Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Tumours

  • Wilm tumour
  • adenomatoid odontogenic tumour
  • adnexal tumour
  • adrenal tumour
  • adrenocortical tumour
  • aggressive tumour
  • and neck tumour
  • benign tumour
  • bladder tumour
  • body tumour
  • borderline ovarian tumour
  • borderline tumour
  • bowel tumour
  • brain tumour
  • breast tumour
  • canine mammary tumour
  • carcinoid tumour
  • cardiac tumour
  • cell tumour
  • colorectal tumour
  • common tumour
  • cortical tumour
  • cutaneous mast cell tumour
  • cutaneous tumour
  • desmoid tumour
  • differentiated tumour
  • endocrine tumour
  • endometrioid tumour
  • epithelial tumour
  • experimental tumour
  • fibrous tumour
  • follicular tumour
  • gastrointestinal stromal tumour
  • germ cell tumour
  • giant cell tumour
  • gland tumour
  • glomu tumour
  • granular cell tumour
  • granulosa cell tumour
  • gynaecological tumour
  • head and neck tumour
  • high-grade tumour
  • human tumour
  • inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour
  • intracranial tumour
  • intraductal papillary mucinous tumour
  • invasive tumour
  • klatskin tumour
  • large tumour
  • larger tumour
  • liver tumour
  • lung tumour
  • lymphoid tumour
  • malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour
  • malignant skin tumour
  • malignant tumour
  • mammary tumour
  • many tumour
  • mast cell tumour
  • mesenchymal tumour
  • metastatic tumour
  • mixed tumour
  • mucinous tumour
  • multifocal tumour
  • multiple tumour
  • musculoskeletal tumour
  • myofibroblastic tumour
  • neck tumour
  • nerve sheath tumour
  • neuroectodermal tumour
  • neuroendocrine tumour
  • odontogenic tumour
  • other tumour
  • ovarian tumour
  • pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour
  • pancreatic tumour
  • papillary mucinous tumour
  • papillary tumour
  • parathyroid tumour
  • peripheral nerve sheath tumour
  • phyllode tumour
  • pituitary tumour
  • plasma cell tumour
  • positive tumour
  • primary tumour
  • primitive neuroectodermal tumour
  • prostate tumour
  • rare benign tumour
  • rare tumour
  • rectal tumour
  • recurrent tumour
  • renal tumour
  • residual tumour
  • round cell tumour
  • same tumour
  • secondary tumour
  • sheath tumour
  • single tumour
  • skin tumour
  • small bowel tumour
  • small round cell tumour
  • small tumour
  • smaller tumour
  • soft tissue tumour
  • solid tumour
  • solitary fibrous tumour
  • spindle cell tumour
  • stromal tumour
  • superficial tumour
  • sweat gland tumour
  • testicular germ cell tumour
  • testicular tumour
  • thyroid tumour
  • tissue tumour
  • uncommon tumour
  • vascular tumour
  • vasoproliferative tumour
  • warthin tumour

  • Terms modified by Tumours

  • tumour angiogenesi
  • tumour antigen
  • tumour area
  • tumour behaviour
  • tumour biology
  • tumour burden
  • tumour cell
  • tumour cell apoptosi
  • tumour cell growth
  • tumour cell line
  • tumour cell proliferation
  • tumour characteristic
  • tumour classification
  • tumour clearance
  • tumour control
  • tumour detection
  • tumour development
  • tumour diagnosis
  • tumour diameter
  • tumour differentiation
  • tumour excision
  • tumour extension
  • tumour focus
  • tumour formation
  • tumour grade
  • tumour growth
  • tumour growth rate
  • tumour heterogeneity
  • tumour histology
  • tumour immunity
  • tumour immunology
  • tumour incidence
  • tumour invasion
  • tumour load
  • tumour localization
  • tumour location
  • tumour margin
  • tumour marker
  • tumour mass
  • tumour metastasis
  • tumour microenvironment
  • tumour model
  • tumour necrosis
  • tumour necrosis factor
  • tumour necrosis factor alpha
  • tumour necrosis factor receptor
  • tumour necrosis factor-alpha
  • tumour node metastasis
  • tumour progression
  • tumour proliferation
  • tumour protein
  • tumour recurrence
  • tumour regression
  • tumour removal
  • tumour resection
  • tumour response
  • tumour sample
  • tumour shrinkage
  • tumour site
  • tumour size
  • tumour specimen
  • tumour spread
  • tumour stage
  • tumour staging
  • tumour stroma
  • tumour suppressor
  • tumour suppressor gene
  • tumour suppressor protein
  • tumour surgery
  • tumour syndrome
  • tumour target
  • tumour thickness
  • tumour tissue
  • tumour type
  • tumour uptake
  • tumour vasculature
  • tumour vessel
  • tumour volume

