Upper Carboniferous (upper + carboniferous)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


Abstract:, Two ironstone nodules are described from the Braidwood Biota of the Upper Carboniferous Mazon Creek Lagerstätte, Illinois, each preserving numerous juvenile millipedes referred to Euphoberia sp. The millipedes belong to different stadia, as evidenced by segment number, but are similar in size so probably nearly the same age. These juvenile euphoberiids differ from adults in having shorter pleurotergal spines, a reduced number of ocelli and a series of reduced, apodous trunk rings posteriorly. These nodules provide the first evidence of aggregation behaviour in Palaeozoic millipedes. Aggregation in juvenile euphoberiids is hypothesized to serve as a defence mechanism, compensating for the reduced length of their pleurotergal spines relative to adults, possibly through a collective chemical defence. [source]

A new platysomid from the Upper Carboniferous of Kansas (USA) and remarks on the systematics of deep-bodied lower actinopterygians

Kathryn E. Mickle
Abstract Scales and presumptive tooth plates from deep-bodied platysomid actinopterygians have previously been reported from the Lower Permian of Kansas (USA), but until now, an articulated specimen from this state has not been recovered. The first articulated deep-bodied platysomid fish from the Upper Carboniferous of Kansas is described herein. This specimen is compared to other known species from the genus Platysomus, with special attention paid to the North American taxa. The cranial osteology of this new specimen is closest to Platysomus schultzei from the Upper Carboniferous of New Mexico. The newly described platysomid species highlights the need for a revision of the fish included within the genus Platysomus. [source]

From the intra-desert ridges to the marine carbonate island chain: middle to late Permian (Upper Rotliegend,Lower Zechstein) of the Wolsztyn,Pogorzela high, west Poland

Hubert Kiersnowski
Abstract The tectonic Wolsztyn,Pogorzela palaeo-High (WPH) is the south-eastern termination of the Brandenburg,Wolsztyn High (western Poland), which during Late Permian times was an intra-basin ridge surrounded by Upper Rotliegend sedimentary basins within the Southern Permian Basin. The geological history and structural framework of the WPH are complex. The High belongs to the Variscan Externides, consisting at present of strongly folded, faulted and eroded Viséan to Namurian flysch deposits capped by a thick cover of Upper Carboniferous,Lower Permian volcanic rocks. This sedimentary-volcanic complex was strongly fragmented and vertically differentiated by tectonic movements and subsequently eroded, resulting in the deposition of coarse clastics surrounding uplifted tectonic blocks. During late Rotliegend time, arid climatic conditions significantly influenced occurrences of specific facies assemblages: alluvial, fluvial, aeolian and playa. Sedimentological study helped to recognize the interplay of tectonic and palaeoclimatic factors and to understand the phenomenon of aeolian sandstones interbedded with coarse deposits of alluvial cones close to fault scarps. Subsequent tectonic and possible thermal subsidence of the studied area was synchronous with inundation by the Zechstein Sea. The rapid inundation process allowed for the preservation of an almost perfectly protected Uppermost Rotliegend landscape. Based on 3D seismic data from the base Zechstein reflector, a reconstruction of Rotliegend palaeogeomorphology was carried out, which shows examples of tectonic rejuvenation of particular tectonic blocks within the WPH area before inundation by the Zechstein Sea. The inundation led to the deposition of the marine Kupferschiefer Shale followed by the Zechstein Limestone. In the deeper parts of the basin the latter is developed in thin basinal facies: in shallow parts (e.g. uplifted tectonic blocks forming in some cases islands), carbonate buildups were formed. The remarkable thickness of those buildups (bryozoan reefs) is interpreted as due to stable tectonic subsidence together with a rise of sea level. A detailed study of carbonate buildups has showed that their internal structure reflects changes in shallow marine environments and even emersion events, caused by sea-level oscillations and tectonic movements of the reef substrate. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

New results concerning the morphology of the most ancient dragonflies (Insecta: Odonatoptera) from the Namurian of Hagen-Vorhalle (Germany)

