Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Ulcers

  • aphthou ulcer
  • chronic leg ulcer
  • chronic oral ulcer
  • chronic ulcer
  • chronic venous ulcer
  • cutaneous ulcer
  • decubitu ulcer
  • diabetic foot ulcer
  • duodenal ulcer
  • foot ulcer
  • gastric ulcer
  • gastroduodenal ulcer
  • i pressure ulcer
  • large ulcer
  • leg ulcer
  • marjolin ulcer
  • mucosal ulcer
  • oral ulcer
  • peptic ulcer
  • pressure ulcer
  • skin ulcer
  • small ulcer
  • stage i pressure ulcer
  • stress ulcer
  • venous leg ulcer
  • venous ulcer

  • Terms modified by Ulcers

  • ulcer area
  • ulcer bleeding
  • ulcer care
  • ulcer classification system
  • ulcer complications
  • ulcer development
  • ulcer disease
  • ulcer formation
  • ulcer healing
  • ulcer incidence
  • ulcer margin
  • ulcer model
  • ulcer patient
  • ulcer perforation
  • ulcer prevalence
  • ulcer prevention
  • ulcer recurrence
  • ulcer risk
  • ulcer size
  • ulcer syndrome

  • Selected Abstracts


    Nobutsugu Abe
    Recent important insights into the surgical treatment of bleeding peptic ulcer are reviewed in this article. Although the widespread use of endoscopic treatment and interventional radiology has reduced the number of surgical cases, surgery still plays a pivotal role in managing bleeding peptic ulcer. Failure to stop the bleeding by endoscopy and/or interventional radiology is the most important indication for emergency surgery. An early elective/planned surgery after the initial endoscopic control to prevent life-threatening rebleeding seems justified in patients who have risk factors for rebleeding, although its true efficacy still remains controversial. The surgical procedures in emergency situations should be limited to safe hemostasis. The addition of acid-reduction surgery may be unnecessary as a result of the increasing utilization of proton pump inhibitors. Angiographic embolization may be a less invasive alternative to surgery, and may further enhance endoscopic hemostasis. [source]


    Pecsi Gy
    To determine the upper abdominal symptoms, the use of ASD and the recurrence-rate of Helicobacter pylori in DU (Hp) patients one year after ulcer healing and successful HP eradication. Patient and methods: 37 endoscopically proven healed and successfully eradicated DU patients were successfully recruited in the study. All patients had active ulcer and showed HP positivity both by rapid urease test and histology 5 weeks before the enrollement endoscopy. The severity and character of dyspeptic symptoms and the use of ASD-s were checked by questionnaires at the start and one year after successful eradication therapy. NSAID users and reflux oesophagitis patients were excluded at inclusion. Eradication was performed by a one week LAC combination followed by 4 week ranitidine therapy. HP reinfection was controlled by C13 urea breath test at the 12 month visit. Results: 7 patients were lost for follow up by the end of the one year program. A together the data of 30 eligible patients (17 females, 13 males, mean age 49 years) were analyzed. The questionnaires represent the symptoms and ASD use of the whole year program. Only 12 out of 30 patients (40%) were permanently and completely symptoms free after the cessation of the short-term therapy. 16 patients (53.3%) had temporary and 2 patients (6.7%) had persistant symptom. About half of the patients (n=17) were taking absolutely no ASD during the follow up. The number of occasional and continuous ASD users were 7 (23.4%) and 6 (20%) respectively. HP reinfections occurred in one patient and no ulcer relaps was proven. Conclusions: 1. More than half of the patients had clinically relevant dyspeptic symptoms during the year after successful HP eradication and ulcer healing. 2. The majority of them required occasional or long term ASD therapy in this period. 3. Recurrences rate of HP was low. [source]

    A Rare Case of a Giant Marjolin Ulcer

    The authors have indicated no significant interest with commercial supporters. [source]

    Nonhealing Ulcer Misinterpreted as a Complication after Varicose Exeresis

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Aggressive Squamous Cell Carcinoma Originating as a Marjolin's Ulcer

    Shawn R. Sabin MD
    Background. Marjolin's ulcer is an epidermoid carcinoma arising in a scar or chronic wound and can have an aggressive course. Objective. To present a case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in a burn scar with resulting metastases and to discuss Marjolin's ulcer. Results. The patient continued to have further metastatic disease despite aggressive surgical treatment. Conclusion. In following patients with chronic ulcers and wounds, it is important to evaluate any changes immediately with biopsies and further imaging studies if indicated in order to treat effectively. Even aggressive surgical intervention will sometimes be inadequate in treating these tumors. [source]

    Prevalence of Duodenal Ulcer-Promoting Gene (dupA) of Helicobacter pylori in Patients with Duodenal Ulcer in North Indian Population

