Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Undergraduates

  • college undergraduate
  • dental undergraduate
  • female undergraduate
  • university undergraduate

  • Terms modified by Undergraduates

  • undergraduate class
  • undergraduate college student
  • undergraduate course
  • undergraduate curriculum
  • undergraduate dental curriculum
  • undergraduate education
  • undergraduate level
  • undergraduate medical curriculum
  • undergraduate medical education
  • undergraduate medical student
  • undergraduate nursing student
  • undergraduate occupational therapy student
  • undergraduate participant
  • undergraduate program
  • undergraduate sample
  • undergraduate student
  • undergraduate student nurse
  • undergraduate teaching
  • undergraduate training
  • undergraduate woman

  • Selected Abstracts

    Undergraduate and postgraduate dental students',reflection on learning': a qualitative study

    F. A. Ashley
    Abstract, The aim of this study was to explore undergraduate and postgraduate dental students' understanding of a good learning experience by using ,reflection on learning' as described by Schon. Four groups of Year 4 BDS students and one group of postgraduate students in dental public health took part in a series of focus group discussions. The responses were grouped into four broad themes (a) active, practical and positive learning; (b) interactive/together learning; (c) personal learning; (d) theory into practice. Six educational models of good learning proposed by the students are described. [source]

    Undergraduate teaching in gerodontology in Leipzig and Zürich , a comparison of different approaches

    GERODONTOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
    Ina Nitschke
    Objective:, To evaluate undergraduate students' attitude towards the clinical components of the Leipzig (LPEG) and Zürich (ZPEG) Programmes of Education in Gerodontology. Background:, Undergraduate student education is the seedbed for conscientious professionals. Extramural clinical education contributes to the formation of positive attitudes. Students in Zürich participate in three clinical activities (in-house gerodontology clinic, extramural acute geriatrics ward, mobile dental service), in Leipzig they visit a long-term care facility on six occasions within 4 years. Methods:, A structured questionnaire with 10 items was administered to students in Leipzig [n = 34, 70.6% female, mean age 25.8 (SD 3.04) years] at the beginning and after completion of gerodontology training and to students in Zürich [n = 33, 48.5% female, mean age 27.0 (SD 3.28) years] on three occasions after clinical training. Students indicated the degree of their agreement with seven statements presented using a 5-point scale. A choice of responses which characterised the course was offered for assessment. Results:, Close collaboration with dental tutors, while self-treating patients in the mobile dental service (mobiDentÔ) attracted the most positive responses. Ratings from students completing their training in Leipzig were less favourable than their initial responses. Conclusion:, The lack of a dental service and Leipzig students' inability to offer treatment in the presence of disease was associated with frustrations. Practical training should go beyond dental examinations at a long-term care facility and include the opportunity for dental treatment. Personnel and equipment required for mobile treatment exceed resources available at most German dental schools. [source]

    Undergraduate teaching in gerodontology in Austria, Switzerland and Germany

    GERODONTOLOGY, Issue 3 2004
    Ina Nitschke
    Objective:, To survey the present state of undergraduate teaching in the domain of gerodontology in Germany, Switzerland and Austria. Study participants:, All universities of Austria (A), Germany (D) and Switzerland (CH). Protocol:, A questionnaire on undergraduate teaching in gerodontology was mailed to all Deans (A: n = 3; CH: n = 4; D: n = 31) and all independent departments except paediatric dentistry and orthodontics (A: n = 11; CH: n = 15; D: n = 111). Results:, The questionnaires were completed and returned by 29 Deans (A: n = 2; CH: n = 4; D: n = 23) and 102 departments (A: n = 7; CH: n = 8; D: n = 87). In Austria, gerodontology is a very small component of the dental curriculum and the Deans did not want this to be increased. Most German universities claimed to teach some aspects of gerodontology to undergraduate students and 87.4% of the Deans voted for separate lectures in gerodontology. In Switzerland, gerodontology seems well established. The results of questionnaires from the independent departments revealed that in all three countries lectures were more prevalent (A: n = 0; CH: n = 4; D: n = 6) than practical training in nursing homes (A: n = 0; CH: n = 3; D: n = 6). Conclusion:, Considering the demographical shift which is leading to an increasing proportion of elderly in the population, the weighting of gerodontology in the undergraduate dental curriculum should be considered for revision in Austria and Germany. [source]

    Treading on Tradition: Approaches to Teaching International Relations to the Nontraditional Undergraduate

    Nancy E. Wright
    Nontraditional undergraduates (NTUs), undergraduates who typically are older than average, work full-time, and/or are entrusted with substantial family responsibilities, pose a special challenge to international relations educators. Severe constraints on time and access to library facilities both impede progress and may give an erroneous impression that NTUs are not as committed to their education as more conventional college undergraduates. The lack of continuity in education that typifies the NTU experience often manifests itself in anxiety, frustration, and gaps in fundamental knowledge. At the same time, the maturity and sophistication that come with life experience often far exceed that of the more conventional college student. Furthermore, typical requirements of international relations and international studies majors, such as second and third language proficiency, internships with international organizations, and overseas study are often not feasible for the working student with family responsibilities. Possibilities for meeting the challenges of teaching NTUs include greater use of open-book examinations, research proposals, case studies, simulations, problem-based learning (PBL), use of the Internet, and the development of short-term intensive overseas study opportunities that accommodate the working student's schedule. [source]

    Undergraduate and doctoral education in public policy: What?


