Types

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Types

  • acid type
  • acute type
  • additional type
  • adenovirus type
  • allograft type
  • alternative type
  • alzheimer type
  • alzheimer's type
  • amino acid type
  • aminobutyric acid type
  • amyloidosis-dutch type
  • ancestral type
  • animal type
  • another type
  • appropriate type
  • ataxia type
  • atom type
  • b-cell type
  • basic type
  • beverage type
  • blood type
  • body type
  • bottom type
  • breed type
  • building type
  • call type
  • cancer cell type
  • cancer type
  • canopy type
  • cell type
  • cellular type
  • cement type
  • certain cell type
  • certain type
  • channel type
  • character type
  • cheese type
  • chemical type
  • clear cell type
  • clinical type
  • clonal type
  • collagen type
  • common type
  • community type
  • compatibility type
  • complex type
  • composite type
  • cone type
  • consumer type
  • contract type
  • couple type
  • cover type
  • crime type
  • crop type
  • ctx-m type
  • culture type
  • cyclic transition state type
  • damage type
  • darker skin type
  • data type
  • dehydrogenase type
  • depressed type
  • device type
  • different cell type
  • different forest type
  • different habitat type
  • different histological type
  • different hpv type
  • different morphological type
  • different patch type
  • different soil type
  • different tissue type
  • different tumor type
  • different type
  • different vegetation type
  • differentiated cell type
  • differentiated type
  • diffuse type
  • disease type
  • distinct cell type
  • distinct habitat type
  • distinct type
  • distinctive type
  • disturbance type
  • diverse cell type
  • diverse type
  • dominant type
  • donor type
  • drug type
  • dyad type
  • ecosystem type
  • electrode type
  • element type
  • emm type
  • epilepsy type
  • error type
  • event type
  • extrinsic type
  • failure type
  • family type
  • fan type
  • farm type
  • fat type
  • fault type
  • feed type
  • feeding type
  • fiber type
  • fibre type
  • filler type
  • film type
  • firm type
  • first type
  • folding type
  • food type
  • forest type
  • fracture type
  • frequent type
  • fruit type
  • functional type
  • fundamental type
  • galaxy type
  • ganglion cell type
  • gc type
  • general type
  • genetic type
  • gland type
  • glial cell type
  • gradient type
  • graft type
  • grassland type
  • h type
  • habitat type
  • hair type
  • headache type
  • high-risk hpv type
  • high-risk type
  • histologic type
  • histological type
  • histology type
  • histopathologic type
  • histopathological type
  • history type
  • hla type
  • hook type
  • hospital type
  • host type
  • household type
  • hpv type
  • human cell type
  • human immunodeficiency virus type
  • human papillomavirus type
  • hybrid type
  • hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type
  • i type
  • ideal type
  • image type
  • immunodeficiency virus type
  • implant type
  • important type
  • individual type
  • infection type
  • inflammatory cell type
  • information type
  • initiator type
  • injury type
  • instrument type
  • insurance type
  • intermediate type
  • intestinal type
  • intrinsic type
  • its type
  • job type
  • knowledge type
  • lake type
  • land cover type
  • land type
  • land use type
  • land-cover type
  • land-use type
  • leaf type
  • least one type
  • lesion type
  • life history type
  • life-history type
  • ligand type
  • linkage type
  • litter type
  • loading type
  • low-risk type
  • lymphoid tissue type
  • main cell type
  • main type
  • main vegetation type
  • major cell type
  • major habitat type
  • major type
  • major vegetation type
  • mammalian cell type
  • management type
  • many cell type
  • many different type
  • many other type
  • many type
  • material type
  • mating type
  • matrix type
  • matter type
  • media type
  • medication type
  • medium type
  • membrane type
  • microhabitat type
  • mixed type
  • mlva type
  • model type
  • molecular type
  • monomer type
  • monotone type
  • morph type
  • morphological type
  • movement type
  • mtdna type
  • multiple cell type
  • multiple hpv type
  • multiple type
  • muscle fiber type
  • muscle fibre type
  • muscle type
  • mutant type
  • mutation type
  • myxoid type
  • nasal type
  • needle type
  • network type
  • neuron type
  • neuronal cell type
  • neuronal type
  • new structure type
  • new type
  • novel type
  • numerous cell type
  • numerous type
  • o type
  • of cell type
  • of type
  • oil type
  • oncogenic hpv type
  • one cell type
  • one type
  • only one type
  • only type
  • organ type
  • organic matter type
  • organization type
  • organizational type
  • other cell type
  • other hpv type
  • other tumor type
  • other type
  • ownership type
  • papillary type
  • papillomavirus type
  • parabolic type
  • parental type
  • particle type
  • particular cell type
  • particular type
  • patch type
  • pathological type
  • peat type
  • peripheral type
  • personality type
  • pfge type
  • phage type
  • phosphodiesterase type
  • plan type
  • plant functional type
  • plant type
  • plaque type
  • pollen type
  • polymer type
  • popular type
  • population type
  • possible type
  • practice type
  • predominant cell type
  • predominant type
  • prevalent type
  • prey type
  • principal type
  • problem type
  • product type
  • protein type
  • provider type
  • rare type
  • reaction type
  • reactor type
  • receptor type
  • regime type
  • relationship type
  • repeat type
  • response type
  • retinal cell type
  • rflp type
  • risk type
  • river type
  • rock type
  • salt type
  • same cell type
  • same type
  • sample type
  • sca type
  • second type
  • sediment type
  • seizure type
  • sequence type
  • service type
  • several cell type
  • several different type
  • several type
  • severe type
  • shoe type
  • similar type
  • single cell type
  • single type
  • site type
  • skin type
  • soil type
  • solid type
  • solvent type
  • song type
  • spa type
  • special type
  • specialized type
  • specific cell type
  • specific type
  • specimen type
  • spectral type
  • spinocerebellar ataxia type
  • state type
  • stem cell type
  • stimulus type
  • strain type
  • stream type
  • stroke type
  • structural type
  • structure type
  • study type
  • substrate type
  • substratum type
  • surface type
  • surfactant type
  • suture type
  • symptom type
  • syndrome type
  • synoptic type
  • th1 type
  • th2 type
  • third type
  • tissue type
  • tooth type
  • transition state type
  • transitional type
  • trap type
  • trauma type
  • treatment type
  • tree type
  • tube type
  • tumor type
  • tumour type
  • two type
  • undifferentiated type
  • unique type
  • unusual type
  • use type
  • usual type
  • variant type
  • variety of cell type
  • variety of type
  • various cell type
  • various type
  • vc type
  • vector type
  • vegetation cover type
  • vegetation type
  • vehicle type
  • very different type
  • vessel type
  • virus type
  • water type
  • wave type
  • welfare regime type
  • wetland type
  • wild type
  • wood type
  • wound type

