Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Uveitis

  • acute anterior uveitis
  • anterior uveitis
  • autoimmune uveitis
  • experimental uveitis
  • granulomatous uveitis
  • posterior uveitis
  • recurrent uveitis

  • Selected Abstracts

    Bilateral Anterior Uveitis after Intense Pulsed Light Therapy for Pigmented Eyelid Lesions

    First page of article [source]

    Definite multiple sclerosis and uveitis: a two cases report

    S. Chebel
    Uveitis has infrequently been described as a manifestation of ocular inflammation in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Two patients with pre-existing definite MS and uveitis were described. The first patient had features of intermediate uveitis, and the second case had a features of retinal periphlebitis. However, each patient had neurologic signs consistent with MS and a negative laboratory tests for inflammatory and infectious diseases. The presence of neurological involvement with uveitis need a sequential diagnostic search. [source]

    A case of Adamantiades-Behçet disease with ischemic optic neuritis (posterior optic neuropathy)

    Satoko Shima
    Summary Adamantiades-Behçet disease (ABD) may present with cutaneous and ophthalmologic finings. A 29-year old woman complained of fever and general fatigue, along with erythema nodosum and vesiculo-pustular lesions on the legs, acneiform lesions, genital ulcerations and painful oral ulcers. She also complained of reduced visual acuity, visual disturbance and blurred vision in the left eye. Her left visual acuity was 6/20. Light reflex in the left eye was reduced. The relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) was positive in the left eye where a central scotoma was present. The vitreous was clear; the optic disc, macula, retina and iris were all normal. Uveitis was not observed. The patient was diagnosed with ischemic optic neuritis (posterior optic neuropathy) with ABD. Histopathological findings taken from a blister on the leg showed subepidermal bulla, dense dermal neutrophil infiltration, and extravasation of erythrocytes, suggesting leukocytoclastic vas-culitis. She was treated orally with high-dose corticosteroids (methylprednisolone 500 mg/d) for three days. Her general condition and ophthalmic symptoms resolved completely. Optic neuropathy with ABD is very rare; we know of two previous cases [1, 2] of ABD with ischemic posterior optic neuritis. [source]

    Adenotonsillectomy as a Treatment Option for Poststreptococcal Uveitis

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 4 2002
    Alexander Ovchinsky MD
    Abstract Objectives To report recurrent uveitis as a manifestation of poststreptococcal syndrome and discuss a role of adenotonsillectomy as a treatment option. Study Design Case study. Methods A case report of a 6-year-old, otherwise healthy girl with group A streptococcal uveitis managed successfully with adenotonsillectomy. Results In the year after surgery there were only two episodes of uveitis, contrasted with a preoperative 3-year history of 8 to 10 annual episodes despite corticosteroid therapy. Moreover, as a result of the postoperative improvement the child was able to avoid impending methotrexate therapy. Conclusions Although the role of tonsillectomy in managing poststreptococcal uveitis is unknown, our results suggest a positive impact independent of the baseline tonsillitis frequency. Otolaryngologists should be aware of these uncommon sequelae of streptococcal infection and the potential role of tonsillectomy in treatment. [source]

    Risk factors for development of uveitis differ between girls and boys with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 6 2010
    R. K. Saurenmann
    Objective Uveitis is the most common extraarticular manifestation of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and is associated with considerable morbidity. The aim of this study was to examine the risk factors associated with uveitis in JIA. Methods We conducted a chart review of 1,047 patients with JIA from a single tertiary care pediatric rheumatology center for factors associated with the development of uveitis. Special emphasis was put on the following known risk factors: oligoarthritis, antinuclear antibody (ANA) status, sex, and age at the time of onset of JIA. Results The risk of uveitis developing was age dependent in girls but not in boys. Among girls, the risk was maximal (47%) in those who were ANA positive and were ages 1,2 years at the time of the onset of JIA; this risk decreased to <10% in those in whom the age at onset was >7 years. Only girls had an age-dependent and ANA-associated increased risk of uveitis. The time interval from the diagnosis of JIA to the diagnosis of uveitis was statistically significantly longer in patients in whom the onset of JIA occurred at a younger age (P = 0.04). This effect was even more pronounced in ANA-positive patients (P = 0.004). The JIA subtype did not influence a patient's risk of the development of uveitis. Conclusion An age-associated risk of uveitis was observed only in girls who were younger than 7 years of age at the time of the onset of JIA. The duration of time between the diagnosis of JIA and the onset of uveitis was longer in patients in whom JIA was diagnosed at a younger age, especially in those who were ANA positive. We suggest that our findings have implications for uveitis screening in patients with JIA. [source]