  • Selected Abstracts


    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 4 2008
    Moon-Tong Cheung
    Background: Autoimmune sclerosing pancreatitis is a well-known disease entity for years, particularly recognizing the difficulty in distinguishing it from malignancy. Immunohistochemical study showed that immunoglobulin IgG4 staining was positive in plasma cells of some autoimmune pancreatitis or cholangitis. The term ,autoimmune sclerosing pancreatocholangitis' was used as it was believed that they belonged to a range of disease involving both pancreas and biliary tree. It may also be part of a systemic fibro-inflammatory disease. Patients and Methods: All the patients suffering from immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related pancreatitis and cholangitis from May 2003 to September 2006 in Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong were retrospectively studied. Results: A total of five patients with clinical diagnosis of IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis or cholangitis were analysed. All presented with jaundice or abdominal pain, mimicking carcinoma. Two patients had major resection, two patients were diagnosed by intraoperative biopsy and one was based on serum IgG4 level. Conclusion: With the growing awareness of this relatively recently characterized clinical entity and its similar presentation to pancreatic carcinoma or bile duct cholangiocarcinoma, it is important for autoimmune sclerosing pancreatocholangitis to be included in the differential diagnosis of pancreaticobiliary disease. The management strategy has shown to be modified , from major resection to intraoperative biopsy and to the assay of serum IgG4 level without the necessity of histology confirmation. [source]


    Robson DJ
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    P. S. H. Soon
    Introduction Adrenal tumours are common, occurring in 7% of patients over the age of 50. Adrenocortical carcinomas, however, are rare, with an incidence of two per million population per year. The management of adrenocortical tumours is complex, compounded by the difficulty in discriminating benign from malignant tumours using conventional histology. A molecular marker which could reliably distinguish between the two groups would be valuable in patient management. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify molecular markers which will discriminate between adrenocortical carcinomas and adenomas using microarray gene expression analysis. Methods This study used RNA from 6 normal adrenal cortices, 16 adrenocortical adenomas and 12 carcinomas. Only samples with an RNA integrity number of 7.5 or greater were used. The samples were hybridised to Affymetrix HGU133plus2.0 genechips. Data analysis was performed with Partek and affylmgui softwares. Results Using a cutoff of B > 2 and M > 2 or <,2, 217 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed between adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas. Of these genes, 120 were unpregulated while 97 were downregulated. Seven of these genes have been selected for validation studies with real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Conclusion In this study, we found 217 genes which were significantly differentially expressed between adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas. With validation and further studies, these genes will provide further insight into the pathogenesis of adrenocortical tumours as well as possibly proving to be reliable discriminators between adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas. [source]