    First page of article [source]

    Undergraduate research experiences: The translation of science education from reading to doing

    Suzzette F. Chopin
    First page of article [source]

    The academic environment: the students' perspective

    K. Divaris (nci)
    Abstract Dental education is regarded as a complex, demanding and often stressful pedagogical procedure. Undergraduates, while enrolled in programmes of 4,6 years duration, are required to attain a unique and diverse collection of competences. Despite the major differences in educational systems, philosophies, methods and resources available worldwide, dental students' views regarding their education appear to be relatively convergent. This paper summarizes dental students' standpoint of their studies, showcases their experiences in different educational settings and discusses the characteristics of a positive academic environment. It is a consensus opinion that the ,students' perspective' should be taken into consideration in all discussions and decisions regarding dental education. Moreover, it is suggested that the set of recommendations proposed can improve students' quality of life and well-being, enhance their total educational experience and positively influence their future careers as oral health physicians. The ,ideal' academic environment may be defined as one that best prepares students for their future professional life and contributes towards their personal development, psychosomatic and social well-being. A number of diverse factors significantly influence the way students perceive and experience their education. These range from ,class size', ,leisure time' and ,assessment procedures' to ,relations with peers and faculty', ,ethical climate' and ,extra-curricular opportunities'. Research has revealed that stress symptoms, including psychological and psychosomatic manifestations, are prevalent among dental students. Apparently some stressors are inherent in dental studies. Nevertheless, suggested strategies and preventive interventions can reduce or eliminate many sources of stress and appropriate support services should be readily available. A key point for the Working Group has been the discrimination between ,teaching' and ,learning'. It is suggested that the educational content should be made available to students through a variety of methods, because individual learning styles and preferences vary considerably. Regardless of the educational philosophy adopted, students should be placed at the centre of the process. Moreover, it is critical that they are encouraged to take responsibility for their own learning. Other improvements suggested include increased formative assessment and self-assessment opportunities, reflective portfolios, collaborative learning, familiarization with and increased implementation of information and communication technology applications, early clinical exposure, greater emphasis on qualitative criteria in clinical education, community placements, and other extracurricular experiences such as international exchanges and awareness of minority and global health issues. The establishment of a global network in dental education is firmly supported but to be effective it will need active student representation and involvement. [source]

    An audit of root canal treatment performed by undergraduate students

    S. J. Hayes
    Abstract Aim The objective of this study was to audit the quality of root canal treatment performed by undergraduate students on adult patients. Methodology All root canal treatment completed by first and second clinical year undergraduates over a 12-month period were included in the study. The availability and readability of pretreatment, diagnostic length, try-in point and postoperative radiographs were noted for each case. All readable postoperative radiographs of primary treatments were examined for quality of the root filling, categorized as complete, incomplete apical, incomplete apical and lateral or not assessable. The distance from the radiographic apex of the root to the apical extent of each root filling was measured to 0.1 mm precision. Results Undergraduates performed primary treatment on 157 teeth. A postoperative radiograph was available in 97% of cases. A try-in point radiograph was unavailable in one-fifth of cases. Twenty-seven teeth (13%) were categorized as satisfactory in terms of both radiographic quality and distance of the root filling from the radiographic apex. Conclusions Overall, the technical quality of root canal treatment completed by undergraduate students was poor. [source]

    Alibi Believability: The Effect of Prior Convictions and Judicial Instructions

    Meredith Allison
    Undergraduates (N = 339) listened to a simulated police interview with a defendant concerning his alibi. We studied the impact of (a) the strength of the alibi evidence; (b) defendant's prior convictions; (c) judge's instructions on prior conviction evidence; and (d) perceivers' need for cognition (NFC) on alibi believability and defendant guilt ratings. Defendants previously convicted of the same crime as the current charge were seen as more likely to be guilty than defendants previously convicted of a different crime. Judge's instructions did not affect guilt ratings. NFC was less influential than anticipated, but did affect participants' understanding and recall of judicial instructions. Strong alibis were seen as more believable and led to lower guilt ratings than weak alibis. [source]

    Revisiting print exposure: exploring differential links to vocabulary, comprehension and reading rate