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 6 2007
    H. S. Jayasinghe Arachchi
    Abstract Background: , The duodenal ulcer (DU)-promoting gene (dupA) of Helicobacter pylori has been identified as a novel virulent marker associated with an increased risk for DU. The presence or absence of dupA gene of H. pylori present in patients with DU and functional dyspepsia in North Indian population was studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and hybridization analysis. Materials and Methods: , One hundred and sixty-six patients (96 DU and 70 functional dyspepsia) were included in this study. In addition, sequence diversity of dupA gene of H. pylori found in these patients was analyzed by sequencing the PCR products jhp0917 and jhp0918 on both strands with appropriate primers. Results: , PCR and hybridization analyses indicated that dupA gene was present in 37.5% (36/96) of H. pylori strains isolated from DU patients and 22.86% (16/70) of functional dyspepsia patients (p .05). Of these, 35 patients with DU (97.2%) and 14 patients with functional dyspepsia (81.25%) were infected by H. pylori positive for cagA genotype. Furthermore, the presence of dupA was significantly associated with the cagA -positive genotype (p .02). Conclusion: , Results of our study have shown that significant association of dupA gene with DU in this population. The dupA gene can be considered as a novel virulent marker for DU in this population. [source]

    The Interleukin-1 RN Polymorphism and Helicobacter pylori Infection in the Development of Duodenal Ulcer

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 6 2004
    Ping-I Hsu
    ABSTRACT Background., The host genetic factors that determine the clinical outcomes for Helicobacter pylori -infected individuals remain unclear. Aims., To elucidate the relations among interleukin-1 locus polymorphisms, and H. pylori infection in the development of duodenal ulcers. Materials and methods., In a case,control study involving 168 control subjects and 147 patients with duodenal ulcer, biallelic polymorphisms of two interleukin-1 loci, IL-1B,511 and IL-1B+3954, as well as the penta-allelic variable number of tandem repeats of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist IL-1RN, were genotyped, and the H. pylori states of controls and patients were examined. Results.,Helicobacter pylori infection, male gender and the carriage of IL-1RN*2 independently increased the risk of duodenal ulcer with odds ratios of 6.4 (95% confidence interval, 3.7,11.0), 1.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.1,3.4) and 2.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.1,6.8), respectively. Statistical analysis revealed an interaction between IL-1RN*2 and H. pylori infection with the duodenal ulcer risk conferred by the H. pylori infection substantially increased (odds ratios, 22.6; 95% confidence interval, 5.9,86.5) by the carriage of IL-1RN*2. In addition, a synergistic interaction between IL-1RN*2 and blood group O existed. The combined risk of H. pylori infection, the carriage of IL-1RN*2 and blood group O for duodenal ulcer was 27.5 (95% confidence interval, 3.1,243.6). Conclusions., This work is the first to verify IL-1RN*2 as an independent factor that governs the development of duodenal ulcers. Our data indicate that H. pylori infection and IL-1RN*2 synergistically determine susceptibility to duodenal ulcer. The blood group phenotype is possibly a crucial determinant for the outcome of the impact of an interleukin-1 locus polymorphism on H. pylori -infected individuals. [source]

    IgG Subclass Responses in Childhood Helicobacter pylori Duodenal Ulcer: Evidence of T-Helper Cell Type 2 Responses

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 4 2004
    David I. Campbell
    ABSTRACT Background., Duodenal ulcer in adults chronically infected with Helicobacter pylori is associated with a polarized T-helper cell type 1 (Th1) mucosal immune response, with a predominantly immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) systemic specific response. It has been suggested that children colonized by H. pylori also produce a mucosal Th1 response, but there are few studies that have measured IgG subclass responses in children with duodenal ulcer. Materials and methods., Seven children with endoscopically proven duodenal ulcer and H. pylori infection and 18 children with biopsy proven H. pylori infection but no duodenal ulcer had relative concentrations of IgG subclass responses (IgGsc) against H. pylori antigens measured by ELISA. Eighteen IgG seropositive adults acted as controls. The range of antigens recognised by IgG1 and IgG2 subclass responses were investigated by Western blots. Results., There were no differences in mean IgGsc responses between children with or without duodenal ulcer. Adults produced an IgG2 predominant response. Western blots showed no qualitative differences in antigens recognised by IgG1 or IgG2. Conclusion., Children with duodenal ulcer, in contrast to adults, produce an IgGsc response consistent with a mucosal Th2 response to H. pylori regardless of the presence of duodenal ulceration. This suggests that disease causation amongst children with H. pylori associated duodenal ulceration may not be dependant upon a mucosal Th1 biased response. [source]

    Relationship Between Gastric Ulcer and Helicobacter pylori VacA Detected in Gastric Juice Using Bead-ELISA Method

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 5 2002
    Daisuke Shirasaka
    Abstract Background. VacA is an important pathogenetic factor produced by Helicobacter pylori. VacA has often been detected in supernatants of liquid cultures or lysates of whole bacterial cells. However, no studies have ever tried to assay VacA produced in the human stomach. We applied a very sensitive and simple method, bead-ELISA, to detect VacA in gastric juice. Materials and Methods. Forty-eight H. pylori -positive patients (16 nonulcer dyspepsia, 16 gastric ulcer, and 16 duodenal ulcer) and four H. pylori -negative nonulcer dyspepsia patients had endoscopy performed and gastric juice were aspirated. Polystyrene beads coated with the antibody to VacA, were used in this bead-ELISA method. The nucleotide sequences of vacA in the signal and middle regions were investigated. Results. Of the 48 samples that were positive for H. pylori, 21 [43.8%] were found to be VacA positive in gastric juice. The average and maximum concentrations of detected VacA in gastric juice were 143.2 ± 216.5 and 840 pg/ml, respectively. The average density of VacA from gastric ulcer patients (227.5 ± 276.7 pg/ml) was higher than that found in nonulcer dyspepsia (51.8 ± 39.8 pg/ml) and duodenal ulcer (49.2 ± 21.5 pg/ml) patients. There was no relationship between VacA in gastric juice and vacA genotype. Conclusions. VacA in gastric juice could be directly detected by bead-ELISA. In this study, the diversity of disease outcome was associated with not the quality but the quantity of VacA. Therefore, not only the quality but also the quantity of VacA is important etiological factors in the pathogenesis of mucosal damage. [source]