  • Terms modified by Types

  • type 1 HR
  • type 1 autoimmune hepatitis
  • type 1 collagen
  • type 1 cytokine
  • type 1 diabetes
  • type 1 diabetes Mellitu
  • type 1 diabetes mellitu
  • type 1 diabetes mellitu patient
  • type 1 diabetes patient
  • type 1 diabetic
  • type 1 diabetic child
  • type 1 diabetic patient
  • type 1 diabetic subject
  • type 1 dm
  • type 1 error
  • type 1 gaucher disease
  • type 1 gene
  • type 1 inhibitor
  • type 1 patient
  • type 1 receptor
  • type 1 receptor antagonist
  • type 1 receptor blocker
  • type 1 von willebrand disease
  • type 1 vwd
  • type 2 HR
  • type 2 cell
  • type 2 cytokine
  • type 2 diabetes
  • type 2 diabetes Mellitu
  • type 2 diabetes management
  • type 2 diabetes mellitu
  • type 2 diabetes patient
  • type 2 diabetes treatment
  • type 2 diabetic
  • type 2 diabetic nephropathy
  • type 2 diabetic patient
  • type 2 diabetic rat
  • type 2 diabetic subject
  • type 2 dm
  • type 2 dm patient
  • type 2 patient
  • type 2 receptor
  • type 2 response
  • type 2b von willebrand disease
  • type a aortic dissection
  • type a behaviour
  • type analysis
  • type available
  • type b
  • type b2
  • type being
  • type c
  • type cell
  • type classification
  • type complex
  • type composition
  • type compound
  • type condition
  • type control
  • type conversion
  • type culture collection
  • type curve
  • type cytochrome
  • type d
  • type distribution
  • type enzyme
  • type equation
  • type expression
  • type functional
  • type glycan
  • type h
  • type hypersensitivity
  • type hypersensitivity reaction
  • type hypersensitivity response
  • type i
  • type i allergy
  • type i cell
  • type i collagen
  • type i collagen expression
  • type i collagen gel
  • type i collagen mrna
  • type i diabetes
  • type i diabetes mellitu
  • type i error
  • type i error control
  • type i error rate
  • type i fibre
  • type i ifn
  • type i ifn production
  • type i ifn response
  • type i interferon
  • type i interferons
  • type i patient
  • type i polyketide synthase
  • type i receptor
  • type i transmembrane protein
  • type ia
  • type ib
  • type ii
  • type ii cell
  • type ii collagen
  • type ii collagen expression
  • type ii collagen mrna
  • type ii diabetes
  • type ii diabetes mellitu
  • type ii diabetic
  • type ii diabetic patient
  • type ii epithelial cell
  • type ii error
  • type ii fibre
  • type ii functional response
  • type ii muscle fibre
  • type ii myosin
  • type ii patient
  • type ii receptor
  • type ii restriction endonuclease
  • type ii transmembrane protein
  • type iia
  • type iib
  • type iii
  • type iii collagen
  • type iii effector
  • type iii effector protein
  • type iii patient
  • type iii polyketide synthase
  • type iii secretion
  • type iii secretion machinery
  • type iii secretion system
  • type iiia
  • type inhibitor
  • type interaction
  • type iv
  • type iv bone
  • type iv collagen
  • type iv pili
  • type iv secretion
  • type iv secretion system
  • type ix collagen
  • type ligand
  • type locality
  • type locus
  • type m
  • type material
  • type member
  • type model
  • type monomer
  • type mouse
  • type n
  • type o
  • type only
  • type orbital
  • type other
  • type pattern
  • type phase
  • type plant
  • type plasminogen activator
  • type present
  • type problem
  • type protein
  • type reaction
  • type response
  • type sequence
  • type species
  • type specimen
  • type spectrum
  • type star
  • type strain
  • type structure
  • type system
  • type trait
  • type used
  • type v
  • type v collagen
  • type vii collagen
  • type vii collagen gene
  • type viii
  • type x
  • type x collagen

  • Selected Abstracts


    PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PEPSIN-SOLUBILIZED TYPE I COLLAGEN FROM THE SCALES OF SNAKEHEAD (OPHIOCEPHALUS ARGUS)

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 1 2009
    WENTAO LIU
    ABSTRACT Pepsin-solubilized collagen prepared from the scales of snakehead (Ophiocephalus argus) was separated into two fractions, major and minor, by NaCl precipitation. The results of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), amino acid composition, and secondary structure showed that the major collagen was typical type I collagen; in contrast, the minor collagen might be classified as type V collagen from the SDS-PAGE patterns and precipitation properties by NaCl. A sharp decrease in solubility of type I collagen was observed at the NaCl concentration of 40 g/L. The maximum and the minimum solubilities of collagen were observed at pH 3 and 8, respectively. Peptide maps of type I collagen digested by trypsin and V8 protease were different from those of calfskin and fish skin collagens. The imino acid content of type I collagen was lower than those of mammalian collagens and so did its denaturation temperature that was 30.3C obtained by viscosity measurement. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Collagen has been widely utilized as a material for foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. However, the use of collagen-derived products from land animals (e.g., bovine and pig) has been called into question because of foot-and-mouth disease crisis etc. Aquatic animal offals, which are readily available and inexpensive, seem to be safe sources for extraction of collagen. This work reports on preparation and characterization of collagen from snakehead scales, which will have potential in supplementing the skins and bones of land animals as an important collagen resource for use in functional food, biomedical, and cosmetic industries. [source]


    RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF CRYSTALLIZED HONEY PREPARED BY A NEW TYPE OF NUCLEI

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 4 2009
    YUE-WEN CHEN
    ABSTRACT Good spreadability is a highly desirable quality for crystallized honey used in product applications. In this study, we processed Taiwanese liquid litchi honey into crystallized honey by adding a new nuclei material, namely 0.1% (w/w) glucose powder, instead of the traditional 5,10% (w/w) natural nuclei. Rheological properties of the resulting product were determined during heating and cooling utilizing small amplitude oscillatory shear to assess spreadability. As the product was heated, it exhibited decreased consistency and improved fluidity (evidenced by decreasing storage modulus [G,] and loss modulus [G,] values) and three distinct regions within the G,curve ("softening,""crystalline plateau" and "melting"). As the product was cooled from 55 to 0C, moduli were lower than those obtained during heating, and the product did not exhibit the three G,curve regions across the temperature range. Therefore, we observed incomplete reversible crystallization and rheological properties during temperature migration. Flow properties of crystallized honey in the 0,25C temperature range could be successfully predicted using the Herschel,Bulkley model (R2 > 0.97). However, the product approached Newtonian flow behavior as temperatures neared the upper end of this range. Higher viscosity and lower yield stress were observed at temperatures below 15C. The crystallized honey developed for this study exhibited shear-thinning properties desirable in honey products intended to be spread. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Crystallized honey is traditionally prepared by introducing 5,10% natural nuclei into liquid honey. Our lab developed a new method that replaces the natural nuclei with glucose powder, which, at 0.1% (w/w), produces a good quality creamed honey that, in commercial production, offers the potential for significant production cost advantages. As crystallized honey is used in commercial/consumer applications as a spread, its dynamic rheology is of both academic and industrial interest. In this study, we discuss the physical properties of the crystallized honey developed using glucose powder to help better identify the factors and variables involved in honey spreadability and thus facilitate the development of better honey products with more desirable spreadability profiles. This study also provides a rheological properties and spreadability database for crystallized honey that reflects the range of temperature changes that can be expected to occur during normal product storage and use. [source]


    QUALITY OF MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGED "BARTLETT" PEARS AS INFLUENCED BY TIME AND TYPE OF STORAGE

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 5 2004
    S.R. DRAKE
    ABSTRACT Commercially mature "Bartlett" pears for this study were obtained from local commercial packing facilities. In the first year, pears were packed in modified atmosphere bags and placed in boxes or packed normally (control) with an individual paper wrap around each pear plus a polyethylene liner in the box. Boxed pears from both types of packaging were stored in regular atmosphere (RA) storage at 1C for 30 or 90 days. In the second year, pears were packed normally and stored in both RA or controlled atmosphere (CA) storage for 45 or 90 days, or packed in modified atmosphere bags and stored in RA at 1C. After 45 days, normally packed pears from both RA and CA were removed from their initial storage, placed in modified atmosphere bags and returned to RA storage for an additional 45 days. Pears stored in modified atmosphere bags were superior in quality to normally packed pears stored only in RA storage and equal in quality to pears stored in CA for periods of 90 days. The quality of pears held in modified atmosphere bags under CA conditions deteriorated after only short periods of time (<45 days). Pears in modified atmosphere bags should be stored only in RA. Little or no quality advantage was evident if use of modified atmosphere bags was delayed regardless of prior storage type. [source]


    VARIATIONS IN COMPOSITION, PETROLEUM POTENTIAL AND KINETICS OF ORDOVICIAN , MIOCENE TYPE I AND TYPE I-II SOURCE ROCKS (OIL SHALES): IMPLICATIONS FOR HYDROCARBON GENERATION CHARACTERISTICS

    JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    H. I. Petersen
    Lacustrine and marine oil shales with Type I and Type I-II kerogen constitute significant petroleum source rocks around the world. Contrary to common belief, such rocks show considerable compositional variability which influences their hydrocarbon generation characteristics. A global set of 23 Ordovician , Miocene freshwater and brackish water lacustrine and marine oil shales has been studied with regard to their organic composition, petroleum potential and generation kinetics. In addition their petroleum generation characteristics have been modelled. The oil shales can be classified as lacosite, torbanite, tasmanite and kukersite. They are thermally immature. Most of the shales contain >10 wt% TOC and the highest sulphur contents are recorded in the brackish water and marine oil shales. The kerogen is sapropelic and is principally composed of a complex of algal-derived organic matter in the form of: (i) telalginite (Botryococcus-, Prasinophyte- (Tasmanites?) or Gloeocapsomorpha-type); (ii) lamalginite (laminated, filamentous or network structure derived from Pediastrum- or Tetraedron-type algae, from dinoflagellate/acritarch cysts or from thin-walled Prasinophyte-type algae); (iii) fluorescing amorphous organic matter (AOM) and (iv) liptodetrinite. High atomic H/C ratios reflect the hydrogen-rich Type I and Type I-II kerogen, and Hydrogen Index values generally >300 mg HC/g TOC and reaching nearly 800 mg HC/g TOC emphasise the oil-prone nature of the oil shales. The kerogen type and source rock quality appear not to be related to age, depositional environment or oil shale type. Therefore, a unique, global activation energy (Ea) distribution and frequency factor (A) for these source rocks cannot be expected. The differences in kerogen composition result in considerable variations in Ea -distributions and A-factors. Generation modelling using custom kinetics and the known subsidence history of the Malay-Cho Thu Basin (Gulf of Thailand/South China Sea), combined with established and hypothetical temperature histories, show that the oil shales decompose at different rates during maturation. At a maximum temperature of ,120°C reached during burial, only limited kerogen conversion has taken place. However, oil shales characterised by broader Ea -distributions with low Ea -values (and a single approximated A-factor) show increased decomposition rates. Where more deeply buried (maximum temperature ,150°C), some of the brackish water and marine oil shales have realised the major part of their generation potential, whereas the freshwater oil shales and other brackish water oil shales are only ,30,40% converted. At still higher temperatures between ,165°C and 180°C all oil shales reach 90% conversion. Most hydrocarbons from these source rocks will be generated within narrow oil windows (,20,80% kerogen conversion). Although the brackish water and marine oil shales appear to decompose faster than the freshwater oil shales, this suggests that with increasing heatflow the influence of kerogen heterogeneity on modelling of hydrocarbon generation declines. It may thus be critical to understand the organic facies of Type I and Type I-II source rocks, particularly in basins with moderate heatflows and restricted burial depths. Measurement of custom kinetics is recommended, if possible, to increase the accuracy of any computed hydrocarbon generation models. [source]


    QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SHAPE VARIATION IN TYPE AND MODERN POPULATIONS OF MERIDION (BACILLARIOPHYCEAE)

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 1 2001
    Kristina M. Rhode
    Subtle differences in valve morphology can indicate sexually isolated populations in diatoms (Bacillariophyceae). Shape descriptors, like Legendre coefficients, have been used to quantify differences in valve outline so that morphologically distinct groups can be recognized. Legendre coefficients were used as shape descriptors to quantify differences in valve outline among five populations in the genus Meridion Ag. Two novel populations of Meridion from North America, a North American population of M. constrictum Ralfs, type material for M. circulare (Greve.) Ag., and type material of M. constrictum were included in this analysis. Results of a principle components analysis and discriminate analyses on the shape descriptors of all five populations support the hypotheses that the two novel North American populations are undescribed taxa within Meridion and that the North American M. constrictum can be considered Meridion constrictum sensu stricto. A new taxon, Meridion hohii Rhode, is described. There appears to be greater diversity within the genus Meridion than is currently recognized. [source]


    ORAL SIZE PERCEPTION OF PARTICLES: EFFECT OF SIZE, TYPE, VISCOSITY AND METHOD

    JOURNAL OF TEXTURE STUDIES, Issue 4 2005
    LINA ENGELEN
    ABSTRACT We investigated how different parameters affect oral size perception of small particles of SiO2 and polystyrene particles of varying sizes (2,230 ,m). Eighteen healthy subjects assessed the size of the particles by rubbing the sample between the tongue and the palate. The importance of size and type were studied by direct scaling and forced choice ranking and the results of the two methods were compared. To assess the relative importance of the tongue and the palate in oral size perception topical anesthesia was applied. The size and characteristics of particles are of importance for perception of particle size, where hard and irregular particles are perceived as larger than soft and round particles of similar size. The two methods of size perception, direct scaling and forced ranking produce very similar results on oral size perception. Topical anesthesia of either the tongue or the palate had no significant effect. [source]


    OUTSOURCING TYPES, RELATIVE WAGES, AND THE DEMAND FOR SKILLED WORKERS: NEW EVIDENCE FROM U.S. MANUFACTURING

    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 1 2009
    AEKAPOL CHONGVILAIVAN
    Existing studies on the impact of outsourcing on relative wages and the demand for skilled workers mainly focus on aggregate outsourcing, in which imported intermediate inputs are used as a proxy. We depart from the existing studies by focusing on various types of outsourcing based on the six-digit NAICS U.S. manufacturing data. We show that downstream materials and service outsourcing are skill biased, whereas upstream materials outsourcing is not. We also produce other supplementary results pertaining to the impact of technology, different capital inputs on relative wages, and the demand for skilled workers. (JEL C33, F14, F15) [source]


    INCIPIENT EVOLUTION OF WOLBACHIA COMPATIBILITY TYPES

    EVOLUTION, Issue 9 2004
    Sylvain Charlat
    Abstract . -Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is induced in arthropods by the maternally inherited bacterium Wolbachia. When infected males mate with uninfected females or with females bearing a different Wolbachia variant, paternal chromosomes behave abnormally and embryos die. This pattern can be interpreted as resulting from two bacterial effects: One (usually termed mod, for modification) would affect sperm and induce embryo death, unless Wolbachia is also present in the egg, which implies the existence of a second effect, usually termed resc, for rescue. The fact that CI can occur in crosses between males and females infected by different Wolbachia shows that mod and resc interact in a specific manner. In other words, different compatibility types, or mod/resc pairs seem to have diverged from one (or a few) common ancestor(s). We are interested in the process allowing the evolution of mod/resc pairs. Here this question is addressed experimentally after cytoplasmic injection into a single host species (Drosophila simulans) by investigating compatibility relationships between closely related Wolbachia variants naturally evolving in different dipteran hosts: D. simulans, Drosophila melanogaster, and Rhagoletis cerasi. Our results suggest that closely related bacteria can be totally or partially incompatible. The compatibility relationships observed can be explained using a formal description of the mod and resc functions, implying both qualitative and quantitative variations. [source]


    NOTES ON SOME FORSIUS, TYPES OF ASIAN SAWFLIES (HYMENOPTERA: TENTHREDINOIDEA) WITH DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES,

    INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 4 2000
    WEI Mei-cai
    Abstract, Some types of E. Asian sawfly species described by Forsius in 1931 are examined. One new species is described based on the paratypes of a species described by Forsius: Eutomostethus forsiusi sp. nov. Three new combinations are provided: Nesoselandria annamitica (Forsius 1931) comb. nov., Birmindia gracilis (Forsius 1931) comb. nov. and Eutomostethus sikkimensis (Forsius 1931), comb. nov., two synonyms are proposed: Birmindia gracilis (Forsius 1931) =Birmindia albipes Malaise 1947, syn. nov. and Indotaxonus tricoloricornis (Konow, 1898) =Conaspidia dubiosa Forsius 1931, syn. nov. [source]


    EFFECT OF PENTOSANASE ON DOUGH AND BREAD PROPERTIES PRODUCED BY DIFFERENT TYPES OF FLOURS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 2 2008
    ÖZKAN KOYUNCU
    ABSTRACT The effects of pentosanase at different doses (20, 60 and 100 ppm) on physical dough properties and bread quality were studied using three types of wheat flours. Flour A was a regular bread flour, flour B had a high hardness ratio and protein content, and flour C was prepared from the same blend of flour A but had a high extraction ratio. Regarding farinograph data, water absorption values of the high extraction (86%) flour C and high hardness (65%) blend flour B increased with introduction of pentosanase. Extensibility values of the flours increased moderately with pentosanase addition, while resistance and energy values decreased. The volume of breads made with flours C and B decreased upon addition of pentosanase. But loaf volume of breads prepared with regular bread flour A with 50% hardness and 76% extraction rate increased with high levels of pentosanase addition. In conclusion, flour A as a regular bread flour gave satisfactory results with pentosanase supplementations, whereas the harder-blend (65%) and higher-extraction-rate (85%) flours from the same cultivars did not. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Pentosanase addition was more effective on soluble pentosans than on insoluble ones. Because of these effects, it enhanced the bread-making properties of regular flour more effectively than those of the high-extraction and harder-blend flours of the same cultivars. [source]