G. Bechly
The holotype specimen of the ,protodonate'Erasipteroides valentini (Brauckmann in Brauckmann et al., 1985) and the paratype specimen K-13 of the giant ,protodonate'Namurotypus sippeliBrauckmann and Zessin, 1989 from the Upper Carboniferous (Namurian B) of Hagen-Vorhalle (Germany) are redescribed, and a new specimen of Erasipteroides cf. valentini is described. The new evidence is used to refine the groundplan reconstruction of Odonatoptera and the reconstruction of odonatoid phylogeny. Prothoracic winglets for Erasipteroides and the absence of an archaedictyon are documented. Furthermore, a very long and sclerotized ovipositor with gonangulum is described from the female holotype specimen of Erasipteroides valentini, and it is proposed that it was not used for endophytic but for endosubstratic oviposition. The record of prothoracic winglets in early odonatoids, and their presence in fossil Palaeodictyoptera and ,protorthopteres', indicates that the groundplan of Pterygota indeed included three pairs of wings. A phylogenetic analysis suggests that the Palaeozoic giant Meganisoptera and "higher" odonatoids (incl. crowngroup Odonata) together form a monophyletic group which is here named Euodonatoptera. Erasipteroides and the other ,Erasipteridae' are shown to be more closely related to Euodonatoptera than to Eugeropteridae. The description of the male primary genital structures of Namurotypus sippeli is emended and a new interpretation is proposed, including new hypotheses concerning their function. The males of Namurotypus had a paired penis with a pair of lateral parameres, and a pair of leaf-like, but still segmented, gonopods. Segmented leg-like male gonopods are considered as a groundplan character of insects, while a paired penis is regarded as a putative synapomorphy of the palaeopterous insect orders Palaeodictyopteroida, Ephemeroptera, and Odonatoptera. It is proposed that Namurotypus did not mate by direct copulation but retained the archaic deposition of external spermatophores, just like the primarily wingless insects. The sigmoidal male cerci may have been placed behind the female head and used to drag the female over the spermatophore, which is remotely similar to the mating behaviour of some extant arachnids (e.g. Amblypygi). Three hypothetical scenarios regarding the evolution of secondary copulation in modern Odonata are proposed. Neue Erkenntnisse zur Morphologie der ältesten Libellen (Insecta: Odonatoptera) aus dem Namurium von Hagen-Vorhalle (Deutschland) Das Holotypusexemplar der ,Protodonate'Erasipteroides valentini (Brauckmann in Brauckmann et al., Geol. Paläont. Westfalen 3, 1,131, 1985) und das Paratypusexemplar K-13 der riesenwüchsigen ,Protodonate'Namurotypus sippeliBrauckmann and Zessin, 1989 aus dem Oberkarbon (Namurium B) von Hagen-Vorhalle (Deutschland) werden wiederbeschrieben. Die neuen Erkenntnisse werden zu einer Präzisierung der Grundplanrekonstruktion der Odonatoptera und für die Rekonstruktion der Libellenstammesgeschichte verwendet. Für Erasipteroides werden prothorakale Flügelchen beschrieben und das Fehlen eines Archaedictyons wird belegt. Des weiteren wird ein sehr langer und sklerotisierter Ovipositor mit Gonangulum für das weibliche Holotypusexemplar von Erasipteroides valentini beschrieben, und es wird vorgeschlagen, dass dieser nicht zur endophytischen Eiablage, sondern zur endosubstratischen Eiablage diente. Der Nachweis prothorakaler Flügelchen bei frühen Libellen sowie deren Vorkommen bei fossilen Palaeodictyoptera und ,Protorthopteren', deutet darauf hin, dass zum Grundplan der Pterygota drei Flügelpaare gehörten. Eine phylogenetische Analyse legt nahe, dass die riesenwüchsigen Meganisoptera des Paläozoikums und die ,höheren' Odonaten (inkl. Kronengruppe Odonata) gemeinsam eine monophyletische Gruppe bilden, die hier als Euodonatoptera benannt wird. Es wird gezeigt, dass Erasipteroides und die übrigen ,Erasipteridae' näher mit den Euodonatoptera verwandt sind als die Eugeropteridae. Die Beschreibung der primären männlichen Geschlechtsorgane von Namurotypus sippeli wird ergänzt, und eine neue Interpretation sowie neue Hypothesen zu deren Funktion werden vorgestellt. Die Männchen von Namurotypus besaßen einen paarigen Penis mit einem Paar lateraler Parameren und einem Paar blattartiger, aber noch segmentierter Gonopoden. Segmentierte, beinartige, männliche Gonopoden werden als Grundplanmerkmale der Insekten angesehen, während ein paariger Penis als potentielle Synapomorphie der paläopteren Insektenordnungen Palaeodictyopteroida, Ephemeroptera und Odonatoptera betrachtet wird. Es wird vorgeschlagen, dass die Paarung bei Namurotypus nicht durch eine direkte Kopulation ablief, sondern durch das Absetzen freier Spermatophoren, so wie bei den primär flügellosen Insekten. Die sigmoidalen männlichen Cerci könnten hinter dem weiblichen Kopf platziert worden sein, um das Weibchen über die Spermatophore zu dirigieren, ähnlich dem Paarungsverhalten mancher rezenter Spinnentiere (z.B. Amblypygi). Drei hypothetische Szenarien zur Evolution der sekundären Kopulation bei modernen Libellen werden vorgestellt. [source]