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma Occurring at Site of Prior Herpes Zoster of the Scalp: Case Report of Marjolin Ulcer

    Deepti Mishra MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The impact of pressure ulcer risk assessment on patient outcomes among hospitalised patients

    Mohammad Saleh
    Aims and objectives., To determine whether use of a risk assessment scale reduces nosocomial pressure ulcers. Background., There is contradictory evidence concerning the validity of risk assessment scales. The interaction of education, clinical judgement and use of risk assessment scales has not been fully explored. It is not known which of these is most important, nor whether combining them results in better patient care. Design., Pretest,posttest comparison. Methods., A risk assessment scale namely the Braden was implemented in a group of wards after appropriate education and training of staff in addition to mandatory wound care study days. Another group of staff received the same education programme but did not implement the risk assessment scale and a third group carried on with mandatory study days only. Results., Nosocomial Pressure Ulcer was reduced in all three groups, but the group that implemented the risk assessment scale showed no significant additional improvement. Allowing for age, gender, medical speciality, level of risk and other factors did not explain this lack of improvement. Clinical judgement seemed to be used by nurses to identify patients at high risk to implement appropriate risk reduction strategies such as use of pressure relieving beds. Clinical judgement was not significantly different from the risk assessment scale score in terms of risk evaluation. Conclusions., It is questioned whether the routine use of a risk assessment scale is useful in reducing nosocomial pressure ulcer. It is suggested clinical judgement is as effective as a risk assessment scale in terms of assessing risk (though neither show good sensitivity and specificity) and determining appropriate care. Relevance to clinical practice., Clinical judgement may be as effective as employing a risk assessment scale to assess the risk of pressure ulcers. If this were true it would be simpler and release nursing time for other tasks. [source]

    Leg Ulcer in Hereditary Spherocytosis

    Susana Giraldi M.D.
    We report a 13-year-old girl with hereditary spherocytosis who developed a chronic painful ulcer on the medial malleolus. All other etiologies were ruled out. Nine months after splenectomy the ulcer healed completely and the symptoms disappeared. We discuss and review this unusual entity in children. [source]

    Letter: The Use of a Dermal Substitute and Thin Skin Grafts in the Cure of "Complex" Leg Ulcers

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Assessment of Incidence, Cause, and Consequences of Pressure Ulcers to Evaluate Quality of Provided Care

    BACKGROUND Pressure ulcers are one of the most frequently registered complications in general surgery. OBJECTIVE To obtain insight into the incidence, cause, and consequences of pressure ulcers and to evaluate the value of pressure ulcer registration to assess quality of care. RESULTS During the 9-year study period, 275 pressure ulcers were registered (5.8% of total registered complications). Age and female sex were independent risk factors for pressure ulcer development. Pressure ulcer classification was as follows: mild (53.3%), moderate (35.6%), severe (9.5%), and irreversible damage (1.5%). Patients undergoing hip surgery and major limb amputation were at risk for pressure ulcer development (10.4% and 8.8%, respectively). In most patients (89.5%), pressure ulcers had no consequences other than local wound therapy; in 12 patients (4.4%), pressure ulceration led to alteration in medication; in 15 patients (5.5%), length of hospital stay was prolonged; and four patients (0.4%) suffered from irreversible damage. CONCLUSION The incidence of pressure ulcers is strongly correlated to sex, age, and indication of admittance. Most ulcers were classified as mild and had no consequences. The insight obtained into incidence, cause, and consequences of pressure ulcers can be used as an indicator of quality of provided care if adjusted for case mix and indication of operation. [source]

    Serum Iron and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Variations in Limbs Affected by Chronic Venous Disease and Venous Leg Ulcers

    Paolo Zamboni MD
    Background. Severe chronic venous disease (CVD) is characterized by both dermal hemosiderin accumulation and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) hyperactivation. The iron-driven pathway is one of the recognized mechanisms of MMP hyperactivation. Objective. To investigate the potential consequences of leg hemosiderin deposits on both iron metabolism and activation of MMPs. Methods. We contemporaneously assessed the following in the serum of the arm and ankle veins of 30 patients (C4,6) with CVD and 14 normal subjects: ferritin, transferrin, iron, percentage of transferrin iron binding capacity (%TIBC), and MMP-9. Optical microscopy examinations with Perls' staining of chronic wounds were also performed. Results. Histology consistently revealed iron deposits. Serum ferritin, iron, and %TIBC were significantly increased in the legs affected by severe CVD compared with the arm of the same subjects or the controls. In addition, iron and %TIBC were significantly elevated in the legs of ulcer patients. The rate of activation of MMP-9 was significantly elevated in CVD. Conclusions. The increased iron deposition in legs affected by CVD seems to be more instable in ulcer patients, leading to iron release in the serum of the affected leg. Our data suggest the iron-driven pathway as a further mechanism for MMP hyperexpression leading to tissue lesion. [source]

