufacturing cell culture facilities are a significant threat and one for which having a risk mitigation strategy is highly desirable. High temperature, short time (HTST) mammalian cell media treatment may potentially safeguard manufacturing facilities from such contaminations. HTST is thought to inactivate virions by denaturing proteins of the viral capsid, and there is evidence that HTST provides ample virucidal efficacy against nonenveloped or naked viruses such as mouse minute virus (MMV), a parvovirus. The aim of the studies presented herein was to further delineate the susceptibility of MMV, known to have contaminated mammalian cell manufacturing facilities, to heat by exposing virus-spiked cell culture media to a broad range of temperatures and for various times of exposure. The results of these studies show that HTST is capable of inactivating MMV by three orders of magnitude or more. Thus, we believe that HTST is a useful technology for the purposes of providing a barrier to adventitious contamination of mammalian cell culture processes in the biopharmaceutical industry. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2009 [source]