    4254: Infectious and non infectious triggers in non-infectious uveitis

    Purpose The induction of autoimmune uveitis is difficult to explain with respect to the immune privileged status of the eye. The intact BRB can only be passed by already activated leukocytes, which should normally be ignorant to the sequestered intraocular antigens. Antigenic mimicry of retinal autoantigens by environmental proteins could explain extraocular activation of effector T cells. Methods We have previously demonstrated antigenic mimicry of a peptide from retinal S-Antigen and peptides from rotavirus (Rota) and bovine milk casein (Cas). Both, Rota and Cas, induce T cell lines cross-reactive with retinal S-Ag peptide as well as experimental autoimmune uveitis in rats. Patients with uveitis have increased antibody and T cell responses to the mimicry peptides as well as to the S-Ag peptide compared to healthy donors. Accordingly, Infection with rotavirus or any gastrointestinal pathogen with concomitant ingestion of bovine milk products could induce an immune response in the gastrointestinal tract that is cross-reactive with ocular autoantigens and lead to induction of autoimmunity in the eye. Results Uveitis as a well known adverse effect after BCG (Bacille Calmette Guerin) treatment might also be the result of antigenic mimicry. We have shown T cell responses to PPD from M. tuberculosis and the retinal autoantigens S-Ag, IRBP and CRALBP from a patient who had developed granulomatous uveitis after BCG application for bladder carcinoma. Data base searches revealed a number of amino acid sequence homologies between proteins from mycobacteria and retinal autoantigens, suggesting antigenic mimicry. These findings might as well be an explanation for the occurrence of uveitis in connection with M. tuberculosis infection, even when no mycobacteria are detectable in the eye. [source]

    4151: Epidemiology of uveitis in the Middle East and North Africa

    Purpose Numerous studies have examined the pattern of uveitis around the world. Most of them are from western countries, including the USA and countries in Europe, and Eastern Asia. The aim of this presentation is to review the epidemiological characteristics of uveitis in the the Middle East and North Africa. Methods The epidemiologic data on uveitis available from the Middle East and North Africa were reviewed. Results Several recent studies addressed the pattern of uveitis in different countries, including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and Tunisia. Uveitis was most often seen in adults with a peak age at presentation in the third and fourth decades. There was no dramatic difference in gender distribution. Anterior uveitis was the most common anatomic form of uveitis, but a high rate of posterior uveitis and panuveitis was reported. A definitive or presumed specific diagnosis could be established for 57-87% of patients. The most common infectious entities were herpetic anterior uveitis, toxoplasmosis, and tuberculosis (Saudi Arabia). The most common identifiable non-infectious entities included Behçet's disease and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease. Conclusion Herpetic infection, toxoplasmosis, and tuberculosis are the most common infectious causes of uveitis in the Middle East and North Africa. Behçet's diease and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease are the most common non-infectious uveitic entities.HLA-B27 acute anterior uveitis, ocular sarcoidosis, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis associated uveitis are less common than in western countries. [source]

    Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) syndrome: a case report and review of the literature

    Veronica Holm Thomassen
    Abstract. Purpose:, We aim to describe the first case of tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) syndrome reported in Scandinavia and to underline the importance of the syndrome, which should be better known among ophthalmologists. Methods:, We report an 11-year-old boy who was admitted to hospital because of general fatigue and weight loss. Blood tests showed renal insufficiency and a renal biopsy revealed acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. One week after admission the patient developed transitory blurred vision and flickering shadows in the left eye. Slit-lamp examination revealed bilateral anterior non-granulomatous uveitis and TINU syndrome was diagnosed. Results:, Because of renal insufficiency the patient was treated with systemic prednisone 50 mg/day for 3 weeks. Evolution was favourable, and prednisone was tapered over 10 weeks. Uveitis was treated with topical steroid with good effect. The only complication after 18 months of follow-up was transitory cushingoid aspect. Conclusions:, Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome is a rare syndrome that is probably underdiagnosed in clinical practice. Co-operation between ophthalmologists and nephrologists/paediatricians is crucial for early diagnosis and instigation of treatment. Uveitis may occur before tubulointerstitial nephritis or the renal symptoms may be so mild that the patient is unaware of them. Therefore, ophthalmologists play an important role in the initial discovery of patients with TINU syndrome. Tubulointerstitial nephritis tends to be self-limiting, whereas uveitis tends to relapse and recurrences tend to be more severe than the initial uveitis. Therefore, the patient must be ophthalmologically monitored very carefully. [source]

