Twentieth Century (twentieth + century)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Twentieth Century

  • early twentieth century
  • late twentieth century

  • Selected Abstracts


    Peter K. Stein
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    NEW BLACKFRIARS, Issue 1026 2009
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Controlling and Motivating the Workforce: Evidence from the Banking Industry in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries

    Andrew J. SeltzerArticle first published online: 18 DEC 200
    Large banks have a considerable advantage over their smaller rivals because they are better able to diversify their portfolios. However, to achieve this advantage they must overcome agency problems associated with delegating decision making to non-owner employees. This paper uses evidence from the Union Bank of Australia to examine mechanisms used to monitor and motivate workers. Monitoring took the form of rigorous screening, beginning with the hiring process and continuing with frequent performance evaluations. Workers were also given strict rules of behaviour and incentives to supply effort in the form of seniority-based wages, performance-based promotions, and a generous pension plan. [source]

    Beneficent Imperialists: American Women Missionaries in China at the Turn of the Twentieth Century

    DIPLOMATIC HISTORY, Issue 3 2003
    Carol C. Chin
    First page of article [source]

    The Identity of European Law: Mapping Out the European Legal Space

    EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL, Issue 2 2000
    Christopher Harding
    The main purpose of this discussion is to supply some content to the concept of the ,European legal space' at the turn of the twentieth century. The term ,legal space' is used in preference to ,legal system' or ,systems' in order to convey a sense of the complex, non-hierarchical, overlapping, interlocking and evolutionary character of contemporary European legal phenomena. A number of evident legal orders may be identified within the overall European space: those of the EC, the EU, the EEA, the Council of Europe and the OSCE, although to refer to some of these as ,orders' may be misleading, by implying too much in terms of a centrally determined structure. It is also possible to point to less evident legal ordering, such as the process of norm exportation contained in the Europe Agreements concluded between the EU and individual non-Member States, or the kind of order resulting from transatlantic co-operation in fields such as criminal justice (which also challenges the description of ,European'). In juristic terms, the argument here confronts the primacy traditionally accorded to the sovereign state in the field of law-making, and draws upon two non-juridical models of analysis: that of multi-level governance, as used by political scientists to indicate a shift away from the exclusive authority and legitimacy claimed by sovereign states; and the biological model of catalytic closure, used to indicate evolution through a process of spontaneous reactions within a body. Both models may be usefully employed to probe the dynamics of European legal ordering at the close of the Twentieth Century. [source]

    Triggers for Late Twentieth Century Reform of Australian Coastal Management

    B. G. Thom
    This paper identifies four triggers that underpinned the late 20th century reform of coastal management in Australia. These have operated across federal, state and local levels of government. The triggers are global environmental change, sustainable development, integrated resource management, and community awareness of management issues and participation in decision making. This reform has been driven by international and national forces. A number of inquiries into coastal management in Australia culminated in the production of a national coastal policy in 1995. This has led to fundamental changes in coastal management and to the recognition of the inevitability of changes in coastal systems. Federal policies and programs are being translated into action at the state and local government levels through a variety of funding mechanisms and programs. These involve capacity building, a memorandum of understanding between all levels of government, an enhanced role for state advisory or co-ordinating bodies, and an increased role for public participation. [source]

    Singing the Nation into Being: Teaching Identity and Culture at the Turn of the Twentieth Century

    Lynn M. Sargeant
    First page of article [source]

    Negotiating Assimilation: Chicago Catholic High Schools' Pursuit of Accreditation in the Early Twentieth Century

    Ann Marie Ryan

    Gender and Ethnic Differences in Marital Assimilation in the Early Twentieth Century,

    Sharon Sassler
    Historical research on intermarriage has overlooked how distinctive patterns of ethnic settlement shape partner choice and assumed that the mate selection process operated the same way for men and women. This study utilizes a sample of youn married adults drawn from the 1910 Census IPUMS to examine 1) whether ethnic variation in partner choice was shaped by differences in group concentration and distribution and 2) if factors shaping outmarriage were gendered. About one fifth of young married Americans had spouses of a different ethnic background in 1910, though there was considerable ethnic variation in outmarriage propensities. Barriers to intermarriage fell at different rates, depending upon ethnic grou, sex, and region of settlement; they were weakest for first-and seconl eneration English men. Structural factors such as group size operatef differently for men and women; while larger group representation increased men's odds of outmarriage to both native stock and other white ethnic wives, women from the ethnic groups with the largest presence were significantly more likely to wed fellow ethnics than the native stock. Ultimately, even if they resided in the same location, the marriage market operated in different ways for ethnic women and men in search of mates. [source]