    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 8 2010
    Erik B. Cornel
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 2006
    M. Salto-Tellez
    Molecular diagnosis is the application of molecular biology techniques and knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of disease to diagnosis, prognostication and treatment of diseases. Molecular Diagnosis is, arguably, the fastest growing area of diagnostic medicine. The US market for molecular testing generated $1.3 billion in 2000, which was predicted to increase to about $4.2 billion by 2007.1 We proposed the term Diagnostic Molecular Cytopathology to define the application of molecular diagnosis to cytopathology2. Diagnostic Molecular Cytopathology is essential for the following reasons: (i) Molecular testing is sometimes indispensable to establish an unequivocal diagnosis on cell preparations; (ii) Molecular testing provides extra information on the prognosis or therapy of diseases diagnosed by conventional cytology; (iii) Molecular testing provides genetic information on the inherited nature of diseases that can be directly investigated in cytology samples, by either exfoliation or by fine needle aspiration; (iv) Sometimes the cytopathology sample is the most convenient (or the only available) source of material for molecular testing; (v). Direct molecular interrogation of cells allows for a diagnostic correlation that would otherwise not be possible. Parallel to this direct diagnostic implication, cytopathology is increasing important in the validation of biomarkers for specific diseases, and in therefore of significant importance in the overall translational research strategies. We illustrate its application in some of the main areas of oncology molecular testing, such as molecular fingerprinting of neoplasms,3 lymphoreticular diseases,2 sarcomas4 and lung cancer,5 as well as translational research using diagnostic cytopathology techniques. The next years will see the consolidation of Diagnostic Molecular Cytopathology, a process that will lead to a change of many paradigms. In general, diagnostic pathology departments will have to reorganize molecular testing to pursue a cost-efficient operation. Sample preparation will have to take into account optimal preservation of nuclear acids. The training of technical staff and the level of laboratory quality control and quality assurance would have to follow strict clinical (not research) laboratory parameters. And, most importantly, those pathologists undertaking molecular diagnosis as a discipline would have to develop their professional expertise within the same framework of fellowships and professional credentials that is offered in other sub-specialties. The price to pay if this effort is not undertaken is too important for the future of diagnostic pathology in general. The increasing characterization of molecular biomarkers with diagnostic, prognostic or therapeutic value is making the analysis of tissue and cell samples prior to treatment a more complex exercise. If cytopathologists and histopathologists allow others to take charge of molecular diagnosis, our overall contribution to the diagnostic process will be diminished. We may not become less important, but we may become less relevant. However, those within the discipline of diagnostic pathology who can combine the clinical background of diseases with the morphological, immunocytochemical and molecular diagnostic interpretation will represent bona fide diagnostic specialists. Such ,molecular cytopathologists' would place themselves at the centre of clinical decision-making. Reference:, 1. Liz Fletcher. Roche leads molecular diagnostics charge. Nature Biotechnol 20, 6,7; 2002 2. Salto-Tellez M and Koay ESC. Molecular Diagnostic Cytopathology - Definitions, Scope and Clinical Utility. Cytopathology 2004; 15:252,255 3. Salto-Tellez M, Zhang D, Chiu LL, Wang SC, Nilsson B, and Koay ESC. Immunocytochemistry Versus Molecular Fingerprinting of Metastases. Cytopathology, 2003 Aug; 14(4):186,90. 4. Chiu LL, Koay SCE, Chan NL and Salto-Tellez M. Molecular Cytopathology: Sequencing of the EWS-WT1 Gene Fusion Transcript in the Peritoneal Effusion of a Patient with Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumour. Diagnostic Cytopathology, 2003 Dec; 29(6): 341,3. 5. TM Chin, D Anuar, R Soo, M Salto-Tellez, WQ Li, B Ahmad, SC Lee, BC Goh, K Kawakami, A Segal, B Iacopetta, R Soong. Sensitive and Cost-Effective deptection of epidermal growth factor Receptor Mutations in Small Biopsies by denaturing High Performance Liquid Chromatography. (In press). [source]

    Tumour and tumour-like lesions of the intercondylar notch of the knee: A pictorial review

    PKL Li
    Summary A variety of tumours and tumour-like lesions are found in the intercondylar notch of the knee. MR imaging is the technique of choice in evaluating these conditions. Correlation with radiographs is important to identify those lesions containing calcification. This review article discusses the imaging features of tumour and tumour-like lesions involving the intercondylar notch with an emphasis on MR imaging features that suggest a specific diagnosis. [source]