    Sandra Lyn Martin-Chang
    Undergraduates (N=171) completed a revised version of the Author Recognition Test (Stanovich & West, 1989). The resulting print exposure scores were divided into two dimensions: personal reading experience (primary print knowledge , PPK) and secondary print knowledge (SPK). Both PPK and SPK were correlated with print exposure, but not with each other. PPK correlated more strongly with reading-related variables (vocabulary, comprehension and reading rate) than did SPK. Of particular importance, PPK accounted for variance in all three criterion variables after the effects of SPK had been factored out. Thus, these data support the notion that it is the act of reading over and above memory for reading-related information that furthers the development of linguistic skill. [source]

    Procrastination and Motivation of Undergraduates with Learning Disabilities: A Mixed-Methods Inquiry

    Robert M. Klassen
    The purpose of this mixed-methods article was to report two studies exploring the relationships between academic procrastination and motivation in 208 undergraduates with (n= 101) and without (n= 107) learning disabilities (LD). In Study 1, the results from self-report surveys found that individuals with LD reported significantly higher levels of procrastination, coupled with lower levels of metacognitive self-regulation and self-efficacy for self-regulation than those without LD. Procrastination was most strongly (inversely) related to self-efficacy for self-regulation for both groups, and the set of motivation variables reliably predicted group membership with regard to LD status. In Study 2, individual interviews with 12 students with LD resulted in five themes: LD-related problems, self-beliefs and procrastination, outcomes of procrastination, antecedents of procrastination, and support systems. The article concludes with an integration of quantitative and qualitative results, with attention paid to implications for service providers working with undergraduates with LD. [source]

    "To the Highth of This Great Argument": The Plummet of Postmodern Undergraduates from Milton's Early Modern Epic and Its Prevention

    MILTON QUARTERLY, Issue 2 2003
    Eric LeMayArticle first published online: 13 MAY 200
    First page of article [source]

    Pathological personality traits and externalizing behaviour

    Lauren R. Pryor
    Previous research has identified general personality traits and personality disorders that are associated with externalizing behaviour (EB). There is a dearth of research, however, investigating the relations between pathological personality traits and EB. The current study examined pathological personality traits, as measured by the Schedule for Non-adaptive and Adaptive Functioning (SNAP) and the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ), in relation to EB. Undergraduates (n = 228) completed the SNAP, DAPP-BQ, and a measure of antisocial behaviour, substance use, gambling, intimate partner violence and risky sexual behaviour. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we identified the best fitting model as one that specified eight factors: five personality factors composed of constructs assessed by the DAPP and SNAP, one externalizing factor and two method factors corresponding to each of the measures. Consistent with the empirical literature using general personality traits, the current results suggest that pathological personality traits related to impulse control (i.e. low conscientiousness), as well as more interpersonally focused traits (i.e. low agreeableness), were most strongly associated with EB. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The production of route directions: investigating conditions that favour conciseness in spatial discourse

    Marie-Paule Daniel
    The study reported here investigated the effects of conditions expected to favour conciseness in the production of route directions. In Experiment 1, two groups of undergraduates were invited to give written descriptions of the route connecting two well-known places on their university campus. The control group received standard instructions, and the other group was instructed to produce route directions that were as concise as possible, while remaining sufficiently informative to guide a pedestrian to the goal. Not surprisingly, instructions to be concise resulted in an overall shortening of descriptions, but this occurred in a selective manner. In particular, actions and action-landmark combinations were the least affected, whereas the number of landmarks mentioned without being associated with actions, as well as of details describing landmarks, was considerably reduced. Furthermore, landmarks situated at points on the route involving a decision about changing direction underwent less reduction than other landmarks. In Experiment 2, conditions were created where conciseness was brought into play without any explicit instructions to be concise. Undergraduates were asked to work in groups of three, and each group was assigned the task of producing a single description. The results showed that the descriptions produced by a group were shorter than those produced by individuals. This was interpreted as reflecting that in the absence of any conciseness instructions, the feedback developed within groups during the production of route directions led to effective selection of the information content. Interestingly, the items relating actions and landmarks were almost fully preserved in the group descriptions. In Experiment 3, conciseness was shown to be further increased by combining instructions for conciseness and group production. Altogether, the three experiments revealed the primary role of propositions linking action prescriptions and landmarks at points on the route where key actions have to be taken. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Gender and role-based perceptions of domestic abuse: does sexual orientation matter?,

    Eric P. Seelau Ph.D.
    Although it is estimated that domestic abuse is as common in gay male and lesbian intimate relationships as in heterosexual relationships, the legal system often fails to recognize or respond to same-gender cases. Empirical research examining the impact of sexual orientation on perceptions of abuse is virtually nonexistent. Undergraduates (N,=,252) read a summary of a domestic abuse incident in which victims and perpetrators varied by gender and, by implication, sexual orientation. Victim and respondent gender, rather than the couple's sexual orientation, primarily affected responses to domestic abuse. Domestic abuse perpetrated against women was perceived to be more serious and in need of intervention than abuse against men. Women were more likely than men to believe the victim and to recommend criminal justice system interventions. Because they are inconsistent with gender role stereotypes, domestic abuse cases involving male victims or female perpetrators may not receive equitable treatment within the criminal justice system. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    An educational tool for controlling of SRM