    The South Indian Pentecostal Movement in the Twentieth Century by Michel Bergunder

    Murdoch MacKenzie
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    "Ev'rybody's Crazy 'Bout the Doggone Blues": Creating the Country Blues in the Early Twentieth Century

    David Monod

    Good Vibrations: Ambience and Alienation in the Twentieth Century

    Stephen Nunns

    Invented Edens: Techno-Cities of the Twentieth Century by Robert H. Kargon and Arthur P. Molella

    Jennifer Hurley
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Electoral Systems in Latin America: Explaining the Adoption of Proportional Representation Systems During the Twentieth Century

    Laura Wills-Otero
    ABSTRACT This article explains the twentieth-century Latin American shift from majoritarian to proportional representation (PR) electoral systems. It argues that PR was introduced when the electoral arena changed significantly and threatened the power of the dominant party. The adoption of PR was therefore an effort by the established party to retain partial power in the face of absolute defeat. Majoritarian systems remained in place when the incumbent party was strong enough to believe that it could gain a plurality of the votes despite electoral changes. An empirical analysis of 20 countries over 104 years (1900,2004) provides support for this argument. [source]

    Literature, Social Science, and the Development of American Migration Narratives in the Twentieth Century

    Erin Royston Battat
    This article traces the complementary relationship between social science and American migration narratives in the twentieth century, with particular attention to texts produced in the Depression era, and to more recent scholarship on the literature of African-American migration. While social scientists borrowed the tools of literary artists to understand migration in the 1920s, writers in the Depression era employed sociological and anthropological methods to bring the plight of the southern migrant into the public consciousness. Narratives of southern white, Mexican-American, and African-American migration proliferated within a social scientific paradigm that depicted the migrant as a marginal figure, and the emergence of the concept of ,ethnicity' shaped the representation of internal migrants. Social science continues to influence literary criticism, as critics employ sociological and anthropological concepts to understand migration narratives. [source]

    Having Concepts: a Brief Refutation of the Twentieth Century

    MIND & LANGUAGE, Issue 1 2004
    Jerry Fodor
    The present paper offers three arguments why no such account could be viable. An alternative ,Cartesian' view is outlined, according to which having C is being able to think about Cs ,as such'. Some consequences of the proposed paradigm shift are briefly considered. [source]

    The Struggle for a Place in the Sun: Rationalizing Foreign Language Study in the Twentieth Century

    James P. Lantolf
    Over the course of the past century, the MLJ was one of the sites where the vigorous, and often times passionate justification for, and defense of, foreign language (FL) study in the educational curriculum of the United States unfolded. Almost 10% of the slightly more than 4,000 articles published in the MLJ during the past century focused on the value and relevance of FL study in the educational enterprise. This article will focus on five major themes that surfaced throughout the 8 decades covered by our survey. The first theme comprises the general arguments offered by the profession in support of the value of FL study, most of which were impacted directly or indirectly by world events. The second and third themes document periods of general doubt and optimism about the place of FLs in the curriculum. In the fourth major theme, we describe the passionate and intense argumentation between the faculties of education and the defenders of FL study. The fifth, and final theme, addresses the question of which FLs should be taught in the schools and what contribution each might make to a student's education. As we enter the 21st century, it seems clear that the profession still feels compelled to justify the educational merit of its subject matter. In the end, given the twists and turns that history can take, it is difficult to predict whether FL study will eventually find an uncontested place in the sun. [source]

    "I have Tears and Hope": Martyrdom in the Twentieth Century

    NEW BLACKFRIARS, Issue 958 2000
    Paul Murray OP
    First page of article [source]

    The Irresponsibility of New Testament Scholarship in the Twentieth Century

    NEW BLACKFRIARS, Issue 949 2000
    J.C. O'Neill
    First page of article [source]