    Uveitis caused by fastidious bacteria

    Purpose The etiologic evaluation of uveitis is frequently unsuccessful if only noninvasive methods are used. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate systematic screening for pathogens of uveitis. Methods All patients with uveitis referred to the participating tertiary ophthalmology departments from January 2001 to September 2007 underwent intraocular and serum specimen collection. The standardized protocol for laboratory investigations included universal polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection of any bacteria and mycoses, specific PCR-based detection of fastidious (difficult-to-grow) bacteria and herpes viruses, and culture of vitreous fluid. Sera were tested for fastidious bacteria. Results Among the 1321 included patients, infection was diagnosed in 147 (11.1%) patients: 78 (53%) were caused by fastidious bacteria that included spirochetes, Bartonella species, intracellular bacteria (Chlamydia species, Rickettsia species, Coxiella burnetii), and Tropheryma whipplei; 18 by herpes viruses; and 9 by fungi. Bartonella quintana, Coxiella burnetii, Paracoccus yeei, Aspergillus oryzae, and Cryptococcus albidus were found to be associated with uveitis for the first time, to our knowledge. Conclusion We recommend applying a 1-step diagnostic procedure that incorporates intraocular, specific microbial PCR with serum analyses in tertiary centers to determine the etiology of uveitis. [source]

    Non-viral strategies of intra-ocular gene delivery

    Purpose Systemic anti TNF strategies are efficient to treat intraocular inflammation but require repeated injections and are associated to severe systemic side effects. Our aim was to develop a non viral gene transfer method to produce locally anti-inflammatory proteins in a sustained and minimally invasive manner in the ocular media. For this purpose, we have transformed the ciliary muscle into a bioreactor, using an electrically assisted gene transfer technique. Methods Electrotransfer (ET) of plasmids, encoding for different variants of TNF alpha soluble receptors, was performed in the ciliary muscle cells. Using toptimized conditions, soluble receptors were dosed in the ocular media up to 8 months after a single treatment. The technique has been applied in two models of intraocular inflammation: Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis (EIU) and auto immune experimental uveitis (EAU) in rats. Results When performed 8 days or 3 months before the LPS challenge, ET significantly reduced both clinical and histological signs of EIU. Particularly, iNOS, IL6 and TNF were down regulated while IL10 was upregulated. Importantly, systemic TNF alpha was not decreased demonstrating a local effect of the treatment. In EAU, ET significantly delayed the onset of EAU and deceased its severity. Similarly, a switch towards a Th2 cytokines profile was observed in the ocular media without any effect on systemic TNF alpha. Conclusion - ET is a safe and efficient non viral method to produce locally TNF alpha soluble receptors. - Local anti TNF allows for a local intraocular immunomodulation, without affecting systemic TNF. ET could therefore be used to reduce systemic side effects of anti TNF and prevent repeated injections. [source]

    Uveitis associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae meningitis

    Sharam S. Yashar

    Uveitis: what do we know and how does it help?

    Susan Lightman PhDFRCOphth
    ABSTRACT Uveitis essentially means intraocular inflammation and encompasses a wide variety of different disorders. This includes both mild and severe types of inflammation affecting different parts of the eye. Histologically, all uveitis is characterized by an influx of lymphocytes into the affected tissue. In all types these lymphocytes are predominantly of the CD4 type, whether the disorder is mild or blinding, giving no clue as to why. New studies comparing cells in ocular fluids taken from inflamed eyes with different types of inflammation have, for the first time, shown a difference in the cytokine profile, so that in visually benign disease interleukin 10 levels are higher than in those which are blinding. The potential for this in terms of therapy is discussed. [source]