    Tuncay Yigit
    Abstract This article introduces an educational tool for a switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive system. It is prepared for undergraduate and graduate level students. Classical PI and Genetic PI controllers are used in SRM drive system. The Genetic PI controller was applied to the speed loop, replacing the classical PI controller. The tool software was implemented using C++ Builder on a PC. It has flexible structure and graphical interface. The students can be easily establishing a thorough understanding of both classical PI and genetic PI controller for a SRM drive system. The education tool allowed the student to interact with the SRM drive system and it is using controllers. Then it is responses on a dynamic and instantaneous basis under different operating conditions. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 16: 268,279, 2008; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com); DOI 10.1002/cae20148 [source]

    Java-powered virtual laboratories for earthquake engineering education

    Y. Gao
    Abstract This paper presents a series of Java-Powered Virtual Laboratories (VLs), which have been developed to provide a means for on-line interactive experiments for undergraduate and graduate education. These VLs intend to provide a conceptual understanding of a wide range of topics related to earthquake engineering, including structural control using the tuned mass damper (TMD) and the hybrid mass damper (HMD), linear and nonlinear base isolation system, and nonlinear structural dynamic analysis of multi-story buildings. A total of five VLs are currently available on-line at: http://cee.uiuc.edu/sstl/java and have been incorporated as a reference implementation of educational modules in the NEESgrid software (http://www.neesgrid.org/). © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 13: 200,212, 2005; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com); DOI 10.1002/cae.20050 [source]

    Hardware architecture for a visualization classroom: VizClass

    Tara C. Hutchinson
    Abstract Interactive learning, critical thinking, creative problem-solving, and problem-based learning are all critical elements for enhancing engineering education. Visualization can provide the much needed computer-assisted design and analysis environment to foster problem-based learning, while virtual reality (VR) can provide the environment for hands-on manipulation, stimulating interactive learning in the engineering classroom. To provide such a space, at the University of California, Irvine a new interactive, spatially balanced learning environment, termed VizClass, has been developed. VizClass incorporates a specially designed lecture room and laboratory integrating both 2- and 3-dimensional spatial learning by coupling a series of interactive projection display boards (touch sensitive whiteboards) and a semi-immersive 3D wall display. Control of devices integrated with VizClass is supported via a centrally located, easy to activate, touch-sensitive display. Digital material, including slides, web content, video clips, sound files, numerical simulations, or animations may be loaded and presented by instructors using either 2D or 3D modalities. This environment has already been integrated into both undergraduate and graduate level courses, providing a balanced spatial learning environment for students. This article describes the unique hardware architecture developed to support this new environment and presents the first course activities conducted within the space. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 12: 232,241, 2004; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com); DOI 10.1002/cae.20024 [source]

    The Attentional Resource Allocation Scale (ARAS): psychometric properties of a composite measure for dissociation and absorption,

    R. N. Carleton M.A.
    Abstract Background: Differences in attentional processes have been linked to the development and maintenance of psychopathology. Shifts in such processes have been described by the constructs Dissociation and Absorption. Dissociation occurs when external and/or internal stimuli are excluded from consciousness due to discrepant, rather than unitary, manifestations of cognitive awareness [Erdelyi MH. 1994: Int J Clin Exp Hypnosis 42:379,390]. In contrast, absorption can be conceptualized by a focus on limited stimuli, to the exclusion of other stimuli, because of unifying, rather than discrepant, manifestations of cognitive awareness. The Dissociative Experiences Scale [DES; Bernstein EM, Putnam FW. 1986: J Nerv Ment Dis 174:727,735] and Tellegen Absorption Scale [TAS; Tellegen A, Atkinson G. 1974: J Abnorm Psychol 83:268,277] are common measures of each construct; however, no factor analyses are available for the TAS and despite accepted overlap, no one has assessed the DES and TAS items simultaneously. Previous research suggests the constructs and factor structures need clarification, possibly including more parsimonious item inclusion [Lyons LC, Crawford HJ. 1997: Person Individ Diff 23:1071,1084]. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the DES and TAS and create a psychometrically stable measure of Dissociation and Absorption. Methods: This study included data from an undergraduate (n=841; 76% women) and a community sample (n=233; 86% women) who each completed the DES and TAS. Results: Exploratory factor analyses [Osborne JW (ed). 2008: Best Practices in Quantitative Methods. Los Angeles: Sage Publications Inc.] with all DES and TAS items suggested a 15-item 3-factor solution (i.e., imaginative involvement, dissociative amnesia, attentional dissociation). Confirmatory factor analyses resulted in excellent fit indices for the same solution. Conclusions: The items and factors were conceptualized in line with precedent research as the Attentional Resource Allocation Scale (ARAS). Comprehensive results, implications, and future research directions are discussed. Depression and Anxiety, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The dyslexic student and mathematics in higher education

