Type Specimens (type + specimen)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences


Selected Abstracts


NOTES ON GENUS PROCONURA DODD (HYMENOPTERA: CHALCIDIDAE) FROM CHINA WITH DESCRIPTION OF ONE NEW SPECIES AND ONE NEW RECORD SPECIES,

INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 1 2001
LIU Chang-ming
Abstract This paper deals with the Chinese species of the genus Proconura Dodd. A new species P. eurygena Liu, sp. nov., a new record species P. caryobon(Hanna) and other two species P. asiatica Narendran and P. ishiii (Habu) are described. The holotype of P. eurygena is from Hainan Province. Its main features are: antennae and hind femora brown; vertex long; COL to POL as1:3; scapes reaching front ocellus, almost 3 times as long as pedicel; gaster with basal carinae short and distinctly converging backwards; first tergite of gaster smooth, without puncture. A key to known Chinese species of Proconura is given. Type specimen is deposited in Institute of Zoology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences. [source]


A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS DIRRHOPE (HYMENOPTERA: BRACONIDAE) FROM CHINA*

INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 3 2000
WU Zhi-shan
Abstract The subfamily Dirrhopinae van Achterberg and the genus Dirrhope Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), both are recorded for the first time from China. Dirrhope shaxvi is also reported new to science in this paper. Type specimens of this new species are kept in the Beneficial Insects Lab, Fujian Agricultural University, Fuzhou, China. [source]


The Evolution of Zinjanthropus boisei

EVOLUTIONARY ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 2 2007
Paul Constantino
Abstract Many people assume that OH 5, the type specimen of Paranthropus boisei, collected in 1959, was the first evidence of that taxon to be found, but OH 3, recovered in 1955, predated the discovery of OH 5 by four years. Thus, Paranthropus boisei recently celebrated the equivalent of its fiftieth birthday. This review marks that milestone by examining the way our understanding of this taxon has changed during its fifty, or so, year history. [source]


Section Neurocentrae Bunge from genus Cousinia Cass. (Asteraceae) in Iran

FEDDES REPERTORIUM, Issue 1-2 2009
S. B. Djavadi
This paper is based on experience from field studies, herbarium materials and images of type specimens belonging to sect. Neurocentrae Bunge from genus Cousinia Cass. Section Leucocaulon Tscherneva is considered as synonym of sect. Neurocentrae Bunge, according to the morphological characters of C. turcomanica C.Winkl. (the type specimen of sect. Leucocaulon) and close affinities that shows with the species of sect. Neurocentrae. Section Ramosissimae is described as a section new to science. Differences between sect. Neurocentrae and sect. Ramosissimae are discussed and a key to the species of the two sections are provided separately. Besides, C. deserti var. longispinosa is described as a new member for the sect. Neurocentrae Bunge. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) Die Sektion Neurocentrae Bunge der Gattung Cousinia Cass. (Asteraceae) in Iran Diese Arbeit basiert auf Erfahrungen aus Geländearbeit, Studien an Herbar-Material und Untersuchungen an Typus-Material der Sektion Neurocentrae Bunge der Gattung Cousinia Cass. Die Sektion Leucocaulon Tscherneva wird als Synonym zur Sekt. Neurocentrae betrachtet und zwar auf Grund der morphologischen Merkmale von C. turcomania C.Winkl. (Typus-Art der Sekt. Leucocaulon) und der engen Verwandtschaft dieser Art zur Sektion Neurocentrae. Die Sekt. Ramosissimae wird hier als neue Sektion beschrieben. Die Unterschiede zwischen der Sekt. Neurocentrae und der Sekt. Ramosissimae werden betrachtet und ein Schlüssel für beide Sektionen beigefügt. Außerdem wird Cousinia deserti var. longispinosa als neue Art in der Sektion Neurocentrae beschrieben. [source]