    Healing of Venous Ulcers of Long Duration with a Bilayered Living Skin Substitute: Results from a General Surgery and Dermatology Department

    Harold Brem MD
    Background. A laboratory-grown bilayered living skin substitute (LSS) has been shown to accelerate the healing of venous ulcers. However, issues related to optimal wound bed preparation prior to the application of LSS have not been addressed. Objective. When combined with standard compression therapy and near elimination of wound exudate, bioengineered skin can achieve complete closure of venous ulcers which have been present for more than a year and which are difficult to heal. Methods. In the general surgery (center A) and dermatology (center B) departments at two separate medical centers, LSS was used to treat venous ulcers of more than 1 year's duration and which had been unresponsive to conventional therapy. Wound bed preparation at both centers had as common goals the removal of necrotic tissue, optimal formation of granulation tissue, and elimination of wound exudate. Results. There was great comparability between the two centers in the patients being treated, wound size and duration, and number of LSS applications. Both centers achieved a frequency of complete wound closure of greater than 70% within 6 months. Conclusion. At two separate clinical and specialty sites having a common goal of optimal wound preparation, treatment with LSS was associated with a high rate of complete closure of hard to heal venous ulcers. [source]

    Current Approaches to Venous Ulcers and Compression

    FRCPC, Tania J. Phillips MD
    Background. Venous ulcers affect as many as 2.5 million people in the United States and can cause substantial pain and loss of function. Objective. To review current approaches to venous ulcers and compression. Method. Treatment options that have been proposed in the literature are discussed utilizing the Cochrane library database, Medline, and the author's clinical experience. Results. Diagnostic findings and management strategies for venous ulcers are reviewed. Conclusion. Good wound care and compression therapy will heal the majority of small venous ulcers of short duration. For ulcers that are slow to heal, other approaches such as venous surgery and grafting with conventional or bioengineered skin substitutes should be considered. [source]

    Heel ulcers don't heal in diabetes.

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 9 2005
    Or do they?
    Abstract Aim To obtain information on outcome of heel ulcers in diabetes. Methods Data were recorded prospectively on all patients with heel ulcers who were referred to a specialist multidisciplinary clinic between 1 January 2000 and 30 November 2003. Outcomes were assessed on 31 March 2004. Results There were 157 heel ulcers in the patients referred in the period. Three ulcers were excluded from analysis because of associated osteomyelitis. Of 154 remaining ulcers (121 limbs; 97 patients, 55 male; mean age 68.5 ± 12.8 sd years), 101 (65.6%) healed after a median (range) 200 (24,1225) days. Of 53 non-healed ulcers, 11 (7.1% of 154) were resolved by major amputation, 30 (19.5% of 154) were unhealed at time of patient's death, and 12 (7.8% of 154) remained unhealed. Ulcers healed in 59 of 97 affected patients (60.8%). Twenty-six patients (26.8% of 97) died during the period, of whom 20 died with ulcers unhealed. Worse outcomes were observed in larger ulcers (P = 0.001, Mann,Whitney U -test = 1883.5) and limbs with clinical evidence of peripheral arterial disease (P = 0.001, Mann,Whitney U -test = 1163.00). Backward step-wise logistic regression analysis showed 70.1% of healing could be predicted from these two baseline characteristics. Conclusions The common perception that ,heel ulcers don't heal' is not reflected in clinical practice. Outcome is generally favourable even in a population often affected by serious comorbidity and with limited life expectancy. These data can be used to help define management plans, as well as a basis for counselling of the individual patient. [source]

    Eradication of Helicobacter pylori Does Not Reduce the Incidence of Gastroduodenal Ulcers in Patients on Long-term NSAID Treatment: Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 5 2007
    Helena T.J.I. De Leest
    Abstract Background:,,Helicobacter pylori and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the major causes of gastroduodenal ulcers. Studies on the benefit of eradication of H. pylori in NSAID users yielded conflicting results. Objective:, To investigate whether H. pylori eradication in patients on long-term NSAIDs reduces the incidence of gastroduodenal ulcers. Methods:, Patients on long-term NSAID treatment and who are H. pylori positive on serologic testing, were randomly assigned to either H. pylori eradication (omeprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin) or placebo. Primary endpoint was the presence of endoscopic gastric or duodenal ulcers 3 months after randomization. Results:, One hundred sixty-five (48%) of a total of 347 patients were on gastroprotective medication. At endoscopy, gastroduodenal ulcers were diagnosed in 6 (4%) and 8 (5%) patients in the eradication and placebo group, respectively (p = .65). During follow-up of 12 months, no symptomatic ulcers or ulcer complications developed. No significant differences were found in the development of gastroduodenal erosions, dyspepsia, or in quality of life. Conclusion:,H. pylori eradication therapy in patients on long-term NSAID treatment had no beneficial effect on the occurrence of ulcers, erosions, or dyspepsia. Ulcer rates in both study arms are remarkably low, in both patients with and without gastroprotective therapy. [source]