    QUALITY OF ,ANJOU' PEARS AFTER DIFFERENT TYPES OF CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE STORAGE

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 1 2001
    S.R. DRAKE
    ABSTRACT ,Anjou' pears (Pyrus communis, L) were subjected to seven different controlled atmosphere (CA) storage practices and stored at 1C, for 90, 150 or 210 days plus 30 days at regular air atmosphere (RA). CA storage treatment conserved pear qualities to a certain extent regardless of storage treatment. Establishment of CA conditions (2% O2 and < 1 % CO2 on warm pears (20C), prior to cooling, resulted in reduced firmness, finish and color and increased amount of scald, shrivel and physiological disorders. Pears held in CA storage (2% O2 and < 1 % CO2) for 90 days and an additional 30 days in RA storage maintained good quality. When held for longer storage periods, firmness, finish and color decreased, and scald, shrivel and physiological disorders increased. [source]


    FIVE TYPES OF AFRICAN-AMERICAN MARRIAGES

    JOURNAL OF MARITAL AND FAMILY THERAPY, Issue 3 2001
    William D. Allen
    This study developed a marital typology based on a nonrandom, national sample of 415 African-American couples who took the Enriching Relationship Issues, Communication and Happiness (ENRICH) marital assessment inventory. Five types of African-American marriages were identified through cluster analysis using the positive couple agreement (PCA) scores in 10 relationship domains. Relationships between marital stisfaction, marital stability, and the five marital types were then analyzed. The five types (from highest marital satisfaction to lowest) were labeled as vitalized, harmonious, traditional, conflicted, and devitalized. The results were similar including the number and characteristics of marital types. [source]


    MAPPING AND CLASSIFYING FLOW UNITS IN THE UPPER PART OF THE MID-CRETACEOUS SARVAK FORMATION (WESTERN DEZFUL EMBAYMENT, SW IRAN) BASED ON A DETEMINATION OF RESERVOIR ROCK TYPES

    JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGY, Issue 4 2007
    B. Beiranvand
    The mid-Cretaceous Sarvak Formation, the second-most important reservoir unit in Iran, is composed mainly of grain-supported carbonates. For the purposes of this study, flow units in the upper part of the formation were identified, mapped and classified as part of an integrated reservoir characterization study at a giant oilfield in SW Iran. Pore types and geometries, pore-scale diagenetic history and core-scale depositional attributes were logged using conventional petrographic and lithological methods. The resulting data were combined with core descriptions, mercury-injection capillary pressure data, and wireline log and geophysical data to identify five reservoir rock types: (i) highly oil-stained, grain-supported carbonates, including patch reef and barrier complex deposits with high porosities and permeabilities; (ii) leeward and seaward shoal deposits including grain-supported packstones and skeletal wackestones with high porosities and permeabilities; (iii) dominantly mud-supported lagoonal and open-marine facies with fair porosity and permeability; (iv) grain-supported but highly cemented facies which had poor reservoir characteristics; and (v) calcareous shales and shaly limestones with no reservoir quality. Based on the reservoir rock types, eight flow units were recognised. Subsequently, four reservoir zones were defined based on these flow units at a field scale. This study has contributed to our understanding of flow units in this complex carbonate reservoir, and has improved our ability to characterize and model the architecture of the reservoir from pore to core to field scale. [source]


    EFFECT OF MILK PASTEURIZATION ON FLAVOR PROPERTIES OF SEVEN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE FRENCH CHEESE TYPES

    JOURNAL OF SENSORY STUDIES, Issue 4 2010
    DELORES H. CHAMBERS
    ABSTRACT Previous research on matched pairs of experimental cheese showed that heat treatment of milk affected flavor properties. However, whether pasteurization has a generalized effect or whether the effect is specific to certain cheese varieties is not known. Experienced, highly trained sensory panelists developed flavor profiles for seven commercially available French cheeses (Brie, Coulommier, Camembert, Saint Nectaire, Muenster, Chèvre and Bleu) for which versions made from pasteurized or unpasteurized milk were commercially available. Raw-milk cheese had stronger odor properties. Soft cheeses with white rind (Brie, Coulommier, Camembert and Saint Nectaire) as well as Chèvre and Bleu were affected similarly by heat treatment of milk, but the sensory characteristics of Muenster cheese did not follow the pattern of other cheeses. These results suggest that many, but not all, cheese types show similar changes in sensory attributes as a result of using pasteurized rather than raw milk. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This study gives manufacturers and researchers information on flavor differences that exist between similar cheese types made from raw or pasteurized milk. Researchers and manufacturers can use that information in order to develop pasteurized-milk cheese that has the traditional full-flavored characteristics of its raw-milk counterpart. [source]


    II. PERSONALITY TYPES OF 6-YEAR-OLDS AND THEIR ASSOCIATIONS WITH ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND BEHAVIOR

    MONOGRAPHS OF THE SOCIETY FOR RESEARCH IN CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 1 2003
    Article first published online: 11 JUN 200
    First page of article [source]


    META-ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE FIVE-FACTOR MODEL OF PERSONALITY AND HOLLAND'S OCCUPATIONAL TYPES

    PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
    MURRAY R. BARRICK
    The purpose of this study is to examine the nature and magnitude of the relationship between 2 widely accepted models for classifying individual differences,the 5-factor model of personality and Holland's RI-ASEC occupational types. Based on extensive meta-analyses, our results illustrate that there are meaningful relations between some FFM personality dimensions and some RIASEC types. The strongest relationships were obtained between the RIASEC types of enterprising and artistic with the FFM personality dimensions of Extraversion and Openness to Experience, p= .41 and .39, respectively. Three other RIASEC types had moderate correlations with at least 1 FFM personality trait. In contrast, the realistic type was not related to any FFM personality traits. Multiple regression analyses in which each RIASEC type is regressed on the FFM scores (based on meta-analytic estimates), revealed a multiple R of .11 for realistic, .26 for investigative, .42 for artistic, .31 for social, .47 for enterprising, and .27 for conventional types. The overall conclusion from the study is that although FFM personality traits and RIASEC types are related, they are not merely substitutes for each other. [source]