    Clinical features of intraocular inflammation in Hokkaido, Japan

    Hirokuni Kitamei
    Abstract. Purpose:, We aimed to investigate the clinical features of intraocular inflammation/uveitis in Hokkaido, Japan. Methods:, We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 1240 uveitis patients (511 men, 729 women) who visited Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo, Japan between 1994 and 2003. Results:, Mean age at disease onset was 41.7 ± 17.8 years in men and 45.7 ± 18.3 years in women. Anterior, posterior and combined anterior and posterior segment intraocular inflammation accounted for 45.1%, 4.7% and 50.2% of cases, respectively. Sarcoidosis was the most frequent aetiology (14.9%), followed by Vogt,Koyanagi,Harada (VKH) disease (9.7%) and Behçet's disease (6.7%). Aetiologies in 49.8% patients were unknown. In sarcoidosis, women represented 72.4% of patients, and disease onset occurred at 35.1 ± 19.0 years of age in men and 50.3 ± 16.5 years in women. In VKH disease, 54.2% of patients were women, and disease onset took place at 45.9 ± 15.8 years in men and 46.4 ± 14.1 years in women. In Behçet's disease, men accounted for 56.6% of patients, and disease onset occurred at 35.5 ± 8.5 years in men and 44.5 ± 11.5 years in women. Conclusions:, Women were more prone to developing sarcoidosis compared with men. By contrast, men were more prone to developing Behçet's disease. The mean age at disease onset in both sarcoidosis and Behçet's disease was significantly lower in men than in women. [source]

    Macular oedema with associated uveitis and cataract following presentation of Type 1 diabetes mellitus in severe ketoacidosis

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 4 2000
    D. Gordon
    Abstract We present a case of cystoid macular oedema presenting in a newly diagnosed diabetic teenager. She had developed anterior uveitis prior to diabetes and whether this contributed to the subsequent ocular complications remains speculative. The macular changes resolved spontaneously over 6 months without the use of grid laser photocoagulation. [source]

    Equine recurrent uveitis: A clinical manifestation of leptospirosis

    L. Frellstedt
    Summary Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution affecting domestic animals, wildlife and man. The bacterial disease is caused by pathogenic Leptospira spp., which are transmitted from reservoir hosts to accidental hosts. Horses are accidental hosts and can become susceptible to leptospiral infections. Widespread exposure to leptospires exists and is significantly more common than clinical disease. Leptospirosis can have different clinical manifestations including abortion, still birth, systemic disease with hepatic or renal dysfunction, and equine recurrent uveitis (ERU). ERU is the most frequently encountered clinical manifestation and this article will focus on the review of leptospira-associated ERU. Equine recurrent uveitis is the most common cause of vision impairment and blindness in horses. The pathogenesis of leptospira-associated ERU involves direct bacterial effects and immune-mediated responses. Clinical signs vary between the acute and chronic phases of the disease and progress over time. The diagnosis of leptospira-associated ERU can be difficult and usually requires a combination of diagnostic tests. Medical and surgical treatments have been described with varying outcomes. The prognosis for sight is usually poor, although core vitrectomy may improve the outcome. Avoidance of leptospiral exposure of horses is the only reliable prevention of leptospira-associated disease. [source]

    Ocular penetration of intravenously administered enrofloxacin in the horse

    T. J. DIVERS
    Summary Reason for performing study: Information on antibiotic concentrations in the equine eye following systemic therapy is limited. Reports that Leptospira spp. are frequently present in the eyes of horses with recurrent uveitis, emphasises a need for studies on ocular concentrations of specific antibiotics. Hypotheses: 1) Enrofloxacin, administered i.v. at 7.5 mg/kg bwt q. 24 h, results in aqueous humour concentrations greater than the reported minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Leptospira pomona. 2) Aqueous humour paracentesis sufficiently disrupts the blood-aqueous humour barrier (BAB) to cause an increase in aqueous humour protein and enrofloxacin concentrations. Methods: Aqueous humour enrofloxacin and total protein concentrations were determined in 6 healthy, mature horses after i.v. administration of enrofloxacin. Paracentesis was performed on the left eye on Days 3 and 4, one hour following enrofloxacin administration, to determine enrofloxacin concentrations in healthy eyes and in eyes with mechanical disruption of the BAB. Paracentesis was also performed on the right eye 23 h after enrofloxacin administration. Blood samples were collected from the horses at identical times to determine enrofloxacin aqueous humour:plasma ratios. Results: Mean ± s.d. enrofloxacin concentration in the aqueous humour one hour post administration on Day 3 was 0.32 ± 0.10 mg/l (range 0.18-0.47); and aqueous humour enrofloxacin, total protein and aqueous humour:plasma enrofloxacin ratios were higher on Day 4 than Day 3. Conclusions and potential relevance: Following disruption of the BAB, enrofloxacin concentrations were above the reported MIC for Leptospira pomona. [source]