    DYSLEXIA, Issue 3 2007
    Glynis Perkin
    Abstract Difficulties that are encountered by dyslexic undergraduates with their learning and understanding of mathematics are explored. Specific consideration is given to issues arising through mathematical content, its delivery, the procedures and processes of ,doing' mathematics, and its assessment. Particular difficulties, which have emerged through exploratory and explanatory multiple-case studies, and witnessed through the provision of one-to-one support to a dyslexic and dyspraxic engineering undergraduate, are detailed. Recommendations for the provision of mathematical support to dyslexic students and proposals for future research are given. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Acute alcohol impairs conditioning of a behavioural reward-seeking response and inhibitory control processes,implications for addictive disorders

    ADDICTION, Issue 12 2009
    Sabine Loeber
    ABSTRACT Aims To investigate whether acute alcohol would affect performance of a conditioned behavioural response to obtain a reward outcome and impair performance in a task measuring inhibitory control to provide new knowledge of how the acute effects of alcohol might contribute to the transition from alcohol use to dependence. Design A randomized controlled between-subjects design was employed. Settings The laboratory of experimental psychology at the University of Sussex. Participants Thirty-two light to moderate social drinkers recruited from the undergraduate and postgraduate population. Measurements After the administration of alcohol (0.8 g/kg) or placebo participants underwent an instrumental reward-seeking procedure, with abstract stimuli serving as S+ (always predicting a win of 10 pence) and S, (always predicting a loss of 10 pence). In addition, a Stop Signal task was administered before and after the administration of alcohol. Findings Participants of the alcohol group performed the behavioural response to obtain the reward outcome more often than placebo subjects in trials associated with loss of money. This finding was observed, although alcohol was not affecting explicit knowledge of stimulus,response outcome contingencies and acquisition of conditioned attentional and emotional responses. In addition, alcohol increased Stop Signal reaction time indicating disinhibiting effects of alcohol, and this was associated positively with response probability to the S,. Conclusions These results demonstrate that alcohol is affecting inhibitory control of behavioural responses to external signals even when associated with punishment, contributing in this way to the transition from alcohol use to dependence. [source]

    The development of an ePortfolio for life-long reflective learning and auditable professional certification

    R. L. Kardos
    Abstract Recent legislative changes, that affect all healthcare practitioners in New Zealand, have resulted in mandatory audits of practitioners who are now required to provide evidence of competence and continued professional development in the form of a professional portfolio. These changes were the motivation for our development of an electronic portfolio (ePortfolio) suitable for both undergraduate and life-long learning. Bachelor of Oral Health (BOH) students, studying to qualify as Dental Hygienists and Dental Therapists, and BOH teaching staff (who held registrations in Dental Hygiene, Dental Therapy and Dentistry) trialled the use of a personal ePortfolio for advancing their academic and professional development. The ePortfolio enables BOH students to collect evidence of their achievements and personal reflections throughout their 3 years of undergraduate study, culminating in registration and the award of an Annual Practising Certificate (APC). The ePortfolio was designed to allow users to store information and then select appropriate material to be displayed or published, thus assisting health practitioners to present high-quality evidence of their participation and achievements, and to meet the professional requirements for their APC. [source]

    The effect of a community dental service outreach programme on the confidence of undergraduate students to treat children: a pilot study

    M. Lindsay Hunter
    Objective:, To examine the effect of a community dental service (CDS) outreach teaching programme on undergraduates' confidence to undertake a range of paediatric dental procedures. Method:, Eighteen final year dental students completed a questionnaire prior to, and following participation in an outreach teaching programme. At each time point, the students were asked to identify how confident they felt to carry out a range of procedures commonly encountered in the treatment of children, employing a Likert scale modified to comprise six points where a rating of 1 represented ,not at all confident' and a rating of 6 ,very confident'. Results:, The distribution of scores at each time point indicated that students were more confident to carry out each of the listed procedures following participation in the outreach teaching programme than they had been on completion of their paediatric dentistry sessions within the School of Dentistry. At the individual student level, 16 of the 18 students indicated that they were, overall, more confident following their placement than previously. Conclusions:, It can be concluded that the long-established CDS outreach teaching programme run by the School of Dentistry, Wales College of Medicine in conjunction with the staff of Cardiff and Vale NHS Trust is a valuable adjunct to undergraduate teaching in paediatric dentistry. [source]

    Undergraduate and postgraduate dental students',reflection on learning': a qualitative study