    Tumour and dendrimers: a review on drug delivery aspects

    Abhinav Agarwal
    Tumour is a morbid state, characterized by spontaneous outgrowth of an abnormal mass of cells. The evolution of tumours is random, disorganized, a condition of numerous mutations. The properties are biased and incompletely comprehended. It is a malignant or benign condition that encompasses its own rules of morphogenesis, an immortal state that elucidates different physiology. It is a pathological crisis that still haunts the minds of scientists, physicians and patients, a complete cure of which is still a dream to be realized. The unpredictable microenvironment of cancerous cells in all of its existing forms i.e. leukaemic cells, solid tumours and sarcomas is well documented. This phenomenon expressed by cancerous sites in the body poses various obstacles towards drug efficacy. Thus, it has become necessary to address briefly the issues relating to tumour physiology, its vasculature and angiogenesis. The information could provide insight towards the development of tumour-targeted drug delivery. The salient features regarding these have been discussed. [source]

    Predictors of outcome in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma receiving transcatheter arterial chemoembolization

    H. SHEN
    Summary Background, Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) has been shown to improve survival in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aim, To identify pretreatment factors that predicts increased mortality in HCC patients receiving TACE. Methods, Retrospective review of all patients who underwent TACE for HCC from January 1999 to November 2004. Patient demographics, aetiology of liver disease, laboratory and imaging data regarding tumour characteristics were obtained. Results, Eighty-eight patients (57 ± 1 years age) received 1,4 sessions of TACE (1.4 ± 0.1). Tumour size was 3.3 ± 0.2 cm (range 1,13 cm, median 3 cm) with mean number of lesions 1.9 ± 0.1 (range 1,7). Mean model for the end stage liver disease score: 11 ± 0.4; cancer of the liver Italian program score: 1.3 ± 0.1. Survival post-TACE (excluding those underwent orthotopic liver transplantation) was 12 ± 0.3 months. By multivariate analysis, tumour size (HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.11,1.68, P = 0.003), hypovascularity (HR = 12.62, 95% CI: 1.79,88.92, P = 0.01) and elevated international normalized ratio (HR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.10,1.92 P = 0.008) are shown to be significant risk factors for increased mortality. Conclusion, TACE therapy leads to a mean survival of 12 months in patients not receiving orthotopic liver transplantation. Tumour size, hypovascularity on imaging, and elevated international normalized ratio are predictors of increased mortality after TACE therapy for HCC. [source]

    Family, demographic and illness-related determinants of HRQL in children with brain tumours in the first year after diagnosis,

    PEDIATRIC BLOOD & CANCER, Issue 6 2009
    Anthony Penn MBBCh, MRCPCH
    Abstract Aims To evaluate the relationship between parent- and child-report Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) and demographic, tumour and family variables in children with a brain tumour in the first year after diagnosis and to identify determinants of HRQL at 12 months. Procedure Longitudinal prospective study: Semi-structured interviews took place approximately 1, 6 and 12 months after diagnosis. HRQL was measured using the self- and parent-report PedsQL 4.0 Total Scale Score. Tumour and treatment variables considered included tumour site and grade, hydrocephalus at diagnosis, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Family variables included measures of family function, family support and family stress, the primary carer's coping strategies and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Univariate analyses were used at all three time points, and to identify potential early predictors of HRQL at 1 year. Regression analysis was then used to identify the most important determinants of HRQL at 1 year. Results Thirty-five patients completed the 12-month interviews. There were consistent significant negative correlations between concurrent family impact of illness and parent and self-report HRQL, and positive correlations between concurrent family support and parent-report HRQL. Treatment with radio- or chemotherapy correlated with child-report HRQL only at some time points. Multivariate analysis showed infratentorial tumour site, and poor HRQL at 1 month best predicted poor self- and parent-report HRQL at 12 months. Conclusion Children with infratentorial tumours and poor HRQL early after diagnosis tend to have poor HRQL at 1 year. While family factors are important modulators of concurrent HRQL, they do not appear important in predicting HRQL. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2009;53:1092,1099. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Prognostic factors of tracheobronchial mucoepidermoid carcinoma,15 years experience

