Types Present (type + present)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Cicatricial alopecia: classification and histopathology

Najwa Somani
ABSTRACT: Primary cicatricial alopecias are a diagnostically challenging group of disorders characterized by folliculocentric inflammation resulting in destruction of hair follicles and irreversible hair loss. They are classified according to a consensus-issued classification scheme based on the predominant cell type present: lymphocytic, neutrophilic, or mixed. Histopathology is a pivotal component of the diagnostic evaluation. Early diagnosis is critical since timely institution of treatment can halt progression of permanent hair loss. Salient histopathologic findings are presented in this review, along with adjunctive clues derived from interpretation of special stains and direct immunofluorescence studies. Despite careful evaluation, accurate diagnosis may remain elusive in some instances. The primary cicatricial alopecias often share overlapping features. The highest diagnostic yield is procured when histology is correlated with the clinical presentation. [source]

An improved method for detecting red cells with hemoglobin H inclusions that does not require glass capillary tubes

D.E. Sabath
Summary, -Thalassemia trait is the most common inherited abnormality worldwide. Diagnosis of , -thalassemia trait can be difficult as there are no abnormalities detectable by hemoglobin electrophoresis or high-performance liquid chromatography. Detection of individuals with , -thalassemia trait, particularly the type present in many Asian populations, is important for genetic counseling purposes, because these individuals are at risk for having offspring with hemoglobin Bart's hydrops fetalis, a fatal condition. The best routine diagnostic method to detect individuals with , -thalassemia trait is staining reticulocyte-enriched red cell preparations with brilliant cresyl blue to detect hemoglobin H inclusions. Current methods use centrifugation of microhematocrit tubes to enrich for reticulocytes, which presents a laboratory safety hazard. In this report, we describe an alternative technique to enrich for reticulocytes that does not require glass capillary tubes, but is as effective as the capillary tube method for reticulocyte enrichment and detection of cells containing hemoglobin H inclusions. [source]

Nestin-Cre transgenic mouse line Nes-Cre1 mediates highly efficient Cre/loxP mediated recombination in the nervous system, kidney, and somite-derived tissues

Nicole C. Dubois
Abstract Here we describe the generation of the Nes-Cre1 transgenic mouse line in which Cre recombinase expression is controlled by the rat nestin promoter and intron 2 enhancer. This line has previously been used for conditional loss-of-function studies of various genes in the central nervous system and first branchial arch ectoderm. Here we report the detailed temporal and spatial recombination pattern of Nes-Cre1 using three different reporters of Cre-mediated recombination, ROSA26R (R26R), Z/AP, and Z/EG. Cre/loxP recombination was detected in embryos as early as the head-fold stage. By embryonic day (E)15.5 recombination occurred in virtually all cells of the nervous system and unexpectedly also in somite-derived tissues and kidneys. Tissues with little or no recombination included heart, liver, thymus, and lung. This study suggests that Nes-Cre1-mediated recombination occurs in progenitor cell types present in the neuroectoderm, the developing mesonephros, and the somites. genesis 44:355,360, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Origin and phylogeny of Guyniidae (Scleractinia) in the light of microstructural data

LETHAIA, Issue 1 2000
Jaros, aw Stolarski
The set of skeletal characters of the Recent azooxanthellate coral Guynia annulata Duncan, 1872 is unique among extant scleractinians and encompasses: (a) undifferentiated septal calcification centers (in most extant scleractinians calcification centers are clearly separated); (b) completely smooth septal faces (septa of almost all extant scleractinians bear granular ornamentation); (c) deeply recessed septa in respect to the epithecal rim in the adult coralla (in adults of the majority of extant scleractinians the relationships between septa and wall are the reverse); and (d) an aseptal part of the initial ontogenetic stage, just above the basal plate (almost all known scleractinians have a septate initial coralla). Skeletal features of five other extant traditional guyniids are typical of other caryophylliines (and of Scleractinia). However, the wall types present in different species of traditional guyniids exceed limits traditionally attributed to one caryophylliine family: i.e., Stenocyathus and Truncatoguynia have a marginothecal wall like the Flabellidae, whereas Schizocyathus and Temnotrochus usually have an entirely epithecal wall, as in Gardineriidae (Volzeioidea). Moreover, Pourtalocyathus and Schizocyathus show intraspecific variation in distribution of septal calcification centers (separated vs. non-separated) and in wall types (epithecal vs. consisting of large spherulite-like bodies). These major differences in skeletal architecture form the basis for a new, threefold taxonomical subdivision of the traditional guyniids: (1) Guyniidae Hickson, 1910, containing only monospecific Guynia with an epithecal wall, and septa with non-separated calcification centers; (2) Schizocyathidae fam.n., groups Microsmilia Schizocyathus, Pourtalocyathus, Temnotrochus, which have an epithecal wall and septa with usually well-separated calcification centers; and (3) Stenocyathidae fam.n. with Stenocyathus and Truncatoguynia which have a marginothecal wall and septa with well-separated calcification centers. Despite differences in the basic architecture of the skeleton, all taxa attributed to these families have ,thecal pores' formed by selective dissolution of the skeleton. I propose two hypotheses for evolutionary relationships among Guyniidae, Schizocyathidae, and Stenocyathidae: (1) Hypothesis A: the three families are not phylogenetically related and ,pores' originated independently in different scleractinian lineages: e.g., Guyniidae may represent distant zardinophyllid or gigantostyliid descendants, Schizocyathidae may be a volzeioid offshoot, whereas Stenocyathidae may be a flabellid descendant; (2) Hypothesis B: the three families are phylogenetically related and ,thecal pores' are synapomorphic for the clade (superfamily Guynioidea). Additional approaches, such as anatomical observations, molecular studies on guyniid DNA sequences, and in-depth studies on scleractinian biomineralization will be necessary to test these hypotheses. [source]