    Protracted National Conflict and Fertility Change: Palestinians and Israelis in the Twentieth Century

    Philippe Fargues
    This article examines atypical trends of birth rates and fertility,their irregular time trends and relatively high levels,among Palestinians and Israelis in light of the protracted conflict between them and related political developments. Migration, in itself a major dimension of the conflict, has been formative in contrasting evolutions of fertility: convergence among the Jews, originating from various countries but gradually coalescing in Jewish Israeli society, as opposed to divergence for the Palestinians, members of the same initial society but dispersed by the conflict and subjected to political and socioeconomic conditions varying with their place of residence. Demography is at stake in the conflict, and pronatalism becomes a dimension of nationalism, for Palestinians as well as for Israelis. Political and civil institutions influence fertility through redistribution of resources that subsidize procreation. For both sides, it seems that belligerence has produced excess fertility. [source]

    Primary Phases of Australian Economic Development in the Twentieth Century

    Boris Schedvin
    First page of article [source]

    An Assessment of British Science over the Twentieth Century,

    THE ECONOMIC JOURNAL, Issue 538 2009
    Bruce A. Weinberg
    The twentieth century saw dramatic international shifts in scientific leadership. Despite these dramatic shifts Britain's position has been remarkably stable and strong. I study these changes using data on Nobel laureates in Chemistry, Medicine, and Physics. Raw data show a slight decline in British science, mainly in physics but once one accounts for the tremendous increase in the US, British science actually shows strong growth. I show that raw data and data that adjust for population and gross domestic product (per capita or total), consistently rank Britain as one of the top scientific performers. [source]

    "Amerika gibt es nicht": On the Semiotics of Literary America in the Twentieth Century,

    THE GERMAN QUARTERLY, Issue 2 2009
    Oliver Simons
    From Alexis de Tocqueville's arrival in Manhattan and his amazement at the artificial façades of houses on the East River, we can observe a specific semiotic model in depictions of America: America does not exist, which is to say, the referent often becomes questionable in these texts. All the more frequently descriptions of America hew to a metonymic mode of writing; they deal with signs which refer to other signs, with accounts reporting mostly what has been read elsewhere. With Franz Kafka and Wolfgang Koeppen this essay shows how America has become the setting of poetological self-determination; America is a textual construct in which the significatory nature of language is itself negotiated. Under these conditions, how can another America novel be written at the end of the 20th -century? In the concluding passages, this essay discusses how contemporary authors Thomas Meinecke and Michael Roes succeed in resurrecting America's narrative possibilities. [source]

    American Agriculture in the Twentieth Century: How It Flourished and What It Cost , By Bruce L. Gardner

    THE HISTORIAN, Issue 3 2007
    Virgil W. Dean
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Raising Consumers: Children and the American Mass Market in the Early Twentieth Century

    Jeremy K. Saucier
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Cabinet Government in the Twentieth Century

    THE MODERN LAW REVIEW, Issue 5 2004
    Christopher Foster
    This paper examines the main features of the cabinet system as it had emerged during the twentieth century, and which Jennings did so much to crystallize in his pioneering study on Cabinet Government. It then assesses the main changes that have occurred over successive administrations since the late 1970s, and concludes that even if cabinet government seemed to return in 1990 and 2003, it was without the cabinet system that had underpinned and made it effective in the past. [source]

    Trade Policy in Canada and Australia in the Twentieth Century

    Richard Pomfret
    The paper provides an analytical comparison of the evolution of trade policy in Canada and Australia and of the two countries' roles in international trade diplomacy. Despite similarities in history and resource endowment, these roles have differed substantially, especially during the third quarter of the twentieth century. The focus is on the reasons why Canadian and Australian attitudes and policies differed so markedly. The importance of the USA as a trading partner, differing economic experiences during the decade of the 1920s, and the more concentrated composition of Australian exports all played a part. Once in train, the position that Australia was different and need not participate in GATT tariff cuts as long as agriculture was excluded became the inertial position, while Canada played an active role in GATT's early development. After 1973 Australia's position as an outlier among high-income countries' trade policies was reversed, and Australian and Canadian trade policies again became similar in the 1980s. [source]