    TYPES OF PUBLIC CAPITAL AND THEIR PRODUCTIVITY IN JAPANESE PREFECTURES*

    THE JAPANESE ECONOMIC REVIEW, Issue 2 2008
    IZUMI MIYARA
    Several researchers have studied the productivity of public capital in Japan but most have not paid attention to the types of public infrastructure or differences in production technology between prefectures. We estimate prefectural production functions with differently aggregated public capital. Through the model selection process, we examine the types of productive public capital. The empirical results show the production technologies used and how types of productive public capital differ between prefectures. [source]


    Volume Overload and Cardiorenal Syndromes

    CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE, Issue 2010
    Claudio Ronco MD
    To include the vast array of interrelated derangements and to stress the bidirectional nature of the heart-kidney interactions, the classification of the cardiorenal syndrome today includes 5 subtypes whose terminology reflects their primary and secondary pathology, time frame, and the presence of concomitant cardiac and renal dysfunction. Cardiorenal syndromes (CRSs) are pathophysiologic disorders of the heart and kidneys whereby acute or chronic dysfunction of one organ may induce acute or chronic dysfunction of the other. Type 1 CRS reflects an abrupt worsening of cardiac function leading to acute kidney injury. Type 2 CRS describes chronic abnormalities in cardiac function causing progressive chronic kidney disease. Type 3 CRS consists in an abrupt worsening of renal function causing acute cardiac disorder. Type 4 CRS describes a state of chronic kidney disease contributing to decreased cardiac function, cardiac hypertrophy, and/or increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Type 5 CRS reflects a systemic condition (eg, sepsis) simultaneously causing both cardiac and renal dysfunction. Biomarkers can help characterize the subtypes of CRS as well as suggest the timing of treatment initiation and its likely effectiveness. The identification of patients and the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying each syndrome subtype, including fluid overload or, in general, altered conditions of fluid status, can help physicians understand clinical derangements, provide the rationale for management strategies, and allow the design of future clinical trials with more accurate selection and stratification of the population under investigation. Congest Heart Fail. 2010;16(4)(suppl 1):Si,Siv. ©2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    Potential Role of Type 5 Phosphodiesterase Inhibition in the Treatment of Congestive Heart Failure

    CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE, Issue 1 2003
    Stuart D. Katz MD
    Endothelial dysfunction is associated with impairment of aerobic capacity in patients with heart failure and may play a role in the progression of disease. Impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in patients with heart failure can be attributed to decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide and attenuated responses to nitric oxide in vascular smooth muscle. Impaired vasodilation in response to nitric oxide derived from vascular endothelium or organic nitrates in vascular smooth muscle may be related in part to increased degradation of the second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate by type 5 phosphodiesterase. Sildenafil, a specific type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitor currently approved for the treatment of erectile dysfunction, has been shown to acutely enhance endothelium-dependent vasodilation in patients with heart failure. Further studies are warranted to characterize the safety and efficacy of type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibition in the treatment of chronic heart failure. [source]


    Board Monitoring, Regulation, and Performance in the Banking Industry: Evidence from the Market for Corporate Control

    CORPORATE GOVERNANCE, Issue 5 2010
    Jens Hagendorff
    ABSTRACT Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Question/Issue: The specific monitoring effect of boards of directors versus industry regulation is unclear. In this paper, we examine how the interaction between bank-level monitoring and regulatory regimes influences the announcement period returns of acquiring banks in the US and twelve European economies. Research Findings/Insights: We study three board monitoring mechanisms , independence, CEO-chair duality, and diversity , and analyze their effectiveness in preventing underperforming merger strategies under bank regulators of varying strictness. Only under strict banking regulation regimes, do board independence and diversity improve acquisition performance. In less strict regulatory environments, corporate governance is virtually irrelevant in improving the performance outcomes of merger activities. Theoretical/Academic Implications: Our results indicate a complementary role between monitoring by boards and bank regulation. This study is the first to report evidence consistent with complementarity by investigating the effectiveness (rather than the prevalence) of governance arrangements across regulatory regimes. Practitioner/Policy Implications: Our work offers insights to policymakers charged with improving the quality of decision-making at financial institutions. Attempts to improve the ability of bank boards to critically assess managerial initiatives are most likely to be successful if internal governance is accompanied by strict industry regulation. [source]


    Antecedents of Shareholder Activism in Target Firms: Evidence from a Multi-Country Study

    CORPORATE GOVERNANCE, Issue 4 2010
    William Q. Judge
    ABSTRACT Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Question/Issue: This study seeks to better understand the antecedents of shareholder activism targeted at firms located in three common law countries (i.e., USA, UK, and Australia) and three civil law countries (Japan, Germany, and South Korea) during the 2003,07 time period. Research Findings/Insights: Our findings suggest that the antecedents of shareholder activism vary by the motivation of the activist. We demonstrate that activists target firms with two motives (a) to improve the financial performance, and (b) to improve the social performance of the firm. With respect to the target firm level antecedents, we find that firm size is unrelated to financial activism, but positively related to social activism; ownership concentration is negatively related to both financial and social activism; and prior profitability is negatively related to financial activism, but positively related to social activism. Further, these relationships in the case of financial activism are generally stronger in common law legal systems, whereas those in the case of social activism are generally stronger in environments with a greater level of income inequality. Theoretical/Academic Implications: Our findings suggest that future research should differentiate between the motivations of the activism event. Further, we find that while agency logic works well for financial activism, institutional theory provides stronger explanations for social activism. Overall, we demonstrate the complementary nature of these two theories in explaining shareholder activism. Practitioner/Policy Implications: We found that the "exposure" to shareholder activism varies by the motivation of the activist, and the nature of the firm and its national context. An understanding of these issues would help firms develop proper response strategies to activism events. [source]


    National Adoption of International Accounting Standards: An Institutional Perspective