    RESPIROLOGY, Issue 2 2008
    Chien-Hung CHIN
    Background and objectives: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the tracheobronchial tree is a rare tumour which displays a variable degree of clinical aggressiveness and malignancy. The relationship between the patient's prognosis and the tumour's histological features and clinical behaviour is uncertain. The aim of this study was to identify the clinicopathological features and analyse the outcomes of patients with this type of cancer. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients diagnosed with mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the lung between 1991 and 2006 was conducted. Results: The study comprised 15 patients. Higher histological grade tumours had a higher proportion of squamoid cells (P = 0.019); the tumours of patients with lymph node metastases also had a higher proportion of squamoid cells than did the tumours of patients without lymph node metastases (P = 0.015). Patients with early stage tumours (stage IA, IB, IIB) had better outcomes (10-year survival rate = 87.5%), than did patients with late-stage tumours (stage IIIB, IV) (1-year survival rate = 28.6%; 2-year survival rate = 0%, P = 0.001). Patients with lower-grade tumours (grade 1 and grade 2) had better outcomes (1-year survival rate = 80%; 5-year survival rate = 57.1%) than did patients with higher-grade tumours (grade 3) (1-year survival rate = 20%, P = 0.035). Tumour staging was a significant independent predictor of survival on Cox proportional hazards analysis. Conclusions: The proportion of squamoid cells on tumour histology may be an indicator of the level of tumour malignancy. Tumour, node, metastasis staging is a significant determinant of prognosis in patients with tracheobronchial mucoepidermoid carcinoma. [source]

    The Gap Junctional Protein Connexin(Cx)43 in Testicular Cancer: its Loss Marks Progession from Carcinoma In Situ to Invasive Germ Cell Tumour

    R. Brehm
    Carcinoma-in-situ (CIS) of the testis is known to be the pre-invasive stage of most human germ cell tumours (seminoma and non-seminoma), but the mechanisms leading to an increased pubertal proliferation of CIS cells after a long latency and to progression of CIS to an invasive malignancy are still not known. Additionally, CIS and seminoma have also been reported in equine testis (Veeramachaneni and Sawyer, 1998). The gap junctional protein and tumour suppressor gene connexin(cx)43 represents the predominant cx in human, canine and rodent testis so far and it is expected to play a key role for the regulation of both proliferation and differentiation of germ cells (spermatogonia and spermatocytes), and its gene- and protein-expression pattern is typical for the pubertal terminal differentiation of somatic Sertoli cells. Using cDNA-microarray analysis, in-situ hybridization (ISH), RT-PCR from tissue homogenate and semi-quantitative RT-PCR from well defined microdissected tubules with normal spermatogenesis, CIS, intratubular seminoma (ISe) and from seminoma cells from invasive seminoma we found a downregulation of cx43 starting in intratubular CIS, leading to a complete loss in most invasive seminoma cells. This indicates that regulation of cx43 expression takes place at transcriptional level confirming and expanding earlier studies of protein expression (Brehm et al., 2002). This reduction of cx43-expression suggests that an early intratubular derangement in cx43-gene expression and disruption of inter-cellular communication between Sertoli cells and/or Sertoli cells and pre-invasive tumour cells via cx43-gap junctions may play a role in the proliferation of CIS cells and seminoma cells and in the progression phase of testicular seminoma development. References, Veeramachaneni, D. N., and H. R.Sawyer, 1998: Carcinoma in situ and seminoma in equine testis. APMIS 106, 183,185. Brehm R., A. Marks, R. Rey, S. Kliesch, M. Bergmann and K. Steger, 2002: Altered expression of connexins 26 and 43 in Sertoli cells in seminiferous tubules infiltrated with carcinoma-in-situ or seminoma. J. Pathol. 197, 647,653. [source]

    Heterotransplantation Of A Human Malignant Tumour To "Nude" Mice

    APMIS, Issue 5 2007
    Article first published online: 11 MAY 200
    First page of article [source]

    Action of Celecoxib on Hepatic Metabolic Changes Induced by the Walker-256 Tumour in Rats