Rediscovery of Achillea boissieriHausskn. ex Boiss. later 140 years

FEDDES REPERTORIUM, Issue 7-8 2006
T. Arabac
This study includes taxonomical improvements of Achillea boissieriHausskn. ex Boiss. and distributions in Turkey which was known only from the type specimen and regarded as a synonym in relevant studies. After collected second times from the field, A. boissieri decided as a separate species. Furthermore, description, localities, distribution map and key of allied species are given. (© 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) Die Wiederentdeckung von Achillea boissieriHausskn. ex Boiss. nach 140 Jahren Diese Arbeit beschreibt die taxonomische Entwicklung und die Verbreitung von Achillea boissieriHausskn. ex Boiss. in der Türkei, das nur durch den Typus-Beleg bekannt ist und in den diesbezüglichen Untersuchungen synonym geführt wird. Nachdem es während Felduntersuchungen ein zweites Mal gefunden wurde, war festzustellen, dass A. boissieri als getrennte Art bestehen bleiben muss. Ferner werden Beschreibung, Fundorte, Verbreitungskarte und ein Unterscheidungs-Schlüssel zu verwandten Arten vorgelegt. [source]


Discovery of ten new specimens of large-billed reed warbler Acrocephalus orinus, and new insights into its distributional range

JOURNAL OF AVIAN BIOLOGY, Issue 6 2008
Lars Svensson
We here report the finding of ten new specimens of the poorly known large-billed reed warbler Acrocephalus orinus. Preliminary identifications were made on the basis of bill, tarsus and claw measurements, and their specific identity was then confirmed by comparison of partial sequences of the cytochrome b gene with a large data set containing nearly all other species in the genus Acrocephalus, including the type specimen of A. orinus. Five of the new specimens were collected in summer in Afghanistan and Kazakhstan, indicating that the species probably breeds in Central Asia, and the data and moult of the others suggest that the species migrates along the Himalayas to winter in N India and SE Asia. The population structure suggests a stable or shrinking population. [source]


BIODIVERSITY OF CORALLINE ALGAE IN THE NORTHEASTERN ATLANTIC INCLUDING CORALLINA CAESPITOSA SP.

JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
NOV. (CORALLINOIDEAE, RHODOPHYTA)
The Corallinoideae (Corallinaceae) is represented in the northeastern Atlantic by Corallina officinalis L.; Corallina elongata J. Ellis et Sol.; Haliptilon squamatum (L.) H. W. Johans., L. M. Irvine et A. M. Webster; and Jania rubens (L.) J. V. Lamour. The delimitation of these geniculate coralline red algae is based primarily on morphological characters. Molecular analysis based on cox1 and 18S rRNA gene phylogenies supported the division of the Corallinoideae into the tribes Janieae and Corallineae. Within the Janieae, a sequence difference of 46,48 bp (8.6%,8.9%) between specimens of H. squamatum and J. rubens in the cox1 phylogeny leads us to conclude that they are congeneric. J. rubens var. rubens and J. rubens var. corniculata (L.) Yendo clustered together in both phylogenies, suggesting that for those genes, there was no genetic basis for the morphological variation. Within the Corallineae, it appears that in some regions, the name C. elongata has been misapplied. C. officinalis samples formed two clusters that differed by 45,54 bp (8.4%,10.0%), indicating species-level divergence, and morphological differences were sufficient to define two species. One of these clusters was consistent with the morphology of the type specimen of C. officinalis (LINN 1293.9). The other species cluster is therefore described here as Corallina caespitosa sp. nov. This study has demonstrated that there is a clear need for a revision of the genus Corallina to determine the extent of "pseudocryptic" diversity in this group of red algae. [source]


Spectral properties of angrites

METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, Issue 8 2006
T. H. Burbine
Almost all angrites (e.g., D'Orbigny, Lewis Cliff [LEW] 86010, and Sahara 99555) are composed predominately of anorthite, Al-Ti diopside-hedenbergite, and Ca-rich olivine, except for the type specimen, Angra dos Reis, which is composed almost entirely of Al-Ti diopside-hedenbergite. D'Orbigny, LEW 86010, and Sahara 99555 also have spectral properties very different from Angra dos Reis. These newly measured angrites all have broad absorption features centered near 1 ,m with very weak to absent absorption bands at ,2 ,m, which is characteristic of some clinopyroxenes. The spectrum of Angra dos Reis has the characteristic 1 and 2 ,m features due to pyroxene. One asteroid, 3819 Robinson, has similar spectral properties to the newly measured angrites in the visible wavelength region, but does not appear to spectrally match these angrites in the near-infrared. [source]