Cannabinoid signalling in the enteric nervous system

J. J. Galligan
Abstract, Cannabinoid signalling is an important mechanism of synaptic modulation in the nervous system. Endogenous cannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonyl-glycerol) are synthesized and released via calcium-activated biosynthetic pathways. Exogenous cannabinoids and endocannabinoids act on CB1 and CB2 receptors. CB1 receptors are neuronal receptors which couple via G-proteins to inhibition of adenylate cyclase or to activation or inhibition of ion channels. CB2 receptors are expressed by immune cells and cannabinoids can suppress immune function. In the central nervous system, the endocannabinoids may function as retrograde signals released by the postsynaptic neuron to inhibit neurotransmitter release from presynaptic nerve terminals. Enteric neurons also express CB receptors. Exogenously applied CB receptor agonists inhibit enteric neuronal activity but it is not clear if endocannabinoids released by enteric neurons can produce similar responses in the enteric nervous system (ENS). In this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Boesmans et al. show that CB1 receptor activation on myenteric neurons maintained in primary culture can suppress neuronal activity, inhibit synaptic transmission and mitochondrial transport along axons. They also provide initial evidence that myenteric neurons (or other cell types present in the cultures) release endocannabinoids and which activate CB1 receptors constitutively. These data provide new information about targets for cannabinoid signalling in the ENS and highlight the potential importance of CB receptors as drug targets. It is necessary that future work extends these interesting findings to intact tissues and ideally to the in vivo setting. [source]

Lectin Histochemical Aspects of Mucus Function in the Oesophagus of the Reticulated Python (Python reticulatus)

W. Meyer
Summary Using lectin histochemistry, the study characterizes basic functional aspects of the mucus produced by the oesophageal epithelium of the Reticulated python (Python reticulatus). Reaction staining varied as related to the two epithelium types present, containing goblet cells and ciliary cells. Remarkable intensities were achieved especially in the luminal mucus layer and the fine mucus covering the epithelial ciliary border for Con A (,-D-Man; ,-D-Glc) as part of neutral glycoproteins, Limax flavus agglutinin (NeuNac = NeuNgc), emphasizing that water binding hyaluronan provides a hydrated interface conductive to the passage of material and UEA-I (,-L-Fuc), corroborating the view that fucose-rich highly viscous mucus is helpful against mechanical stress during prey transport. [source]

A broad spectrum of human papillomavirus types is present in the skin of Australian patients with non-melanoma skin cancers and solar keratosis

O. Forslund
SummaryBackground Human papillomavirus (HPV) may play a role in the pathogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) patients, but in the general population no specific HPV types have been associated with these lesions. Objectives To examine the spectrum of HPV types present in the skin and tumours of Australian patients with NMSC or solar keratosis (SK). Methods Biopsies from tumours, and cotton swab samples of perilesional skin and buttock skin from each of 59 Australian patients with basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or SK were tested for HPV DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using HPV consensus (FAP) primers and by type-specific primers for HPV 38 and candidate HPV 92. The identification of HPV type from consensus PCR was performed by sequencing and comparison with GenBank. Results In total, 49 of 59 (83%) patients harboured HPV DNA, which was detected in 28 of 64 (44%) biopsies, 48 of 64 (75%; P < 0001) perilesional swabs and 36 of 59 (61%; P = 004) buttock swabs. Forty-five different HPV types/putative types were detected: 15 were previously characterized HPV types, 17 were earlier described putative types and 13 were new putative types. In addition, six subtypes and four variants of HPV sequences were identified. HPV types within the B1 group (EV HPV types) were found in 26 of 64 (40%) lesions, 44 of 64 (69%) perilesional swabs and 35 of 59 (59%) buttock swabs. HPV 38 was detected in 23 of 59 (39%) patients, and was found in seven of 16 (43%) SKs, but was less common in SCCs [three of 23 (13%); P = 0037] and BCCs [four of 25 (16%); P = 0056]. Candidate HPV 92 was found in seven of 59 (12%) patients. Conclusions A broad spectrum of HPV types, the majority from the B1 group, was found in skin of Australian patients with skin tumours. HPV 38 was found significantly more often in SK than in SCC. However, the role of cutaneous HPV infection in the pathogenesis of NMSC remains elusive. [source]