    Two German CINCA (NOMID) patients with different clinical severity and response to anti-inflammatory treatment

    Angela Rösen-Wolff
    Abstract: Chronic infantile neurologic, cutaneous, articular (CINCA) syndrome is characterized by fever, chronic meningitis, uveitis, sensorineural hearing loss, urticarial skin rash, and a deforming arthritis. In the CIAS1 gene of many but not all CINCA patients, disease-associated mutations have been found recently. We here describe two such patients from Germany. One of them, a 3-yr-old boy, has a 1709A,G, Y570C, mutation, which has previously been described to cause CINCA syndrome. His clinical course is very severe and no satisfying response has been achieved even with high doses of local and systemic steroids. The other patient has a somewhat milder clinical course and considerable improvement could be accomplished with moderate and low doses of steroids. In her CIAS1 gene we have found a 1043C,T, T348M, mutation, which has only been detected in Muckle,Wells syndrome before. Our results suggest that the severity of symptoms in CINCA patients may be influenced by the underlying mutation in the CIAS1 gene. Furthermore, our observations support the view that CINCA syndrome and Muckle,Wells syndrome are essentially the same disease with different degrees of severity. [source]

    The role of the ICOS/B7RP-1 T cell costimulatory pathway in murine experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis

    Yoshihiko Usui
    Abstract ICOS/B7RP-1 is a new member of the CD28/B7 family of costimulatory molecules and plays differential roles in autoimmune diseases. In this study, we examined the role of ICOS/B7RP-1 pathway in the pathogenesis of mouse experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU), an animal model of human autoimmune uveitis. ICOS expression was found on infiltrating CD4+ T cells in the region of the retina in EAU-induced mice. The anti-B7RP-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb)-treated or ICOS-deficient mice showed a substantial reduction of disease scores. Blockade of ICOS/B7RP-1 interaction during the effector phase ameliorated the disease, whereas its blockade during the induction phase exhibited no significant effect. Moreover, administration of anti-B7RP-1 mAb effectively ameliorated the disease induced by adoptive transfer of pathogenic T cells. The anti-B7RP-1 mAb treatment inhibited the expansion and/or effector function of pathogenic T cells, given that proliferative response and IFN-, production by lymph node cells were reduced upon restimulation with the antigen peptide in vitro. These results suggest that the ICOS/B7RP-1 interaction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of uveitis. We also indicated that ICOS-mediated costimulation plays differential roles in EAU and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, which is also a Th1 disease induced in the same manner as EAU. [source]

    Intraocular injection of tamoxifen-loaded nanoparticles: a new treatment of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis

    Yvonne de Kozak
    Abstract In this study, we tested the efficiency of an intravitreal injection of tamoxifen, a non-steroidal estrogen receptor modulator, in retinal soluble antigen (S-Ag)-induced experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU). To increase the bioavailability of tamoxifen, we incorporated tamoxifen into polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated nanoparticles (NP-PEG-TAM). The localization of the nanoparticles within the eye was investigated using fluorescent-labeled PEG-coated nanoparticles after injection into the vitreous cavity of rats with EAU. Some nanoparticles were distributed extracellularly throughout the ocular tissues, others were concentrated in resident ocular cells and in infiltrating macrophages. Whereas the injection of free tamoxifen did not alter the course of EAU, injection of NP-PEG-TAM performed 1,2,days before the expected onset of the disease in controls resulted in significant inhibition of EAU. NP-PEG-TAM injection significantly reduced EAU compared to injection of NP-PEG-TAM with 17,-estradiol (E2), suggesting that tamoxifen is acting as a partial antagonist to E2. Diminished infiltration by MHC class,II+ inflammatory cells and low expression of TNF-,, IL-1,, and RANTES mRNA were noted in eyes of NP-PEG-TAM-treated rats. Intravitreal injection of NP-PEG-TAM decreased S-Ag lymphocyte proliferation, IFN-, production by inguinal lymph node cells, and specific delayed-type hypersensitivity indicative of a reduced Th1-type response. It increased the anti-S-Ag IgG1 isotype indicating an antibody class switch to Th2 response. These data suggest that NP-PEG-TAM inhibition of EAU could result from a form of immune deviation. Tamoxifen-loaded nanoparticles may represent a new option for the treatment of experimental uveitis. [source]