Typification and status of Amphiroa cryptarthrodia Zanardini (Lithophylloideae, Corallinales, Rhodophyta)

PHYCOLOGICAL RESEARCH, Issue 4 2010
Edgar Francisco Rosas-Alquicira
SUMMARY The status of the name Amphiroa cryptarthrodia Zanardini has been uncertain, and there has been a lack of stability in this species nomenclature, in part related to its poor taxonomic foundation. The species has been considered conspecific with Amphiroa verrucosa Kützing nom. illeg. Another suggested taxonomic synonym has been Amphiroa rubra (Philippi) Woelkering. A type specimen for A. cryptarthrodia appears never to have been designated and there are no illustrations of Zanardini's original collections housed in the Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Venezia (MCVE). In the present paper, a neotype of A. cryptarthrodia is designated, based on the study of Zanardini's authentic collections. A detailed morphological and anatomical account of the type specimen is provided and the diagnostic characters of the species are listed. Nomenclatural and taxonomic data and brief considerations of the relationships between A. cryptarthrodia and conspecific species are also provided. It is concluded that A. verrucosa Kützing is a heterotypic synonym. The name A. rubra (Philippi) Woelkerling should remain, pertaining solely to its type pending new investigations. [source]


Brief communication: "Pathological" deformation in the skull of LB1, the type specimen of Homo floresiensis

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
Yousuke Kaifu
Abstract If the holotype of Homo floresiensis, LB1, suffered from a severe developmental pathology, this could undermine its status as the holotype of a new species. One of the proposed pathological indicators that still remains untested is asymmetric distortion in the skull of LB1 (Jacob et al.: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103 (2006) 13421,13426). Here, we present evidence that LB1 exhibits antemortem craniofacial deformities that are consistent with posterior deformational (positional) plagiocephaly. This is a relatively common condition in modern people with no serious associated health problems and does not represent a severe developmental abnormality in LB1. Am J Phys Anthropol 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Brief communication: Predatory bird damage to the Taung type-skull of Australopithecus africanus Dart 1925

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
Lee R. Berger
Abstract In this issue of the Journal, McGraw et al. ([2006] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 000:00,00) present new data on the taphonomic signature of bone assemblages accumulated by crowned hawk eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus), including characteristic talon damage to the inferior orbits of primates preyed upon by these birds. Reexamination of the Taung juvenile hominin specimen (the type specimen of Australopithecus africanus Dart 1925) reveals previously undescribed damage to the orbital floors that is nearly identical to that seen in the crania of monkeys preyed upon by crowned hawk eagles (as reported by McGraw et al., this issue). This new evidence, along with previously described aspects of the nonhominin bone assemblage from Taung and damage to the neurocranium of the hominin specimen itself, strongly supports the hypothesis that a bird of prey was an accumulating agent at Taung, and that the Taung child itself was the victim of a bird of prey. Am J Phys Anthropol 131:166,168, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


A Taxonomic Revision of Illiberis Walker (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae: Procridinae) in Korea

ENTOMOLOGICAL RESEARCH, Issue 4 2004
Sung-Soo KIM
ABSTRACT The Korean species of Illiberis Walker are revised. A total of 10 species are recognized, including four species new to Korea: I. rotundata Jordan, I. psychina (OberthÜr), I. consimilis Leech, and I. hyalina (Staudinger). The identities of I. cybele Leech and I. assimilis Jordan, the two ambiguously defined Korean species, are reconfirmed with the examination of type specimens and additional materials. Photos of the adults and type materials are provided, and male and female genitalia of each species are illustrated. Biology and distribution for each species are briefly discussed with the larval host records from Korea. [source]


Fracture and fatigue study of unidirectional glass/epoxy laminate under different mode of loading

FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 5 2010
M. KENANE
ABSTRACT Interlaminar fracture is the dominant failure mechanism in most advanced composite materials. The delaminating behaviour of materials is quantified in terms of the strain energy release rate,G. In this paper, the experimental measurements of the fatigue delaminating growth for some combinations of energy release rate mode ratio have been carried out on unidirectional glass/epoxy laminates. On this base the constants in the Paris equation have been determined for each GII/GT considered modal ratio. The fatigue threshold strain energy release rate ,,GTth, below which delaminating doesn't occur, were measured. Three type specimens were tested, namely: double cantilever beam (DCB), end-loaded split (ELS) and mixed-mode bending (MMB) under mode I, mode II and mixed-mode (I + II) loading, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to identify the fatigue delamination growth mechanisms and to define the differences between the various modes of fracture. [source]


Section Neurocentrae Bunge from genus Cousinia Cass. (Asteraceae) in Iran

FEDDES REPERTORIUM, Issue 1-2 2009
S. B. Djavadi
This paper is based on experience from field studies, herbarium materials and images of type specimens belonging to sect. Neurocentrae Bunge from genus Cousinia Cass. Section Leucocaulon Tscherneva is considered as synonym of sect. Neurocentrae Bunge, according to the morphological characters of C. turcomanica C.Winkl. (the type specimen of sect. Leucocaulon) and close affinities that shows with the species of sect. Neurocentrae. Section Ramosissimae is described as a section new to science. Differences between sect. Neurocentrae and sect. Ramosissimae are discussed and a key to the species of the two sections are provided separately. Besides, C. deserti var. longispinosa is described as a new member for the sect. Neurocentrae Bunge. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) Die Sektion Neurocentrae Bunge der Gattung Cousinia Cass. (Asteraceae) in Iran Diese Arbeit basiert auf Erfahrungen aus Geländearbeit, Studien an Herbar-Material und Untersuchungen an Typus-Material der Sektion Neurocentrae Bunge der Gattung Cousinia Cass. Die Sektion Leucocaulon Tscherneva wird als Synonym zur Sekt. Neurocentrae betrachtet und zwar auf Grund der morphologischen Merkmale von C. turcomania C.Winkl. (Typus-Art der Sekt. Leucocaulon) und der engen Verwandtschaft dieser Art zur Sektion Neurocentrae. Die Sekt. Ramosissimae wird hier als neue Sektion beschrieben. Die Unterschiede zwischen der Sekt. Neurocentrae und der Sekt. Ramosissimae werden betrachtet und ein Schlüssel für beide Sektionen beigefügt. Außerdem wird Cousinia deserti var. longispinosa als neue Art in der Sektion Neurocentrae beschrieben. [source]


The identity of Paeonia corsica Sieber ex Tausch (Paeoniaceae), with special reference to its relationship with P. mascula (L.) Mill.