    Alexandra Acco
    Celecoxib was administered daily (5,50 mg/kg body weight) beginning at the day in which the tumour cells were inocculated. At day 14, the liver was isolated and perfused in order to measure alanine transformation, glycolysis and arginine transformation. Maximal reduction of tumour growth (75%), accompanied by an almost normal weight gain, was attained with a celecoxib dose of 12.5 mg/kg. Diminution of glucose utilization (glycolysis) and inhibition of gluconeogenesis and ureogenesis from alanine caused by the tumor were totally reversed by celecoxib. Oxygen uptake by the liver was also normalized by the drug. Hepatic arginine transformation, which is normally enhanced in rats bearing the Walker-256 tumour, remained elevated in celecoxib-treated animals. It was concluded that preservation of gluconeogenesis and normalization of hepatic glucose utilization can explain, partly at least, the clinical improvement of cancer patients treated with the drug. The lack of action of celecoxib on arginine hydrolysis might indicate that reduction in polyamine synthesis is not a factor contributing to the diminished tumour growth. [source]

    Training for renal ablative technique using an agarose-based renal tumour-mimic model

    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 1 2006
    OBJECTIVE To assess whether a recently developed porcine tumour-mimic model can serve as a training model for radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of renal masses, as the increased diagnosis of small occult renal masses has led to the development of nephron-sparing treatments, including RFA, and the techniques required for effective tumour ablation can be difficult to master. MATERIALS AND METHODS Tumour mimics were created by injecting 0.7 mL of an agarose mixture into the parenchyma of a porcine kidney, producing 1-cm spherical lesions which were hyperechoic on ultrasonography (US). The ex vivo experiment included creating 40 tumour mimics followed by RFA using US-guided needle placement. The ablation diameter was set to 15 mm to produce a margin of grossly ablated tissue around the mimic lesions. The in vivo portion involved creating 20 tumour mimics and ablating them under direct laparoscopic vision with US-guided probe placement. In each case, the mimic lesion size by US and gross examination, ablation diameter, and completion (accuracy) of ablations were recorded. RESULTS Accurate placing of the RFA needle by US guidance was difficult to learn, as all tumour-mimic lesions were either endophytic or completely intraparenchymal. The ex vivo model required ,,15 ablations before the needle was placed consistently into the lesions. The in vivo model was equally difficult to learn, with five positive margins by gross examination in the first 10 ablations, while the subsequent 10 had no positive margins. CONCLUSION The agarose-based tumour mimic is a useful target model for learning and improving US-guided ablative techniques in both the ex vivo and in vivo settings. The tumour-mimic allows the surgeon to assess targeting accuracy in an animal model. Further studies are needed to determine this model's utility as a clinical training aid. [source]

    Pathological appraisal of lines of resection for bile duct carcinoma

    Dr T. Ebata
    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the most appropriate line of resection for extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma. Methods: A retrospective review was carried out of 253 resected specimens of extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma. Carcinomas were classified histologically as invasive or non-invasive in addition to assessment of the resection margin. Results: Tumour was present microscopically at the resection margin in 80 (31·6 per cent) of 253 cases, with 46 showing marginal involvement by non-invasive carcinoma, 20 showing invasive carcinoma at a margin, and 14 showing both. Involvement of the resection margin by invasive carcinoma was encountered only when the margin was shorter than 10 mm, whereas non-invasive carcinoma was encountered even when the margin length reached 40 mm. The observed length of microscopic extension of invasive carcinoma beyond the macroscopically evident tumour mass was limited to 10·0 mm. Median microscopic extension of non-invasive carcinoma beyond the mass was 10 mm (75th percentile 19·5 and 14·5 mm in proximal and distal directions respectively; maximum 52 mm). Margins of 20 mm could be assured to be negative proximally in 89·0 per cent of cases and distally in 93·8 per cent. Conclusion: For eradication of invasive extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma, a 10-mm margin is required. However, additional removal of any non-invasive component requires a 20-mm margin. These guidelines should be followed in any operation performed with curative intent. © 2002 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd [source]