    Lymphotoxin,, receptor-Ig fusion protein treatment blocks actively induced, but not adoptively transferred, uveitis in Lewis rats

    Hui Shao
    Abstract Previous studies have shown that treatment of rodents with a lymphotoxin (LT),, receptor-Ig fusion protein (LT,R-Ig), which binds to both LT and LIGHT, prevents the development of autoimmune diseases, but the mechanism involved is unclear. To explore the potential role of LT or LIGHT in the pathogenesis of autoimmune uveitis, uveitis was induced in Lewis rats either by immunization with an uveitogenic peptide, R16, derived from the interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein, or by adoptive transfer of R16-specific T,cells. Interestingly, LT,R-Ig treatment completely prevented actively induced uveitis, but not the adoptively transferred disease. We also show that LT,R-Ig-treated R16-injected rats had a significantly decreased T,cell response to R16 and that herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM)-Ig, a fusion protein that blocks LIGHT, also inhibited disease development. Our results suggest that LT or LIGHT plays a critical role in the induction, rather than the effector, phase of the disease. [source]

    Definite multiple sclerosis and uveitis: a two cases report

    S. Chebel
    Uveitis has infrequently been described as a manifestation of ocular inflammation in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Two patients with pre-existing definite MS and uveitis were described. The first patient had features of intermediate uveitis, and the second case had a features of retinal periphlebitis. However, each patient had neurologic signs consistent with MS and a negative laboratory tests for inflammatory and infectious diseases. The presence of neurological involvement with uveitis need a sequential diagnostic search. [source]

    Mucocutaneous manifestations in inflammatory bowel disease

    lhami Yüksel MD
    Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and features of the major cutaneous manifestations (erythema nodosum [EN] and pyoderma gangrenosum [PG]) and to determine the associations between cutaneous manifestations and other extraintestinal manifestations in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: The mucocutaneous manifestations of patients with IBD were studied between December 2002 and June 2007. All patients underwent a detailed whole body examination by a gastroenterologist and dermatologist. Results: In all, 352 patients were included in this study; 34 patients (9.3%) presented with at least 1 major cutaneous manifestation. The prevalence of EN (26 patients) and PG (8 patients) in IBD was 7.4% and 2.3%, respectively. EN was more common in Crohn's disease (16/118) than ulcerative colitis (10/234) (P = 0.002). EN was found to be related to disease activity of the bowel (P = 0.026). The prevalence of arthritis was significantly higher in the IBD patients with EN (11/26) than in IBD patients without EN (53/326) (P = 0.006). Arthritis was more common in IBD patients with PG (7/8) than in IBD patients without PG (57/344) (P = 0.00). IBD patients with PG were significantly more likely to have uveitis (1/8) compared with IBD patients without PG (5/344) (P = 0.017). Conclusions: We found the prevalence of 2 important cutaneous manifestations to be 9.3% in IBD in Turkish patients. EN was found to be more common in Crohn's disease and is associated with an active episode of bowel disease and peripheral arthritis. In addition, PG was connected with uveitis and peripheral arthritis. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2009) [source]

    Biologic therapy in the management of extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease

    Arthur Barrie MD
    Abstract The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), notably Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are systemic inflammatory diseases primarily involving the gastrointestinal tract. Twenty percent to 40% of patients with IBD develop extraintestinal inflammation and symptoms, known as extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs).1,7 The most common EIMs affect the joints, skin, eyes, and biliary tract. The EIMs associated with IBD bear a negative impact on patients with UC and CD. Thus, the successful treatment of EIMs is essential for improving the quality of life of IBD patients. For most EIMs, their resolution often parallels that of the active IBD in both timing and therapy required. However, some EIM such as axial arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, uveitis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis run a clinical course independent of IBD disease activity. The advent of biologic response modifiers, e.g., tumor necrosis factor-, (TNF) inhibitors, has improved the treatment of IBD and its associated EIMs. This article reviews the therapeutic experiences of the 2 most widely used anti-TNF neutralizing antibodies, infliximab and adalimumab, for immune-mediated EIM of IBD. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2007) [source]