FEDDES REPERTORIUM, Issue 1-2 2006
Hong De-Yuan
The taxonomy of the genus Paeonia in central Mediterranean islands has been controversial, with number of recognized taxa changing greatly from one species without infraspecific division to three species or five infraspecific taxa in one species, and with the number of synonyms as great as 30. In the present work, the taxonomic history is thoroughly reviewed and a taxonomic revision is made based on extensive field work, chromosome observation, population sampling, examination of a large amount of herbarium specimens, and subsequent statistic analysis. As a result of the studies P. corsica Sieber ex Tausch, an ignored specific name, is restored at specific rank, and the species is found distinct from all the three subspecies of P. mascula in this region in having mostly nine (vs , 10) leaflets/segments, shorter hairs (1.5 mm vs 3 mm long) on carpels, rather densely holosericeous (vs glabrous or very sparsely hirsute) on the lower surface of leaves. It is a diploid, confined to Corsica France), Sardinia (Italy), Ionian Islands and Akarnania Province of Greece, whereas P. mascula is a tetraploid, widely distributed from Spain to Turkey and Iraq, but not in Corsica, Sardinia and W Greece. In addition, type specimens of four taxa are designated, and 29 botanic names are listed as synonyms of P. corsica in this paper. (© 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) Die Identität von Paeonia corsica Sieber ex Tausch (Paeoniaceae), mit besonderem Bezug auf ihre Verwandtschaft mit P. mascula (L.) Mill. Die Taxonomie der Gattung Paeonia auf den zentralen Mittelmeerinseln ist stets kontrovers gewesen. Die Anzahl der Taxa wechselte zwischen einer Art ohne infraspezifische Differenzierung bis zu drei oder fünf infraspezifische Taxa innerhalb einer Art. Die Anzahl der Synonyme beträgt bis zu 30 Taxa. In vorliegender Arbeit wird die Geschichte der Taxonomie sorgfältig betrachtet und eine taxonomische Revision auf der Basis extensiver Feldstudien, Chromosomen-Bewertung, Sammlungen von Populationen, der Untersuchung zahlreicher Herbarproben und abschließender statistischer Analysen vorgenommen. Im Ergebnis dieser Untersuchungen wird Paeonia corsica Sieber ex Tausch, ein bislang unbeachteter Artname, erneut in den Rang einer Art erhoben. Diese in dieser Region gefundene Spezies wurde als verschieden von den drei Unterarten von Paeonia mascula befunden. Sie hat meist neun (, 10) Blättchen, kürzere Haare (1.5 mm vs 3 mm lang) auf dem Karpell dichtere holoserios (vs glabrous oder selten hirsut) auf der Blattunterseite. Paeoniacorsica ist diploid auf Korsika (Frankreich), Sardinien (Italien), den Ionischen Inseln und der Provinz Akarnania in Griechenland, während Paeonia mascula tetraploid ist und weit verbreitet von Spanien bis in die Türkei und den Irak, fehlt aber auf Korsika, Sardinien und in Westgriechenland. Außerdem werden Typspecimen für 4 Taxa festgelegt. Als Synonyme von P. corsica wurden 29 Namen aufgelistet. [source]


Description of a new cichlid fish species of the genus Benthochromis (Perciformes: Cichlidae) from Lake Tanganyika

JOURNAL OF FISH BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
T. Takahashi
Benthochromis horii, a new cichlid species is described based on 19 type specimens from the deep waters of Lake Tanganyika. It differs from its congeners by having smaller eyes and longer snout (eye length usually shorter than snout length v. equal to or longer than snout length in Benthochromis tricoti and Benthochromis melanoides), and more dorsal fin rays (total number of spines and soft rays in dorsal fin usually 30 or 31 v. usually 28 or 29 in B. tricoti and B. melanoides). Large males of the new species differ from those of congeneric species in terms of their body colour pattern and long pelvic fins. This species has been confused with B. tricoti and has been traded as an aquarium fish. [source]


Description of a new Lake Tanganyikan cichlid fish of the genus Cyprichromis(Perciformes: Cichlidae) with a note on sexual dimorphism

JOURNAL OF FISH BIOLOGY, Issue SB 2006
T. Takahashi
Cyprichromis coloratus, a new cichlid species, is described based on 41 type specimens from the Zambian coast of Lake Tanganyika. It differs from Cyprichromis microlepidotus by having fewer scales in the longitudinal line (41,44 v. 59,70 in C. microlepidotus) and upper lateral line (31,36 v. 47,59), from Cyprichromis leptosoma by more dorsal-fin spines (14,15 v. 11,13 in C. leptosoma) and longitudinal line scales (41,44 v. 38,40), from Cyprichromis pavo by fewer dorsal-fin spines and soft rays (29,31, usually 30, in total v. 30,32, usually 31, in C. pavo), and from Cyprichromis zonatus by shallower body depth [24·0,28·5 (26·4 ± 1·1)% of standard length v. 24·5,30·5 (28·4 ± 1·3)% in C. zonatus] and smaller eye [eye length 25·2,30·9 (27·2 ± 1·1)% of head length v. 27·9,33·3 (30·2 ± 1·2)%]. The new species is also separable from C. microlepidotus, C. pavo and C. zonatus by absence of distinct small spots on the body (v. pearl grey and yellowish small spots along scale rows on body at least in males of C. microlepidotus and C. pavo), its distinct dichromatism (particularly on the caudal fin) between males of the same population (v. dichromatism absent in C. zonatus) and absence of vertical bands (v. three or four distinct vertical bands beneath dorsal fin base in live males of C. zonatus). Cyprichromis coloratus n. sp. also exhibits sexual dimorphism, females having a larger head and males having longer pelvic fin, differences which are discussed in relation to reproductive behaviour. A key to the five species of Cyprichromis is included. A lectotype is designated for Cyprichromis leptosoma. [source]