    Heterotrophy in Tropical Scleractinian Corals

    BIOLOGICAL REVIEWS, Issue 1 2009
    Fanny Houlbrèque
    Abstract The dual character of corals, that they are both auto- and heterotrophs, was recognized early in the twentieth Century. It is generally accepted that the symbiotic association between corals and their endosymbiotic algae (called zooxanthellae) is fundamental to the development of coral reefs in oligotrophic tropical oceans because zooxanthellae transfer the major part of their photosynthates to the coral host (autotrophic nutrition). However, numerous studies have confirmed that many species of corals are also active heterotrophs, ingesting organisms ranging from bacteria to mesozooplankton. Heterotrophy accounts for between 0 and 66% of the fixed carbon incorporated into coral skeletons and can meet from 15 to 35% of daily metabolic requirements in healthy corals and up to 100% in bleached corals. Apart from this carbon input, feeding is likely to be important to most scleractinian corals, since nitrogen, phosphorus, and other nutrients that cannot be supplied from photosynthesis by the coral's symbiotic algae must come from zooplankton capture, particulate matter or dissolved compounds. A recent study showed that during bleaching events some coral species, by increasing their feeding rates, are able to maintain and restore energy reserves. This review assesses the importance and effects of heterotrophy in tropical scleractinian corals. We first provide background information on the different food sources (from dissolved organic matter to meso- and macrozooplankton). We then consider the nutritional inputs of feeding. Finally, we review feeding effects on the different physiological parameters of corals (tissue composition, photosynthesis and skeletal growth). [source]

    Forest Stand Dynamics and Livestock Grazing in Historical Context

    clima; incendio forestal; pastoreo histórico; pino ponderosa; supresión de fuego Abstract:,Livestock grazing has been implicated as a cause of the unhealthy condition of ponderosa pine forest stands in the western United States. An evaluation of livestock grazing impacts on natural resources requires an understanding of the context in which grazing occurred. Context should include timing of grazing, duration of grazing, intensity of grazing, and species of grazing animal. Historical context, when and under what circumstances grazing occurred, is also an important consideration. Many of the dense ponderosa pine forests and less-than-desirable forest health conditions of today originated in the early 1900s. Contributing to that condition was a convergence of fire, climate, and grazing factors that were unique to that time. During that time period, substantially fewer low-intensity ground fires (those that thinned dense stands of younger trees) were the result of reduced fine fuels (grazing), a substantial reduction in fires initiated by Native Americans, and effective fire-suppression programs. Especially favorable climate years for tree reproduction occurred during the early 1900s. Exceptionally heavy, unregulated, unmanaged grazing by very large numbers of horses, cattle, and sheep during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries occurred in most of the U.S. West and beginning earlier in portions of the Southwest. Today, livestock numbers on public lands are substantially lower than they were during this time and grazing is generally managed. Grazing then and grazing now are not the same. Resumen:,El pastoreo de ganado ha sido implicado como una causa de la mala salud de los bosques de pino ponderosa en el occidente de Estados Unidos. La evaluación de los impactos del pastoreo sobre los recursos naturales requiere de conocimiento del contexto en que ocurrió el pastoreo. El contexto debe incluir al período de ocurrencia, la duración y la intensidad del pastoreo, así como la especie de animal que pastoreó. El contexto histórico, cuando y bajo que circunstancias ocurrió el pastoreo, también es una consideración importante. Muchos de los bosques densos de pino ponderosa y de las condiciones, menos que deseables, de salud de los bosques actuales se originaron al principio del siglo pasado. Contribuyó a esa condición una convergencia de factores, fuego, clima y pastoreo, que fueron únicos en ese tiempo. Durante ese período, hubo sustancialmente menos incendios superficiales de baja intensidad (que afectaron a grupos densos de árboles más jóvenes) como resultado de la reducción de combustibles finos (pastoreo), una reducción sustancial en los incendios iniciados por Americanos Nativos y programas efectivos de supresión de incendios. Al inicio del siglo pasado hubo años con clima especialmente favorable para la reproducción de árboles. Al final del siglo diecinueve y comienzo del veinte hubo pastoreo no regulado ni manejado, excepcionalmente intensivo, por una gran cantidad de caballos, reses y ovejas en la mayor parte del oeste de E.U.A. y aun antes en porciones del suroeste. En la actualidad, el número de semovientes en terrenos públicos es sustancialmente menor al de ese tiempo, y el pastoreo generalmente es manejado. El pastoreo entonces y el pastoreo ahora no son lo mismo. [source]