    Hard palate perforation: an unusual finding in paracoccidioidomycosis

    Luiz G. M. Castro MD
    A 36-year-old black man presented to his dermatologist in May 1996 complaining of mucosal lesions in the mouth, as well as perforation of the hard palate. The lesions had started approximately 7 months before and had worsened gradually. Other complaints included odynophagia, dysphagia, mild dyspnea, and dry cough. The patient was in good general health, but reported a 3 kg weight loss over the previous semester. The hard and soft palate presented erythematous ulcers with a finely granulated base and irregular, but clearly defined margins. A perforation (diameter, 0.5 cm) of the hard palate was seen in the center of the ulcerated region (Fig. 1). Direct examination of 10% KOH cleared specimens showed typical double-walled, multiple budding yeast structures. Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) serologic reactions tested positive for double immunodiffusion (DI), complement fixation (CF) 1 : 256 and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) 1 : 128. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of oral lesions showed an ulcer covered by a fibrous leukocytic crust, with a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, as well as multinuclear giant cells containing round bodies with a double membrane. Gomori,Grocott staining showed budding and blastoconidia suggestive of PCM. Lung computed tomography (CT) exhibited findings consistent with pulmonary PCM. Diagnosis of the chronic multifocal form of PCM with oral and pulmonary manifestations was established. Drug therapy was initiated with ketoconazole (KCZ) 200 mg twice daily, which led to clinical cure in approximately 2 months. Serum antibody values rose 30 days after institution of therapy (CIE 1 : 256; CF 1 : 512), peaking at day 60 (CIE 1 : 1024; CF 1 : 1024). Three months later the daily dose was reduced to 200 mg and titers declined slowly. The diameter of the perforation remained unchanged (Fig. 2). The hard palate perforation was corrected with a palatoplasty 27 months after initiation of drug therapy (Fig. 3). KCZ was discontinued when serologic cure was achieved after 34 months of treatment (DI weakly positive; CIE 1 : 8; CF not measurable). The patient was discharged 46 months after the first visit. Figure 1. Ulcers with a finely granulated base on the hard palate with irregular but clearly defined margins. A perforation (diameter, 0.5 cm) of the hard palate is seen in the center of the ulcerated region Figure 2. Clinical aspect after 2 months of oral ketoconazole 200 mg twice daily. Resolution of ulceration was evident, but the diameter of the perforation remained unchanged Figure 3. Final result of palatoplasty to cover hard palate perforation [source]

    Evaluation of the nano-oligosaccharide factor lipido-colloid matrix in the local management of venous leg ulcers: results of a randomised, controlled trial

    Jean-Luc Schmutz
    Abstract The nano-oligosaccharide factor (NOSF) is a new compound aiming to promote wound closure mainly through inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. This factor is incorporated within a lipido-colloid matrix (Techonology Lipido-Colloid-NOSF matrix) and locally released in the wound. The objective of this study was to document the performance (non inferiority or superiority) of the NOSF relative to the Promogran® matrix (oxidised regenerated cellulose, ORC) effect in the local management of venous leg ulcers (VLUs). This was a 12-week, open, two-arm, multicentre, randomised study. Patients were selected if the area of their VLU [ankle brachial pressure index ,0·80] ranged from 5 to 25 cm2 with a duration ,3 months. Ulcers had to be free from necrotic tissue. In addition to receiving compression bandage therapy, patients were randomly allocated to either NOSF matrix or ORC treatment for 12 weeks. The VLUs were assessed on a weekly basis and wound tracings were recorded. Percentage wound relative reduction (%RR) was the primary efficacy criterion. Secondary objectives were wound absolute reduction (AR), healing rate (HR) and % of wounds with ,40% reduction compared with baseline. A total of 117 patients were included (57 NOSF matrix and 60 ORC). Mean population age was 71·3 ± 13·5 years, body mass index was ,30 kg/m2 in 39·3% and 15·4% were diabetics. Fifty-six per cent of the VLUs were present for >6 months, 61% were recurrent and 68% were stagnating despite appropriate care. Mean wound area at baseline was 11·2 ± 7·4 cm2. At the last evaluation, mean difference between the groups for %RR was 33·6 ± 15·0% in favour of NOSF matrix with a unilateral 95% confidence interval (CI) lower limit of 8·6% not including the null value. Therefore, a superiority of NOSF matrix effect compared with ORC was concluded (P = 0·0059 for superiority test). The median of the wound area reduction was 61·1% and 7·7% in the NOSF matrix and control groups, respectively (per-protocol analysis), or 54·4% versus 12·9% in intent-to-treat analysis (p = 0·0286). Median AR was 4·2 cm2 in the NOSF group and 1·0 cm2 with ORC (P = 0·01). Median HR was ,0·056 and ,0·015 cm2/day in NOSF and ORC groups, respectively (P = 0·029). By logistic regression, the NOSF versus control odds ratio to reach 40% area reduction was 2·4 (95% CI: 1·1,5·3; P = 0·026). In the oldest and largest VLUs, a strong promotion of healing effect was particularly observed in the NOSF matrix group compared with the control group. NOSF matrix is a very promising option for the local management of chronic wounds, especially for VLUs with poor healing prognosis. [source]