    Clinical significance of granuloma in Crohn's disease

    Dr. Nizar N. Ramzan
    Abstract Crohn's disease (CD) is diagnosed from information obtained clinically, pathologically, and radiologically. One important pathologic finding is a granuloma, which is helpful when a positive diagnosis of CD will affect treatment. Whether the presence of a granuloma has any clinical implication is not clear. We conducted a retrospective study to determine whether a granuloma found on a biopsy sample is associated with disease severity, fistulizing or perianal disease, frequent relapses, and extraintestinal manifestations. Eighty-two patients were identified who had a biopsy or bowel resection for CD between 1990 and 1994 at a tertiary referral center; 21 (25.6%) had a granuloma. This group was compared with a group of 61 patients without a granuloma. Forty-five percent were male (n = 37), mean age at diagnosis was 42.6 years (median, 39.5 years), mean disease duration at presentation was 8.8 years (median, 4.8 years), and mean follow-up duration was 2 years (range, 1 day to 10.2 years). No significant differences were demonstrated between the two groups by the Fisher exact test with regard to fistulizing or perianal disease, oral aphthous ulcers, disease severity, axial or peripheral arthralgia, episcleritis, anterior uveitis, erythema nodosum, or pyoderma gangrenosum. [source]

    Sarcoidosis presenting with granulomatous uveitis induced by pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy for hepatitis C

    K. K. L. Yan
    Abstract Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease that is triggered by an autoimmune process, and is now a well recognized but uncommon complication of antiviral therapy for Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, likely related to its immunomodulatory effects. The clinical presentation of HCV related sarcoidosis is as varied as systemic sarcoidosis, but ocular presentation alone has not been reported previously. We present a 23 year-old female who developed visual disturbances due to ocular sarcoidosis during the course of antiviral therapy for chronic HCV infection. Our case presentation is then followed by a review of the literature on the topic. We aim to stress the importance of screening for eye problems in following HCV patients undergoing antiviral therapy, and raise clinicians' awareness of sarcoidosis as a possible cause for eye problems even in the absence of respiratory complaints. [source]

    Improving the organization of consultation departments in university hospitals

    Agnès Dechartres MD
    Abstract Rationale, Changes in the demography of doctors require changes in care practices. Objectives, The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with doctors' workload in the ophthalmology consultation department of a university hospital, with a view to developing methods to improve the organization of hospital outpatient clinics. Methods, A 10-day cross-sectional survey was carried out in an ophthalmology outpatient clinic (in- and outpatient consultations, including emergencies) specializing in the uveitis care. Demographic and management data for each patient were collected on a structured form. The doctor's workload was assessed, using a scale taking into account the duration of the consultation and the number of diagnostic tests performed, as a function of management complexity. Results, Of the 861 consultations studied, 39.7% were highly complex. The level of complexity of consultations was correlated with the type of referral (phi = 0.602), consultation duration (phi = 0.545), the number of consultations in the previous year (phi = 0.499), and the number of diagnostic tests performed (phi = 0.445). Consultations were longer and diagnostic tests were more frequently performed if patients had been referred by an ophthalmologist, consulted a faculty doctor or a fellow, or presented with uveitis. Consultations were also more complex for patients with at least four previous consultations in the past year. Conclusions, Type of referral, status of the attending doctor and number of consultations within the course of 1 year were associated with doctors' workload and could be taken into account to predict the duration of complexity of consultations when scheduling appointments. [source]

    Late-onset Behçet's disease does not correlate with indolent clinical course: report of seven Taiwanese patients

    J Tsai
    Abstract Background, Behçet's disease (BD) is a recurrent multisystem disease of uncertain aetiology. The young adults are most often affected, usually during the third decade. Late occurrence of the disease is considered uncommon and less frequently investigated. Objective, The aim of this study was to examine the clinical features of BD patients with disease onset at a later age and compare them with the usual age of onset group. Methods, Retrospective review of clinical charts of BD patients was conducted. Patients with age of onset at or after 40 years of age were identified. The clinical profiles and medications required to control the disease activity were documented. Comparisons of clinical features and the medications used were made between patients with disease onset before and after 40 years of age. Results, Seven late-onset BD patients were identified. Among them, five patients required the use of systemic immunosuppressant in addition to colchicine and corticosteroid for adequate disease control. There is no significant difference in clinical profiles between patients with disease onset before and after 40 years of age, but the incidence of uveitis, an indicator of unfavourable prognosis, was surprisingly high. More specifically, it was noted in four of seven patients identified. Conclusion, Our findings indicate that the clinical course of BD is not indolent in the patients with late-onset BD. More importantly, physicians should be aware that BD can occur in older patients, and close attention regarding their disease activities is warranted as their clinical courses may not be as benign as previously believed. [source]