    CORPORATE GOVERNANCE, Issue 3 2010
    William Judge
    ABSTRACT Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Question/Issue: Effective corporate governance requires accurate and reliable financial information. Historically, each nation has developed and pursued its own financial standards; however, as financial markets consolidate into a global market, there is a need for a common set of financial standards. As a result, there is a movement towards harmonization of international financial reporting standards (IFRS) throughout the global economy. While there has been considerable research on the effects of IFRS adoption, there has been relatively little systematic study as to the antecedents of IFRS adoption. Consequently, this study seeks to understand why some economies have quickly embraced IFRS standards while others partially adopt IFRS and still others continue to resist. Research Findings/Results: After controlling for market capitalization and GDP growth, we find that foreign aid, import penetration, and level of education achieved within a national economy are all predictive of the degree to which IFRS standards are adopted across 132 developing, transitional and developed economies. Theoretical/Academic Implications: We found that all three forms of isomorphic pressures (i.e., coercive, mimetic, and normative) are predictive of IFRS adoption. Consequently, institutional theory with its emphasis on legitimacy-seeking by social actors was relatively well supported by our data. This suggests that the IFRS adoption process is driven more by social legitimization pressures, than it is by economic logic. Practitioner/Policy Implications: For policy makers, our findings suggest that the institutional pressures within an economy are the key drivers of IFRS adoption. Consequently, policy makers should seek to influence institutional pressures that thwart and/or enhance adoption of IFRS. For executives of multinational firms, our findings provide insights that can help to explain and predict future IFRS adoption within economies where their foreign subsidiaries operate. This ability could be useful for creating competitive advantages for foreign subsidiaries where IFRS adoption was resisted, or avoiding competitive disadvantages for foreign subsidiaries unfamiliar with IFRS standards. [source]


    Corporate-Governance Ratings and Company Performance: A Cross-European Study

    CORPORATE GOVERNANCE, Issue 2 2010
    Annelies Renders
    ABSTRACT Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Question/Issue: Prior studies have failed to unequivocally establish a positive relationship between corporate-governance ratings and company performance, although theoretically, we would expect to find one. In this paper, we try to establish whether a positive relationship exists through modeling the relationship more carefully. Research Findings/Insights: After controlling for selection bias and endogeneity simultaneously, we find a significant positive relationship between corporate-governance ratings and performance. However, the strength of this relationship seems to depend on the quality of the institutional environment. Finally, we find that improvements in corporate-governance ratings over time result in decreasing marginal benefits in terms of performance. Theoretical/Academic Implications: Our paper contributes to the literature by showing that improved corporate-governance ratings lead to better performance, but that econometric problems might obscure this relationship. We also show that for a sample of developed countries the institutional environment affects the relationship between governance ratings and performance. Finally, this paper contributes to the literature on the impact, regarding compliance and effectiveness, of codes of good governance. Practitioner/Policy Implications: Our results are relevant for both companies and policy makers. They indicate that companies can improve performance by adhering to good corporate-governance practices. For policy makers, the findings suggest that soft laws and the invisible hand of the market lead to companies improving their corporate governance. [source]


    Optimal Board Monitoring in Family-owned Companies: Evidence from Asia

    CORPORATE GOVERNANCE, Issue 1 2010
    En-Te Chen
    ABSTRACT Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Question/Issue: We propose that high levels of monitoring are not always in the best interests of minority shareholders. In family-owned companies the optimal level of board monitoring required by minority shareholders is expected to be lower than that of other companies. This is because the relative benefits and costs of monitoring are different in family-owned companies. Research Findings/Insights: At moderate levels of board monitoring, we find concave relationships between board monitoring variables and firm performance for family-owned companies but not for other companies. The optimal level of board monitoring for our sample of Asian family-owned companies equates to board independence of 38 per cent, separation of the chairman and CEO positions, and establishment of audit and remuneration committees. Additional testing shows that the optimal level of board monitoring is sensitive to the magnitude of the agency conflict between the family group and minority shareholders and the presence of substitute monitoring. Theoretical/Academic Implications: This study shows that the effect of additional monitoring on agency costs and firm performance differs across firms with different ownership structures. Practitioner/Policy Implications: For policymakers, the results show that more monitoring is not always in the best interests of minority shareholders. Therefore, it may be inappropriate for regulators to advise all companies to follow the same set of corporate governance guidelines. However, our results also indicate that the board governance practices of family-owned companies are still well below the identified optimal levels. [source]


    Financing Constraints, Ownership Control, and Cross-Border M&As: Evidence from Nine East Asian Economies

    CORPORATE GOVERNANCE, Issue 6 2009
    Yenn-Ru Chen
    ABSTRACT Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Question/Issue: This study distinguishes between the effects of financial constraint determinants on cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As) and domestic M&As for all takeover bids announced in nine East Asian economies from 1998 to 2005. Research Findings/Insights: The results of logistic regressions verify that the extent of stock market and governance developments improves corporate financing conditions and subsequently encourages cross-border M&As in East Asia. The results also indicate that, except for ownership control variables, the firm-specific factors of financing constraints reduce the occurrence of cross-border M&As relative to domestic M&As. Although family- and state-controlled firms have better access to external financing, they are reluctant to risk diluting their management control and thus prefer domestic M&As to cross-border deals. Theoretical/Academic Implications: This study enhances the empirical studies of the relation between financing constraints and corporate investments based on the market imperfection hypothesis of corporate finance theories. In addition, this study also addresses the interaction between the market imperfection hypothesis and agency theory in explaining the effects of special ownership control on cross-border M&As relative to domestic deals. Furthermore, by examining the research questions across nine East Asian economies, this study provides an understanding of how such a relation applies to firms in countries where information asymmetry is high. Practitioner/Policy Implications: The findings indicate the importance of corporate governance and verify the effects of unique organizational structures on major corporate decisions. Specifically, family-controlled firms are often free of the financing constraints inherent in investment decisions. Thus, it is necessary to consider such organizational uniqueness when explaining the financing behavior of cross-border M&As conducted by Asian firms. [source]