    Pressure Ulcers in Elderly Patients with Hip Fracture Across the Continuum of Care

    Mona Baumgarten PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To identify care settings associated with greater pressure ulcer risk in elderly patients with hip fracture in the postfracture period. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Nine hospitals that participate in the Baltimore Hip Studies network and 105 postacute facilities to which patients from these hospitals were discharged. PARTICIPANTS: Hip fracture patients aged 65 and older who underwent surgery for hip fracture. MEASUREMENTS: A full-body skin examination was conducted at baseline (as soon as possible after hospital admission) and repeated on alternating days for 21 days. Patients were deemed to have an acquired pressure ulcer (APU) if they developed one or more new stage 2 or higher pressure ulcers after hospital admission. RESULTS: In 658 study participants, the APU cumulative incidence at 32 days after initial hospital admission was 36.1% (standard error 2.5%). The adjusted APU incidence rate was highest during the initial acute hospital stay (relative risk (RR)=2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.3,3.7) and during re-admission to the acute hospital (RR=2.2, 95% CI=1.1,4.2). The relative risks in rehabilitation and nursing home settings were 1.4 (95% CI=0.8,2.3) and 1.3 (95% CI=0.8,2.1), respectively. CONCLUSION: Approximately one-third of hip fracture patients developed an APU during the study period. The rate was highest in the acute setting, a finding that is significant in light of Medicare's policy of not reimbursing hospitals for the treatment of hospital-APUs. Hip fracture patients constitute an important group to target for pressure ulcer prevention in hospitals. [source]

    Collaborative Clinical Quality Improvement for Pressure Ulcers in Nursing Homes

    (See editorial comments by Dr. George Taler on pp 167, 1675)
    The National Nursing Home Improvement Collaborative aimed to reduce pressure ulcer (PU) incidence and prevalence. Guided by subject matter and process experts, 29 quality improvement organizations and six multistate long-term care corporations recruited 52 nursing homes in 39 states to implement recommended practices using quality improvement methods. Facilities monitored monthly PU incidence and prevalence, healing, and adoption of key care processes. In residents at 35 regularly reporting facilities, the total number of new nosocomial Stage III to IV PUs declined 69%. The facility median incidence of Stage III to IV lesions declined from 0.3 per 100 occupied beds per month to 0.0 (P<.001) and the incidence of Stage II to IV lesions declined from 3.2 to 2.3 per 100 occupied beds per month (P=.03). Prevalence of Stage III to IV lesions trended down (from 1.3 to 1.1 residents affected per 100 occupied beds (P=.12). The incidence and prevalence of Stage II lesions and the healing time of Stage II to IV lesions remained unchanged. Improvement teams reported that Stage II lesions usually healed quickly and that new PUs corresponded with hospital transfer, admission, scars, obesity, and immobility and with noncompliant, younger, or newly declining residents. The publicly reported quality measure, prevalence of Stage I to IV lesions, did not improve. Participants documented disseminating methods and tools to more than 5,359 contacts in other facilities. Results suggest that facilities can reduce incidence of Stage III to IV lesions, that the incidence of Stage II lesions may not correlate with the incidence of Stage III to IV lesions, and that the publicly reported quality measure is insensitive to substantial improvement. The project demonstrated multiple opportunities in collaborative quality improvement, including improving the measurement of quality and identifying research priorities, as well as improving care. [source]

    Effect of methanolic extract of Terminalia arjuna against Helicobacter pylori 26695 lipopolysaccharide-induced gastric ulcer in rats

    Rethinam Sundaresan Devi
    Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide (HP-LPS) is a potent virulence factor in the causation of gastric ulcer and gastritis. H. pylori -induced gastric pathology is prevalent throughout the world. Herbal medicines are attracting attention because of their traditional values, popularity and belief, as well as for their advantages such as less toxicity, affordability and medicinal value. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-ulcer effect of a methanolic extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) against HP-LPS-induced gastric damage in rats. Ulcers were induced with HP-LPS (50 ,g per animal) administered orally daily for 3 days. The efficacy of TA on gastric secretory parameters such as volume of gastric juice, pH, free and total acidity, pepsin concentration, and the cytoprotective parameters such as protein-bound carbohydrate complexes in gastric juice and gastric mucosa was assessed. The protective effect of TA was also confirmed by histopathological examination of gastric mucosa. HP-LPS-induced alterations in gastric secretory parameters were altered favourably in rats treated with TA, suggesting that TA has an anti-secretory role. Furthermore, HP-LPS-induced impairments in gastric defence factors were also prevented by treatment with TA. These results suggest that the severe cellular damage and pathological changes caused by HP-LPS are mitigated by TA; these effects are comparable with those of sucralfate. The anti-ulcer effect of TA may reflect its ability to combat factors that damage the gastric mucosa, and to protect the mucosal defensive factors. [source]