    Disseminated aspergillosis in two dogs in Israel

    MYCOSES, Issue 2 2006
    Y. Bruchim
    Summary Aspergillus terreus, normally a soil or plant saprophyte, causes disseminated systemic infection, involving primarily the skeletal and the cardiopulmonary system in humans and dogs.1, 2 We describe two cases of German shepherd dogs that were referred to Koret School of Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital with a history of anorexia and weakness. Case 1 suffered from neurological deficits, paraparesis and lumbar pain whereas case 2 suffered from unilateral uveitis and exophthalmus. Both dogs were treated symptomatically, but deteriorated progressively despite therapy and were therefore euthanised. Necropsy revealed disseminated aspergillosis, and numerous organs had multiple, miliary, white-yellow foci. Microscopically, these were identified as granulomas, containing fungal hyphae. Affected tissue included brain, heart, kidneys, spleen, lymph nodes and bones (case 2). Aspergillus terreus was isolated from different organs and from urine culture. We suggest that disseminated aspergillosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in German shepherd dogs presenting with ocular disease, neurological deficits, spinal column pain, urinary system disorders, and radiographic evidence of skeletal and/or respiratory pathology. [source]

    Autopsy case of neuro-Behçet's disease with multifocal neutrophilic perivascular inflammation

    NEUROPATHOLOGY, Issue 6 2006
    Yoshifumi Arai
    We report here an autopsy case of neuro-Behçet's disease. The patient was a 28-year-old man, who developed a slight fever, right uveitis, and right sensory neural hearing loss at the age of 25. These symptoms relapsed repeatedly despite treatment. Eventually he was admitted to hospital because of progressing neurological deficits such as pyramidal symptoms, somatic sensorial and autonomic disorders, and bulbar palsy. The patient's condition deteriorated and he died of heart failure. Total clinical course was about three years. In postmortem examination, various-sized necrotic foci, often accompanied by gliosis and foamy macrophage infiltration, were scattered in the diencephalic region and brain stem. Meningitis was observed on the ventral side of the brain stem as well as inferior cerebral surface. Non-bacterial or non-fungal acute perivascular inflammatory foci were also present in the brain stem and cerebellar parenchyma. These histopathological findings suggest that a destructive multifocal neutrophilic inflammation might have caused the neurological deficits. Perivascular inflammation might be important to understanding the pathogenesis of neuro-Behçet's disease. [source]

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis profile in Turkish children

    Mustafa Yilmaz
    Abstract Background: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a heterogeneous group of disorders. Publications from different countries point to differences in the disease manifestation of JIA among different populations. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the clinical and laboratory features of JIA in Turkish children. Methods: A total of 196 JIA patients who fulfilled International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) diagnostic criteria were included in this retrospective study. The data collected were age, gender, age at disease onset and at diagnosis, and follow-up duration. Antinuclear antibody (ANA), rheumatoid factor (RF), and human leukocyte antigen B-27 were evaluated for each patient. Results: There were 102 boys and 94 girls with a mean duration of disease of 4.1 years. The mean age at the first visit was 8.8 years, and the mean age at onset of disease was 6.8 years (range, 8 months,15 years). Polyarticular JIA was the most frequent onset type (37.2%). Other subtypes included oligoarthritis (34.2%), systemic arthritis (15.3%), psoriatic arthritis (1%), enthesitis-related arthritis (9.7%), and other arthritis (2.2%). ANA was positive in 28 patients (14.2%). Chronic uveitis occurred in two patients with oligoarthritis; and two patients with enthesitis-related arthritis had acute uveitis. Three patients (1.4%) developed amyloidosis. Conclusion: Compared to reports from Western countries, remarkably different features of JIA were found in Turkish children, which included higher frequency of polyarticular JIA, higher prevalence among boys, lower rate of ANA positivity and uveitis. Further studies are required to understand how genetic and environmental differences affect JIA expression. [source]