SYSTEMATICS OF THE HILDENBRANDIALES (RHODOPHYTA): GENE SEQUENCE AND MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSES OF GLOBAL COLLECTIONS,

JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
Alison R. Sherwood
Fifty-seven collections of marine and freshwater Hildenbrandia from North America, South America, Europe, and Africa were compared with 21 type and historically important specimens using multivariate morphometrics. Additionally, phylogenetic analyses of 48 specimens of Hildenbrandia and two specimens of Apophlaea were carried out based on sequences of the rbcL chloroplast gene and the nuclear 18S rRNA gene. Morphometric analyses based on vegetative cell and filament dimensions distinguished two groups of freshwater Hildenbrandia specimens, the first corresponding to those collections from North America and the Philippines and the second to those from Europe and the Canary Islands. The first group had smaller mean cell and filament dimensions (cells 4.0 × 4.4 ,m, filaments 46.5 ,m) and corresponded to H. angolensis, whereas the second group had larger mean dimensions (cells 5.8 × 6.6 ,m, filaments 55.3 ,m) and represented H. rivularis. Marine specimens were morphometrically distinguishable into two groups based on tetrasporangial division pattern as well as other thallus characters. However, measurements and character determinations of some type specimens differed greatly from the original descriptions, and thus further work to determine the stability of these characters is required. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on the 18S rRNA gene and rbcL gene sequence data generally demonstrated separation of the marine and freshwater forms of Hildenbrandia, with some marine taxa forming monophyletic groups (e.g. H. lecannellieri and H. occidentalis) and others forming paraphyletic groups (e.g. H. rubra). The two specimens of Apophlaea formed a monophyletic group within the paraphyletic genus Hildenbrandia. [source]


Dichotrachelus kahleni sp. n., a new weevil species from the Carnian Alps, north-eastern Italy (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entiminae)

MITTEILUNGEN AUS DEM MUSEUM FUER NATURKUNDE IN BERLIN-DEUTSCHE ENTOMOLOGISCHE ZEITSCHRIFT, Issue 2 2007
Massimo Meregalli
Abstract A new species of Dichotrachelus is described from the Carnian Alps, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, north-eastern Italy (type locality: Moggio Udinese, Mount Sernio). The new species belongs to the D. luzei species group, previously known from Mt. Pasubio, Veneto, and Mt. Grintavec, Slovenia; its discovery in the Carnian Alps fills thus a broad gap in the distribution of this group. It is associated with Saxifraga caesia in limestone habitats; imagoes, apparently hatching in late summer, live in the small clumps of the host plants; some larvae were found among the roots. Additional specimens moderately distinct were found in the Julian Alps: taxonomic relationships between these and the type specimens of D. kahleni are discussed. (© 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Revision of the genus Chalcasthenes Arrow (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Oryctoderini) from the Solomon Islands

AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
Mary Liz Jameson
Abstract The genus Chalcasthenes Arrow (Dynastinae: Oryctoderini), a scarab beetle genus endemic to the Solomon Islands, is reviewed. Based on examination of type specimens, the genus Strehlia Frey (Rutelinae: Rutelini: Parastasiina) is a new junior synonym of Chalcasthenes. The historical classification of these genera (either in the subfamily Dynastinae or Rutelinae) and character-based criteria for assigning the taxa to the Dynastinae are provided. We discuss character states that support the monophyly of members of the genus Chalcasthenes, comment on the distribution and biogeography of species in the genus and provide a key to species. The genus includes four species: Chalcasthenes divinus Endrödi, Chalcasthenes pulcher Arrow, Chalcasthenes squamigerus Frey new combination and Chalcasthenes styracoceros Jameson and Ratcliffe n. sp. Species hypotheses are corroborated based on evidence from Pleistocene geological reconstructions of the Solomon Islands, geographic variation of bird species in the region and development in scarab beetles. [source]