    F. A. Ashley
    Abstract, The aim of this study was to explore undergraduate and postgraduate dental students' understanding of a good learning experience by using ,reflection on learning' as described by Schon. Four groups of Year 4 BDS students and one group of postgraduate students in dental public health took part in a series of focus group discussions. The responses were grouped into four broad themes (a) active, practical and positive learning; (b) interactive/together learning; (c) personal learning; (d) theory into practice. Six educational models of good learning proposed by the students are described. [source]

    Teaching of neuroepidemiology in Europe: time for action

    V. Feigin
    Many epidemiological and clinical studies in Europe, especially in Eastern Europe and countries in transition, are of poor methodological quality because of lack of background knowledge in clinical epidemiology methods and study designs. The only way to improve the quality of epidemiological studies is to provide adequate undergraduate and/or postgraduate education for the health professionals and allied health professions. To facilitate this process, the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) Task Force on teaching of clinical epidemiology in Europe was set up in October 2000. Based on analyses of the current teaching and research activities in neuroepidemiology in Europe, this paper describes the Task Force recommendations aimed to improve these activities. [source]

    Redefining Emergency Medicine Procedures: Canadian Competence and Frequency Survey

    FRCPC, Ken Farion MD
    Objective: To redefine the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons (RCPS) procedural skills list for Canadian emergency medicine (EM) residents through a national survey of EM specialists to determine procedural performance frequency and self-assessment of competence. Methods: The survey instrument was developed in three phases: 1) an EM program directors survey identified inappropriate or dated procedures, endorsing 127 skills; 2) a search of EM literature added 98 skills; and 3) an expert panel designed the survey instrument and finalized a list of 150 skills. The survey instrument measured the frequency of procedure performance or supervision, self-reported competence (yes/no), and endorsement of one of four training levels for each skill: undergraduate (UG), postgraduate (PG), knowledge only, or un-necessary (i.e., too infrequently performed to maintain competence). Results: All 289 Canadian EM specialists were surveyed by mail; 231 (80%) responded, 221 completed surveys, and 10 were inactive. More than 60% reported competence in 125 (83%) procedures, and 55 procedures were performed at least three times a year. The mean competence score was 121 (SD ± 17.7, median = 122) procedures. Competence score correlation with patient volume was r= 0.16 (p = 0.02) and with hours worked was r= 0.19 (p = 0.01). Competence score was not associated with year or route (residency vs grandfather) of certification. Each procedure was assigned to a training level using response consensus and decision rules (UG: 1%; PG: 82%; unnecessary: 17%). Conclusions: A survey of EM clinicians reporting competence and frequency of skill performance defined 127 procedural skills appropriate for Canadian RCPS postgraduate training and EM certification. [source]

    The Local Shape of Revolution: Reflections on Quantitative Geography at Cambridge in the 1950s and 1960s

    Peter Haggett
    The "quantitative revolution" in human geography which swept across so many universities in the 1950s and 1960s had its main diffusion centers in a few locations which were to have global significance. Two critical early centers were the University of Washington in the Pacific Northwest and Lund University in southern Sweden. But the experience of change was different in different locations as the general forces of perturbation sweeping around academia were translated into local eddies with local repercussions. Here, small and somewhat random quirks at the outset, led eventually to fundamental divergences between adoption and rejection. The theme is illustrated by reference to changes which occurred at Cambridge, one of England's two oldest universities, as seen from the perspective of someone who,as undergraduate, graduate student, and later, faculty member,was caught up in these changes and took some small part in propagating them. Special attention is given to the role of two environmental scientists, Vaughan Lewis and Richard Chorley, in introducing changes and the way in which later developments in human geography drew on preceding experiences in physical geography. The reasons behind the "Cambridge variant" and the questions of how intellectual DNA is passed across the generations are discussed. [source]


    ABSTRACT. As an undergraduate and graduate student in the 1940s and a young professor at the University of Utah in the 1950s, D. W. Meinig was influenced by a number of scholars. They included six historians, three geographers, two anthropologists, and two philosophers. I identify the influence of the thirteen scholars on Meinig's major achievements: the culture area model, geography as an art, the historical imperative for geography, cultures and civilizations, and geopolitics and imperialism. [source]

    Teaching and Learning Guide for: Memoryscape: How Audio Walks Can Deepen Our Sense of Place by Integrating Art, Oral History and Cultural Geography