    Review article: Helicobacter pylori -negative duodenal ulcer disease

    Aliment Pharmacol Ther,30, 791,815 Summary Background,Helicobacter pylori infection rates in duodenal ulcer (DU) patients may be lower than previously estimated. Aim, To review the real prevalence of H. pylori -negative DUs and its possible causes. Methods, Bibliographical searches in MEDLINE looking for the terms ,H. pylori' and ,duodenal ulcer'. Results, Mean prevalence of H. pylori infection in DU disease, calculated from studies published during the last 10 years including a total of 16 080 patients, was 81%, and this figure was lower (77%) when only the last 5 years were considered. Associations with H. pylori -negative DU were: (1) False negative results of diagnostic methods, (2) NSAID use (21% in studies with <90% infection rate), (3) Complicated DU (bleeding, obstruction, perforation), (4) Smoking, (5) Isolated H. pylori duodenal colonization, (6) Older age, (7) Gastric hypersecretion, (8) Diseases of the duodenal mucosa, (9) Helicobacter,heilmanii' infection and (10) Concomitant diseases. Conclusion, In patients with H. pylori -negative DU disease, one should carefully confirm that the assessment of H. pylori status is reliable. In truly H. pylori -negative patients, the most common single cause of DU is, by far, the use of NSAIDs. Ulcers not associated with H. pylori, NSAIDs or other obvious causes should, for the present, be viewed as ,idiopathic'. True idiopathic DU disease only exceptionally exists. [source]

    Cultural Variations in the Placebo Effect: Ulcers, Anxiety, and Blood Pressure

    Daniel E. Moerman
    An analysis of the control groups in double-blind trials of medicines demonstrates broad variation,from 0 to 100 percent,in placebo effectiveness rates for the same treatment for the same condition. In two cases considered here, drug healing rates covary with placebo healing rates; placebo healing is the ultimate and inescapable "complementary medicine. " Several factors can account for the dramatic variation in placebo healing rates, including cultural ones. But because variation differs by illness, large placebo effects for one condition do not necessarily anticipate large placebo effects for other conditions as well. Deeper understanding of the intimate relationship between cultural and biological processes will require close ethnographic scrutiny of the meaningfulness of medical treatment in different societies, [placebo effect, ulcer disease, anxiety, hypertension, cross-cultural variation] [source]

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    PRESCRIBER, Issue 13-14 2008
    Article first published online: 29 JUL 200
    NSAIDs stroke risk NSAIDs have been linked with an increased risk of stroke in an epidemiological study from The Netherlands (Arch Intern Med 2008;168: 1219-24). Nine years' follow-up of 7636 older persons (mean age 70) identified 807 strokes. The risk of stroke was significantly increased for current use of nonselective NSAIDs (hazard ratio 1.72 for all strokes) and COX-2 selective NSAIDs (HR 2.75 for all strokes; HR 4.54 for ischaemic stroke). Increased risk was found for several individual NSAIDs but was statistically significant only for naproxen (HR 2.63) and the withdrawn rofecoxib (HR 3.38). HPV vaccine chosen The DoH has chosen GlaxoSmithKline's Cervarix HPV vaccine for the national immunisation campaign beginning in September. Cervarix is a bivalent vaccine conferring immunity against HPV16 and 18, which account for 70 per cent of cervical cancers worldwide. Its competitor, Gardasil, is a quadrivalent vaccine additionally protecting against HPV6 and 11, which cause 90 per cent of genital warts. The procurement process assessed the vaccines against ,a wide range of criteria such as their scientific qualities and cost effectiveness'. The DoH has not revealed what it will pay for Cervarix. Melatonin for insomnia Lundbeck has introduced melatonin (Circadin) as monotherapy for the short-term treatment of primary insomnia characterised by poor quality of sleep in patients who are aged 55 or over. The dose is 2mg once daily two hours before bed-time and after food for three weeks. A course costs £10.77. Fesoterodine launched Pfizer has introduced feso-terodine (Toviaz), a prodrug for tolterodine (Detrusitol), for the treatment of symptoms of overactive bladder. Treatment is initiated at a dose of 4mg per day and increased to 8mg per day according to response. The full therapeutic effect may not occur until after two to eight weeks; treatment should be re-evaluated after eight weeks. A month's treatment at either dose costs £29.03, the same as sustained-release tolterodine (Detrusitol XL). Intensive glycaemic control for T2D? Two large trials of intensive glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes have conflicting implications for clinical practice. The ACCORD study (N Engl J Med 2008;358:2545-9) found that treating patients at high CVD risk to a target HbA1c of <6.0 per cent was associated with a 22 per cent increased risk of death and no reduction in macrovascular end-points compared with a target of 7.0-7.9 per cent. The ADVANCE study compared treating to a standard (HbA1c 7.3 per cent) or low (HBA1c 6.5 per cent) target. More intensive glycaemic control significantly reduced microvascular end-points, primarily due to a reduction in nephropathy. There was no difference in the risk of retinopathy or macrovascular end-points. Nicorandil as ulcer cause The potassium-channel activator nicorandil (Ikorel) may be associated with gastro-intestinal ulceration but is frequently overlooked as a possible cause, warns the MHRA in its latest Drug Safety Update (2008;1:Issue 11). Ulceration may affect any portion of the gastro-intestinal tract from the mouth to the perianal area, and it is frequently severe and may cause perforation. Ulcers due to nicorandil are refractory to treatment and only resolve on withdrawal of the drug. Withdrawal should be carried out under the supervision of a cardiologist. , This issue of Drug Safety Update also includes an overview of safety issues with natalizumab (Tysabri) for multiple sclerosis. Atypical antipsychotics diabetes risk ,small' The excess risk of diabetes due to treatment with an atypical antipsychotic is small compared with older anti-psychotics, say UK researchers (Br J Psychiatry 2008;192:406-11). Their meta-analysis of 11 studies found that, compared with the use of first-generation antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia, the over-all increased risk of diabetes with atypicals was 32 per cent. Risperidone was associated with lowest excess risk (16 per cent), followed by quetiapine (Seroquel) and olanzapine (Zyprexa; 28 per cent) then clozapine (39 per cent). Most studies had method-ological limitations. Copyright © 2008 Wiley Interface Ltd [source]