Historical DNA from museum type specimens clarifies diversity of Asian leaf turtles (Cyclemys)

BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, Issue 1 2008
BRYAN L. STUART
Species boundaries in Asian leaf turtles of the genus Cyclemys are difficult to define on the basis of morphology, primarily because many populations exhibit considerable ontogenetic variation in shell and head coloration. Two recent molecular phylogenetic hypotheses of Cyclemys species relationships, based largely on market and pet-trade samples of uncertain provenance, were highly incongruent. We used historical DNA methods to sequence fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from eight type specimens of Cyclemys (including one collected by Alfred Russel Wallace), and phylogenetically placed these type sequences into the context of published cytochrome b variation. Our phylogenetic hypothesis supports the recognition of four named species (Cyclemys atripons, Cyclemys dentata, Cyclemys oldhamii, and C. pulchristriata), as well as a fifth species of unknown geographical provenance obtained from the Hong Kong pet trade. The type sequences show that previous molecular phylogenetic studies were hampered by misidentifications, supporting the notion that Cyclemys of unknown provenance are not reliably identified to species solely on the basis of morphology. © 2008 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2008, 94, 131,141. [source]


Fossil Hydrophilid Beetles (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) of the Late Oligocene Rott Formation (Germany)

ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 4 2010
Martin FIKÁ
Abstract: Fossil water scavenger beetles (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) of the latest Oligocene Rott Formation are revised, based on the examination of the type specimens, as well as numerous additional material from Statz (Los Angeles) and Kastenholz (Bonn) collections. Seven hydrophilid species are recognized, five of which are reliably attributed to the following genera: Berosus morticinus (von Heyden and von Heyden, 1866), Paracymus excitatus (von Heyden and von Heyden, 1866), Paracymus sp., Hydrobiomorpha fraterna (von Heyden, 1859), and Hydrophüus rottensis (Statz, 1939). Coccinella? protogaeae Germar 1837 is attributed to the subtribe Hydrophilina, and Cymbiodyta? austera Statz 1939 to the subfamily Hydrophilinae. Hydrous ebeninus Statz 1939 and Paracymus excitatus (form 3) are excluded from the Hydrophiloidea. Berosus capitatus Statz 1939 is synonymized with Berosus morticinus, and Hydrous neptunus von Heyden and von Heyden 1866 with Hydrobiomorpha fraterna. Lectotypes of Philydrus morticinus von Heyden and von Heyden 1866 and Hydrous ebeninus Statz 1939 are designated. The significance of the hydrophilid fossils for paleoecological reconstructions of the former Rott Lake is briefly discussed. [source]


Mesozoic Evaniidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) in Spanish Amber: Reanalysis of the Phylogeny of the Evanioidea

ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 4 2010
Enrique PEÑALVER
Abstract: One new genus and five new species of the family Evaniidae are described from the Early Cretaceous (Albian) Spanish amber of Peñacerrada-I (Province of Burgos), San Just and Arroyo de la Pascueta (both in the Province of Teruel): Cretevania alonsoi sp. nov., C. montoyai sp. nov., C. alcalai sp. no v., C. rubusensis sp. nov., and Iberoevania roblesi gen. and sp. nov. Taxonomic changes include Cretevania pristina (Zhang and Zhang, 2000) comb. nov., C. exquisita (Zhang, Rasnitsyn, Wang and Zhang, 2007) comb. nov., C. vesca (Zhang, Rasnitsyn, Wang and Zhang, 2007) comb. nov., and C. cyrtocerca (Deans, 2004) comb. nov., as a result of the reinterpretation of the genera Procretevania and Eovernevania. The new well preserved specimens of the genus Cretevania, together with the characters shown by the type specimens of the synonymized genera, give new information about their anatomical characters of taxonomical importance, and the genus Cretevania Rasnitsyn, 1975 is re-diagnosed. The holotypes of the Russian species in amber have been revised. A cladistic analysis of fossil and extant groups of the superfamily Evanioidea is included. Cretevania had a wide palaeogeographic distribution, with the highest diversity known from Spain. The 13 known Cretevania species show a high interspecific variation mainly in wing characteristics, and a wide range of body and wing size. [source]