    Toby Butler
    Author's Introduction This article is concerned with the history and practice of creating sound walks or ,memoryscapes': outdoor trails that use recorded sound and spoken memory played on a personal stereo or mobile media to experience places in new ways. It is now possible to cheaply and easily create this and other kinds of located media experience. The development of multi-sensory-located media (,locedia') presents some exciting opportunities for those concerned with place, local history, cultural geography and oral history. This article uses work from several different disciplines (music, sound art, oral history and cultural geography) as a starting point to exploring some early and recent examples of locedia practice. It also suggests how it might give us a more sophisticated, real, embodied and nuanced experience of places that the written word just can not deliver. Yet, there are considerable challenges in producing and experiencing such work. Academics used to writing must learn to work in sound and view or image; they must navigate difficult issues of privacy, consider the power relations of the outsider's ,gaze' and make decisions about the representation of places in work that local people may try and have strong feelings about. Creating such work is an active, multi-sensory and profoundly challenging experience that can offer students the chance to master multi-media skills as well as apply theoretical understandings of the histories and geographies of place. Author Recommends 1.,Perks, R., and Thomson, A. (2006). The oral history reader, 2nd ed. London: Routledge. This is a wonderful collection of significant writing concerned with oral history. Part IV, Making Histories features much of interest, including a thought-provoking paper on the challenges of authoring in sound rather than print by Charles Hardy III, and a moving interview with Graeme Miller, the artist who created the Linked walk mentioned in the memoryscape article. These only feature in the second edition. 2.,Cresswell, T. (2004). Place: a short introduction. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. A refreshingly clear and well-written guide to the different theoretical takes on what makes places , a good starting point for further reading. 3.,Carlyle, A. (ed.). (2008). Autumn leaves: sound and the environment in artistic practice. Paris, France: Double Entendre. This is a collection of short essays and examples of located sonic media art; it includes interviews with practitioners and includes Hildegard Westekamp's Soundwalking, a practical guide to leading students on a mute walk. Lots of thought provoking, applied reading material for students here. 4.,Blunt, A., et al. (eds) (2003). Cultural geography in practice. London: Arnold. A great book for undergraduate and postgraduate students , concepts explained and lots of examples of actually doing cultural geography. The chapter on mapping worlds by David Pinder is particularly useful in this context. 5.,Pinder, D. (2001). Ghostly footsteps: voices, memories and walks in the city. Ecumene 8 (1), pp. 1,19. This article is a thoughtful analysis of a Janet Cardiff sound walk in Whitechapel, East London. Online Materials http://www.memoryscape.org.uk This is my project website, which features two online trails, Dockers which explores Greenwich and the memories of the London Docks that are archived in the Museum of London, and Drifting which is a rather strange experiment-combining physical geography and oral history along the Thames at Hampton Court, but still makes for an interesting trail. Audio, maps and trails can be downloaded for free, so students with phones or iPods can try the trails if you are within reach of Surrey or London. The site features an online version, with sound-accompanying photographs of the location. http://www.portsofcall.org.uk This website has three more trails here, this time of the communities surrounding the Royal Docks in East London. The scenery here is very dramatic and anyone interested in the regeneration of East London and its impact on local communities will find these trails interesting. Like Dockers, the walks feature a lot of rare archive interviews. This project involved a great deal of community interaction and participation as I experimented with trying to get people involved with the trail-making process. The site uses Google maps for online delivery. http://www.soundwalk.com This New York-based firm creates exceptionally high-quality soundwalks, and they are well worth the money. They started by producing trails for different districts of New York (I recommend the Bronx Graffiti trail) and have recently made trails for other cities, like Paris and Varanassi in India. http://www.mscapers.com This website is run by Hewlett Packard, which has a long history of research and development in located media applications. They currently give free licence to use their mscape software which is a relatively easy to learn way of creating global positioning system-triggered content. The big problem is that you have to have a pricey phone or personal digital assistant to run the software, which makes group work prohibitively expensive. But equipment prices are coming down and with the new generations of mobile phones developers believe that the time when the player technology is ubiquitous might be near. And if you ask nicely HP will lend out sets of equipment for teaching or events , fantastic if you are working within reach of Bristol. See also http://www.createascape.org.uk/ which has advice and examples of how mscape software has been used for teaching children. Sample Syllabus public geography: making memoryscapes This course unit could be adapted to different disciplines, or offered as a multidisciplinary unit to students from different disciplines. It gives students a grounding in several multi-media techniques and may require support/tuition from technical staff. 1.,Introduction What is a located mediascape, now and in the future? Use examples from resources above. 2.,Cultural geographies of site-specific art and sound Theories of place; experiments in mapping and site-specific performance. 3.,Walk activity: Westergard Hildekamp , sound walk, or one of the trails mentioned above The best way , and perhaps the only way , to really appreciate located media is to try one in the location they have been designed to be experienced. I would strongly advise any teaching in this field to include outdoor, on-site experiences. Even if you are out of reach of a mediascape experience, taking students on a sound walk can happen anywhere. See Autumn Leaves reference above. 4.,Researching local history An introduction to discovering historical information about places could be held at a local archive and a talk given by the archivist. 5.,Creating located multimedia using Google maps/Google earth A practical exercise-based session going through the basics of navigating Google maps, creating points and routes, and how to link pictures and sound files. 6.,Recording sound and oral history interviews A practical introduction to the techniques of qualitative interviewing and sound recording. There are lots of useful online guides to oral history recording, for example, an online oral history primer http://www.nebraskahistory.org/lib-arch/research/audiovis/oral_history/index.htm; a more in depth guide to various aspects of oral history http://www.baylor.edu/oral%5fhistory/index.php?id=23566 or this simple oral history toolkit, with useful links to project in the North of England http://www.oralhistorynortheast.info/toolkit/chapter1.htm 7.,Sound editing skills Practical editing techniques including working with clips, editing sound and creating multi-track recordings. The freeware software Audacity is simple to use and there are a lot of online tutorials that cover the basics, for example, http://www.wikieducator.org/user:brentsimpson/collections/audacity_workshop 8.,Web page design and Google maps How to create a basic web page (placing pictures, text, hyperlinks, buttons) using design software (e.g. Dreamweaver). How to embed a Google map and add information points and routes. There is a great deal of online tutorials for web design, specific to the software you wish to use and Google maps can be used and embedded on websites free for non-profit use. http://maps.google.com/ 9,and 10. Individual or group project work (staff available for technical support) 11.,Presentations/reflection on practice Focus Questions 1What can sound tell us about the geographies of places? 2When you walk through a landscape, what traces of the past can be sensed? Now think about which elements of the past have been obliterated? Whose past has been silenced? Why? How could it be put back? 3Think of a personal or family story that is significant to you. In your imagination, locate the memory at a specific place. Tell a fellow student that story, and describe that place. Does it matter where it happened? How has thinking about that place made you feel? 4What happens when you present a memory of the past or a located vision of the future in a present landscape? How is this different to, say, writing about it in a book? 5Consider the area of this campus, or the streets immediately surrounding this building. Imagine this place in one of the following periods (each group picks one): ,,10,000 years ago ,,500 years ago ,,100 years ago ,,40 years ago ,,last Thursday ,,50 years time What sounds, voices, stories or images could help convey your interpretation of this place at that time? What would the visitor hear or see today at different points on a trail? Sketch out an outline map of a located media trail, and annotate with what you hear/see/sense at different places. Project Idea small group project: creating a located mediascape Each small group must create a located media experience, reflecting an aspect of the history/geography/culture of an area of their choosing, using the knowledge that they have acquired over the course of the semester. The experience may be as creative and imaginative as you wish, and may explore the past, present or future , or elements of each. Each group must: ,,identify an area of interest ,,research an aspect of the area of the groups choosing; this may involve visiting local archives, libraries, discussing the idea with local people, physically exploring the area ,,take photographs, video or decide on imagery (if necessary) ,,record sound, conduct interviews or script and record narration ,,design a route or matrix of media points The final project must be presented on a website, may embed Google maps, and a presentation created to allow the class to experience the mediascape (either in the classroom or on location, if convenient). The website should include a brief theoretical and methodological explanation of the basis of their interpretation. If the group cannot be supported with tuition and support in basic website design or using Google mapping with sound and imagery, a paper map with locations and a CD containing sound files/images might be submitted instead. For examples of web projects created by masters degree students of cultural geography at Royal Holloway (not all sound based) see http://www.gg.rhul.ac.uk/MA/web-projects.html [source]