Mixing Deposition of Upper Carboniferous in Jiangshan, Zhejiang Province and its Tectonic Significance

Fusheng GUO
Abstract: The Outangdi Formation in Jiangshan, Zhejiang, is the mixing deposit of terrigenous clastics and carbonates in Weiningian of the late Carboniferous. The mixing deposits include interbeddings, which constitute a series of alternated clastic and carbonate beds and mixing within the same bed which forms "hunji rock". The Outangdi Formation has the features of intercalated marine and terrestrial deposits with the progradational sequences, which are lower fine and upper coarse sedimentary granularity in the section. Hunji rock is formed in a seashore environment. It is a mixed carbonate sediment found in beaches or tideland facies with quartz sand taken from a bayou or beach by coastwise flow and circumfluence. There are two kinds of hunji sequences: (1) interbeds of sandstone and carbonate rock in seashore environments; and (2) interbeds of clastics in river facies and carbonate rock in ocean facies. It is indicated that mixing depositions belong to "facies mixing", affected mainly by regional tectonic uplift, rise of the global sea level, and the dynamics of water medium in the basin. Regional sea level periodic changes and progradational sequences probably resulted from the intense uplift of the old land called Cathaysia. The classification and name of mixed sediments are also discussed in the present study. Interbeds and alternated beds of clastic and carbonate beds are named "hunji sequence", a new genetic term. It is suggested that hunji rock means a special sediment event of mixing terrigenous clastics and carbonates instead of a name of a specific rock. [source]

Discovery of Radiolarian Fossils from the Aiketik Group at the Western End of the South Tianshan Mountains of China and Its Implications

LI Yuejun
Abstract, The Aiketik Group, distributed at the western end of the South Tianshan Mountains, China, is an important lithostratigraphic unit involved in the South Tianshan orogen. It is separated from the adjacent rocks by faults. Generally, the geologists ascribed it to the Upper Carboniferous according to Pseudostaffella sp., Profusulinella sp. and Fusulinella sp. found from the limestone and sandy limestone of Aiketik. Our radiolarian fossils were obtained from the chert samples collected from the Haladaok section located at the upper Tuoshihan River. The fossils mainly include Albaillella undulata Deflandre, Albaillella paradoxa Deflandre, Albaillella sp. aff. A. paradoxa Deflandre, Albaillella sp. cf. A. deflandrei Gourmelon, Albaillella sp., Albaillella excelsa Ishiga, Kito and Imoto (?), Belowea variabilis (Ormiston et Lane), Callella cf. C. parvispinosa Won, Entactinia cf. E. tortispina Ormiston et Lane, Entactinia aff. E. tortispina Ormiston et Lane, Entactinia variospina Won, Entactinia sp., Eostylodictya rota (Won), Latentifistula impella (Ormistone et Lane) (?), Latentifistula turgida Omiston et Lane, Latentifistulidae gen. et. sp. indet. and Polyentactinia cf. aranea Gourmelon. Among them, Albaillella excelsa Ishiga, Kito and Imoto (?) is a Late Permian species with some elements uncertain as there is only one poorly-preserved fossil of this species found so far. And two radiolarian assemblages can be identified from the other fossils. One is the early Early Carboniferous assemblage represented by Albaillella undulata Deflandre, Albaillella paradoxa and Albaillella sp. cf. A. deflandrei Gourmelon. And the other is the late Early Carboniferous assemblage represented by Eostylodictya rota (Won). This is the first discovery of radiolarian fossils in the Aiketik Group, also the first discovery of Late Permian radiolarian fossils in the South Tianshan Mountains. Meanwhile, this is the current westernmost sampling site of radiolarian fossils in the South Tianshan Mountains. [source]