    Capital Investment and Earnings: International Evidence

    CORPORATE GOVERNANCE, Issue 5 2009
    Ahmet Can Inci
    ABSTRACT Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Question/Issue: We examine the nature of the dynamic linkage (causality) between earnings and capital investment using firm-level data from around the world to see whether the legal environment, including corporate governance and monitoring mechanisms, and financial development are important in the profitability of capital investment. Research Findings/Insights: Using firms in 40 countries over the period 1988,2004, we find that the causality from earnings to capital investment is positive and strong in almost all countries, irrespective of the type of legal system and the degree of financial development. However, the causality from capital investment to earnings is generally negative for firms in civil law and financially undeveloped countries, while the causality is generally positive in common law and financially developed countries. Therefore, our international cross-country study enables us to find that the legal system and financial development are factors in the determination of the profitability of capital investment. Theoretical/Academic Implications: Our findings imply that internal financing is a significant constraint for capital investment, which provides support for the pecking order theory even for financially developed markets and for the free cash flow theory. Common law and financially developed countries tend to provide better shareholder protection with more efficient corporate governance and better investment decisions. Practitioner/Policy Implications: To encourage managers to make capital investments in value-increasing projects, it is important to further improve a legal environment that includes corporate governance, monitoring, and incentive mechanisms. Financial development that includes effective financial regulatory agencies should be sought. [source]


    Business Group Affiliation, Firm Governance, and Firm Performance: Evidence from China and India

    CORPORATE GOVERNANCE, Issue 4 2009
    Deeksha A. Singh
    ABSTRACT Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Question/Issue: This study seeks to understand how business group affiliation, within firm governance and external governance environment affect firm performance in emerging economies. We examine two aspects of within firm governance , ownership concentration and board independence. Research Findings/Insights: Using archival data on the top 500 Indian and Chinese firms from multiple data sources for 2007, we found that group affiliated firms performed worse than unaffiliated firms, and the negative relationship was stronger in the case of Indian firms than for Chinese firms. We also found that ownership concentration had a positive effect on firm performance, while board independence had a negative effect on firm performance. Further, we found that group affiliation , firm performance relationship in a given country context was moderated by ownership concentration. Theoretical/Academic Implications: This study utilizes an integration of agency theory with an institutional perspective, providing a more comprehensive framework to analyze the CG problems, particularly in the emerging economy firms. Empirically, our findings support, as well as contradict, some of the conventional wisdom, and suggest useful avenues for future research. Practitioner/Policy Implications: This study shows that reforms in general and CG reforms in particular are effective in emerging economies, which is an encouraging sign for policy makers. However, our research also suggests that it may be time for India and China to stop the encouragement for the empire building through group formation in the corporate world. For practioners, our findings suggest that firms need to balance the need for oversight with the need for advice, while selecting independent directors. [source]


    Taking Stock of Corporate Governance Research While Looking to the Future

    CORPORATE GOVERNANCE, Issue 3 2009
    Igor Filatotchev
    ABSTRACT Manuscript Type: Editorial Research Question/Issue: This essay identifies some key issues for the analysis of corporate governance based on the articles within this special review issue coupled with our own perspectives. Our aim in this issue is to distil some research streams in the field and identify opportunities for future research. Research Findings/Results: We summarize the eight papers included in this special issue and briefly highlight their main contributions to the literature which collectively deal with the role and impact of corporate boards, codes of corporate governance, and the globalization of corporate governance systems. In addition to the new insights offered by these reviews, we attempt to offer our own ideas on where future research needs to be targeted. Theoretical Implications: We highlight a number of research themes where future governance research may prove fruitful. This includes taking a more holistic approach to corporate governance issues and developing an inter-disciplinary perspective by building on agency theory while considering the rich new insights offered by complementary theories, such as behavioral theory, institutional theory and the resource-based views of the firm. In particular, future corporate governance research needs to be conducted in multiple countries, particularly in emerging economies, if we want to move closer to the journal's aim of producing a global theory of corporate governance. Practical Implications: Our analysis suggests that analytic and regulatory approaches to corporate governance issues should move from a "one-size-fits-all" template to taking into account organizational, institutional and national contexts. [source]


    Maturation of Corporate Governance Research, 1993,2007: An Assessment

    CORPORATE GOVERNANCE, Issue 3 2009
    Boris Durisin
    ABSTRACT Manuscript Type: Review Research Question/Issue: This study seeks to investigate whether governance research in fact is a discipline or whether it is rather the subject of multi-disciplinary research. We map the intellectual structure of corporate governance research and its evolution from 1993,2007. Research Findings/Results: Based on the analysis of more than 1,000 publications and 48,000 citations in Corporate Goverance: An International Review (CGIR) and other academic journals, our study identifies the most influential works, the dominant subfields, and their evolution. Our study assesses the maturation of corporate governance research as a discipline; it finds increasing sophistication, depth and rigor, and consistency in its intellectual structure. Theoretical Implications: There is a large body of accumulated corporate governance research in the US, yet there is an empirical gap on cross-national studies in the literature. Furthermore, hardly any of the top cited works undertake their study in a cross-national setting. Thus, corporate governance research and CGIR in its quest to contribute to a global theory of corporate governance might benefit if articles have a cross-national methodological approach and empirical grounding in their research design and if articles explicitly aim at stating the theoretical underpinnings they draw on. Practical Implications: Globalists find in CGIR an outlet addressing economics and finance (e.g., whether and how compensation or dismissal of CEOs is related to board characteristics), management (e.g., whether and how best practice codes adoption is related to board characteristics and performance), and accounting (e.g., whether and how earnings manipulations is related to board characteristics) issues globally. [source]


    The Effect of National Governance Codes on Firm Disclosure Practices: Evidence from Analyst Earnings Forecasts

    CORPORATE GOVERNANCE, Issue 6 2008
    John Nowland
    ABSTRACT Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Question: This study examines whether voluntary national governance codes have a significant effect on company disclosure practices. Two direct effects of the codes are expected: 1) an overall improvement in company disclosure practices, which is greater when the codes have a greater emphasis on disclosure; and 2) a leveling out of disclosure practices across companies (i.e., larger improvements in companies that were previously poorer disclosers) due to the codes new comply-or-explain requirements. The codes are also expected to have an indirect effect on disclosure practices through their effect on company governance practices. Research Findings/Results: The results show that the introduction of the codes in eight East Asian countries has been associated with lower analyst forecast error and a leveling out of disclosure practices across companies. The codes are also found to have an indirect effect on company disclosure practices through their effect on board independence. Practical Implications: This study shows that a regulatory approach to improving disclosure practices is not always necessary. Voluntary national governance codes are found to have both a significant direct effect and a significant indirect effect on company disclosure practices. In addition, the results indicate that analysts in Asia do react to changes in disclosure practices, so there is an incentive for small companies and family-owned companies to further improve their disclosure practices. [source]