    Undergraduate teaching in gerodontology in Austria, Switzerland and Germany

    GERODONTOLOGY, Issue 3 2004
    Ina Nitschke
    Objective:, To survey the present state of undergraduate teaching in the domain of gerodontology in Germany, Switzerland and Austria. Study participants:, All universities of Austria (A), Germany (D) and Switzerland (CH). Protocol:, A questionnaire on undergraduate teaching in gerodontology was mailed to all Deans (A: n = 3; CH: n = 4; D: n = 31) and all independent departments except paediatric dentistry and orthodontics (A: n = 11; CH: n = 15; D: n = 111). Results:, The questionnaires were completed and returned by 29 Deans (A: n = 2; CH: n = 4; D: n = 23) and 102 departments (A: n = 7; CH: n = 8; D: n = 87). In Austria, gerodontology is a very small component of the dental curriculum and the Deans did not want this to be increased. Most German universities claimed to teach some aspects of gerodontology to undergraduate students and 87.4% of the Deans voted for separate lectures in gerodontology. In Switzerland, gerodontology seems well established. The results of questionnaires from the independent departments revealed that in all three countries lectures were more prevalent (A: n = 0; CH: n = 4; D: n = 6) than practical training in nursing homes (A: n = 0; CH: n = 3; D: n = 6). Conclusion:, Considering the demographical shift which is leading to an increasing proportion of elderly in the population, the weighting of gerodontology in the undergraduate dental curriculum should be considered for revision in Austria and Germany. [source]