    Reed-Sternberg cells in atypical primary EBV infection

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 2 2001
    M Bitsori
    The presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the Hodgkin's/Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells of a significant proportion of cases of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is a matter of consideration when a case of presumptive HL has to be differentiated from infectious mononucleosis (IM). A 15-y-old boy was admitted with a presumptive diagnosis of extranodal HL, based on the biopsy of a painless ulcer on the right mandibular alveolar crest. Histologic examination of the lesion was consistent with mixed cellularity HL. The patient additionally presented with hepatosplenomegaly and regional lymphadenopathy. Serology for EBV was indicative of acute infection. Histological examination of regional lymphoid tissue was consistent with immunologic activation due to primary EBV infection. The patient was left untreated, under close observation. All clinical findings resolved within 3 mo and EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgM antibodies converted to negative after 6 mo. A 3-y follow-up period was uneventful. [source]

    Characterization of the polysensitized patient: a matched case,control study

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 1 2009
    Berit Christina Carlsen
    Background: Polysensitization ( , 3 contact allergies) may be regarded as a special entity in patients with contact allergies. However, this group of polysensitized patients is poorly characterized. Filaggrin mutations are associated with atopic eczema and lead to impaired skin barrier which may predispose to contact allergy. Therefore, it is of interest to consider atopic eczema and contact allergies, especially in patients with multiple allergies. Objective: To characterize polysensitized patients regarding occurrence, duration and course of dermatitis, and examine potential risk factors for polysensitization, including atopic eczema. Methods: A questionnaire case,control study of 562 polysensitized and 1124 single/double-sensitized individuals was performed. Results: The results show that 45% of polysensitized and 31% of single/double-sensitized patients had or had had atopic eczema, and atopic eczema was identified as a risk factor for polysensitization. Patients with leg ulcer constituted only a minor part of the polysensitized group and leg ulcers were not identified as a risk factor for polysensitization in this study. The influence of contact allergies on duration and course of disease diverged between the group of patients with atopic eczema and the group without atopic eczema. Conclusion: Patients with atopic eczema were overrepresented in the group of polysensitized patients and polysensitized patients should be viewed in the light of occurrence or lack of atopic eczema. [source]

    Helicobacter pylori activates protein kinase C delta to control Raf in MAP kinase signalling: Role in AGS epithelial cell scattering and elongation

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 10 2009
    Sabine Brandt
    Abstract Helicobacter pylori is a major etiological agent in the development of chronic gastritis, duodenal ulcer and gastric carcinoma in humans. Virulent H. pylori strains harbor a type IV secretion system (T4SS) encoded by the cag pathogenicity island. This T4SS injects the CagA protein into gastric epithelial cells leading to actin-cytoskeletal rearrangements followed by cell elongation and scattering. Here we report that PMA (4,-phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate), a well-known cell-permeable activator of protein kinase C (PKC), induces a remarkably similar cellular phenotype as compared to infection with H. pylori. PKCs comprise a large family of serine/threonine kinases which are important for multiple physiological processes of host cells. We therefore investigated the role of individual PKC members and the signalling pathways involved in phenotypical outcome. Using isoform-specific silencing RNAs and pharmacological inhibitors we found that two isoforms, PKC-, and PKC-,, were essential for both PMA- and H. pylori -induced elongation phenotype. Furthermore, we provide evidence that PKC-, activity is profoundly stimulated during the course of infection using activation-specific antibodies against PKC phosphorylated at threonine residue 505 or serine residue 660. Infection with H. pylori wild-type and mutants showed that at least two bacterial factors activate PKC-, in a time-dependent manner, one of which is CagA. Immunofluorescence microscopy studies further demonstrated that phosphorylated PKC-, is accumulated and recruited to dynamic actin-structures at the cell membrane. Finally, we show that PKC-, specifically targets Raf kinase to stimulate the Erk1/2 kinase pathway, which is also crucial for phenotypical outcome. Thus, PKC-, is another important mediator of H. pylori -induced pathogenesis. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]