    3464: Surgical treatment of lacrimal gland tumours

    Purpose The surgical treatment of Lacrimal gland tumors is often controversial and not so clear cut. Imaging and a full systemic evaluation lead to the decision as to which surgical approach best serves our purposes. The surgical management of Lacrimal gland tumors is discussed and the results of 31 cases in my experience are presented. Methods The surgical approach used is carefully chosen according to the type of disease presentation. All 31 patients in this series had neuroimaging and full work up and 30 underwent incision or excision biopsy. Selected cases are discussed. Results : Surgical Approaches chosen for the Lacrimal gland in this case series included Trans-Septal Orbitotomy, and Lateral Orbitotomy. Disease spectrum included Idiopathic orbital inflammatory disease (8), Orbital Sarcoid (7), Lymphoma (3), Sjrogens disease (3), Benign Mixed Tumour (2), Infectious mononucleosis (2) Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia (2), Sebaceous Cell Carcinoma (1), Churge Strause syndrome (1), Dermoid Cyst (1), Epithelial Inclusion Cyst(1). Conclusion Biopsy of a Lacrimal gland mass is relatively simple and is recommended. The approach should be considered carefully and an excision biopsy should be performed where possible. Surgical management and surprising pathology results can have significant implications for the patient. [source]

    Prognostic indicators of gastric carcinoma confined to the muscularis propria

    HISTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    H Son
    Aims:, Gastric carcinoma confined to the muscularis propria (MPGC) is considered an intermediate-stage carcinoma. A method of discriminating between more favourable and less favourable prognostic groups of this entity is critically needed in dealing with this heterogeneous disease. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between survival of patients with MPGC and its various clinicopathological parameters. Methods and results:, Various clinicopathological parameters were studied in 171 tissue samples including: macroscopic appearance, size, age, sex, stage, invasion depth, Lauren and Ming classifications, extent, lymphatic emboli and nodal metastasis. Tumours macroscopically resembling early gastric cancers, younger patient age, absence of lymphatic tumour emboli and lower stage were significantly associated with better prognosis of MPGC by univariate analysis. Tumours macroscopically resembling early gastric cancers, younger patient age and Lauren's diffuse type were significantly associated with a better prognosis of MPGC by multivariate analysis. Conclusions:, These indicators are practical parameters for predicting patient prognosis in clinical practice. The description of these parameters should be carefully noted in the final report and pathologists should evaluate the macroscopic appearance of MPGC. [source]

    Drug-eluting bead therapy in primary and metastatic disease of the liver

    HPB, Issue 7 2009
    Stewart Carter
    Abstract Background:, Drug-eluting bead transarterial chemoembolization (DEB-TACE) is a novel therapy for the treatment of hypervascuarized tumours. Through the intra-arterial delivery of microspheres, DEB-TACE allows for embolization as well as local release of chemotherapy in the treatment of hepatic malignancy, providing an alternative therapeutic option in unresectable tumours. Its role as an adjunct to surgical resection or radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is less clear. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent studies investigating DEB-TACE in order to better define safety, efficacy and outcomes associated with its use. Methods:, A systematic review of all published articles and trials identified nine clinical trials and 23 abstracts. These were reviewed for tumour histology, stage of treatment, delivery technique, outcome at follow-up, complications and mortality rates. Results:, Publications involved treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), metastatic colorectal carcinoma (MCRC), metastatic neuroendocrine (MNE) disease and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) or European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) criteria, studies treating HCC reported complete response (CR) rates of 5% (5/101) at 1 month, 9% (8/91) at 4 months, 14% (19/138) at 6 months and 25% (2/8) at 10 months. Partial response (PR) was reported as 58% (76/131) at 1 month, 50% (67/119) at 4 months, 57% (62/108) at 6,7 months and 63% (5/8) at 10 months. Studies involving MCRC, CCA and MNE disease were less valuable in terms of response rate because there is a lack of comparative data. The most common procedure-associated complications included fever (46,72%), nausea and vomiting (42,47%), abdominal pain (44,80%) and liver abscess (2,3%). Rather than reporting individual symptoms, two studies reported rates of post-embolic syndrome (PES), consisting of fever, abdominal pain, and nausea and vomiting, at 82% (75/91). Six of eight studies reported length of hospital stay, which averaged 2.3 days per procedure. Mortality was reported as occurring in 10 of 456 (2%) procedures, or 10 of 214 (5%) patients. Conclusions:, Drug-eluting bead TACE is becoming more widely utilized in primary and liver-dominant metastatic disease of the liver. Outcomes of success must be expanded beyond response rates because these are not a reliable surrogate for progression-free survival or overall survival. Ongoing clinical trials will further clarify the optimal timing and strategy of this technology. [source]