    A Review of Feral Cat Eradication on Islands

    efecto de depredación; erradicación; Felis catus; gato asilvestrado; islas Abstract:,Feral cats are directly responsible for a large percentage of global extinctions, particularly on islands. We reviewed feral cat eradication programs with the intent of providing information for future island conservation actions. Most insular cat introductions date from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, whereas successful eradication programs have been carried out in the last 30 years, most in the last decade. Globally, feral cats have been removed from at least 48 islands: 16 in Baja California (Mexico), 10 in New Zealand, 5 in Australia, 4 in the Pacific Ocean, 4 in Seychelles, 3 in the sub-Antarctic, 3 in Macaronesia (Atlantic Ocean), 2 in Mauritius, and 1 in the Caribbean. The majority of these islands (75%; n= 36) are small (,5 km2). The largest successful eradication campaign took place on Marion Island (290 km2), but cats have been successfully removed from only 10 islands (21%) of ,10 km2. On Cousine Island (Seychelles) cat density reached 243 cats/km2, but on most islands densities did not exceed 79.2 cats/km2 (n= 22; 81%). The most common methods in successful eradication programs were trapping and hunting (often with dogs; 91% from a total of 43 islands). Frequently, these methods were used together. Other methods included poisoning (1080; monofluoracetate in fish baits; n= 13; 31%), secondary poisoning from poisoned rats (n= 4; 10%), and introduction of viral disease (feline panleucopaenia; n= 2; 5%). Impacts from cat predation and, more recently, the benefits of cat eradications have been increasingly documented. These impacts and benefits, combined with the continued success of eradication campaigns on larger islands, show the value and role of feral cat eradications in biodiversity conservation. However, new and more efficient techniques used in combination with current techniques will likely be needed for success on larger islands. Resumen:,Los gatos asilvestrados han sido responsables directos de un gran número de extinciones, particularmente en islas. En este estudio, se revisan los programas de erradicación de este felino con el fin de ofrecer información de utilidad en futuras acciones de conservación en islas. La mayor parte de las introducciones datan de los siglos diecinueve y veinte, mientras que las erradicaciones han sido realizadas básicamente durante los últimos 30 años, y sobre todo en la última década. Los gatos asilvestrados han sido erradicados de al menos 48 islas: 16 de ellas en Baja California (México), 10 en Nueva Zelanda, 5 en Australia, 4 en el Océano Pacífico, 4 en Seychelles, 3 en la Región Subantártica, 3 en Macaronesia (Océano Atlántico), 2 en Mauricio, y una en el Caribe. La mayoría de éstas (75%; n= 36) son de reducidas dimensiones (,5 km2), mientras que la más extensa es Marion Island (290 km2). En tan sólo 10 islas (21%) , 10 km2 se ha podido erradicar este depredador. En Cousine Island (Seychelles) la densidad de gatos alcanzó 243 individuos/km2; sin embargo, en la mayoría de las islas, las densidades no excedieron los 79,2 individuos/km2 (n= 22; 81%). Los métodos más comúnmente empleados fueron el trampeo y la caza, a menudo con perros (91% de un total de 43 islas). Con frecuencia dichas prácticas fueron empleadas conjuntamente. Otros métodos incluyeron venenos (1080, monofluoracetato de sodio en cebos de pescado: n= 13; 31%), envenenamiento secundario con ratas envenenadas (n= 4; 10%) y el virus de la leucemia felina (n= 2; 5%). La información sobre el efecto negativo de los gatos en islas y, más recientemente, el beneficio de su erradicación, se ha ido dando a conocer paulatinamente, poniendo de manifiesto su importancia en la conservación de la biodiversidad insular. No obstante, la combinación de técnicas nuevas y más eficientes junto con las habituales, será necesaria para el éxito de la erradicación de los gatos en islas de grandes dimensiones. [source]