    Prognostic value of p27kip1 expression in adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head region

    HPB, Issue 3 2006
    Jerzy Mielko
    Abstract Background. p27kip1 is a tumour suppressor gene, functioning as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, and an independent prognostic factor in breast, colon, and prostate adenocarcinomas. Conflicting data are reported for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. The aim of this study was to establish the prognostic value of p27kip1 expression in adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head region. Patients and methods. The study included 45 patients (male/female ratio 2:1; mean age 59, range 38,82 years) with adenocarcinomas of the pancreatic head region: 24 , pancreatic head, 18 , periampullary and 3 , uncinate process. The patients underwent the Kausch-Whipple pancreatoduodenectomy (n=39), pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (n=5), or nearly total pancreatectomy (n=1). Eight patients received adjuvant chemotherapy postoperatively. Follow-up time ranged from 3 to 60 months. Tumours were staged according to the pTNM classification (UICC 1997). Immunohistochemistry was done on paraffin-embedded blocks from tumour sections. Quantitative determination of p27kip1 expression was based on the proportion of p27kip1 -positive cells (< 5%= negative). Survival analysis was carried out using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model. Results. Positive p27kip1 expression was detected in 22 tumours (49%), whereas 23 tumours (51%) were p27kip1 -negative. There were no significant correlations between p27kip1 index and stage or lymph node involvement. Median survival time in patients with p27kip1 -positive tumours was 19 months, whereas in patients with p27kip1 -negative tumours it was 18 months (p=0.53). A significant relationship was found between p27kip1 -negative tumours and radical resection (p=0.04). Multivariate survival analysis revealed that the localization of the tumour (pancreatic head/uncinate process vs periampullary) was the only significant and independent prognosticator (p=0.01, Cox regression model). Resection margins involvement and grade remained nearly significant prognostic factors (p=0.07 and p=0.09, respectively). Conclusion. We conclude that p27kip1 has limited overall prognostic utility in resected carcinoma of the pancreatic head region, but its potential role as a marker of residual disease needs to be further assessed. [source]

    Unbalanced expression of licensing DNA replication factors occurs in a subset of mantle cell lymphomas with genomic instability

    Magda Pinyol
    Abstract DNA licensing is a crucial process for chromosome replication control. Deregulation of the licensing factors Cdt1, Cdc6 and the licensing inhibitor geminin has been associated with DNA replication defects and chromosomal instability. We examined the expression of these factors, in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and non-neoplastic lymphoid samples, and analysed the potential role of their deregulation in genomic instability. Geminin, Cdt1 and Cdc6 were coordinately expressed in non-neoplastic tissues and most MCL in relationship to the proliferative activity of the cells. However, 6 (18%) tumours showed an unbalanced "licensing signature" characterized by a higher expression of Cdt1 and Cdc6 than the negative regulator geminin. Tumours with this unbalanced signature and p53/p14ARF alterations had significantly higher number of chromosome abnormalities than lymphomas with p53/p14ARF alterations but with a normal licensing signature. No aberrations of Cdct1, Cdc6, and geminin genes were detected in cases with unbalanced licensing. However, tumours with p53/ARF inactivation and unbalanced licensing signature had significantly higher cyclin D1 levels than tumours with normal licensing signature. These results suggest that an unbalanced mRNA expression of licensing regulatory genes may play a role in the pathogenesis of the chromosomal instability of a subset of MCL with inactivation of the p53/p14ARF pathway. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Monitoring indicators of health care quality by means of a hospital register of tumours

    Maximino Redondo MD PhD
    Abstract Rationale, Hospital registers of tumours provide, on a continuous basis, information on differences in patterns of neoplasias and the results of the treatment strategies employed. Objective, In view of the scant publications on measures of health care quality in hospital tumour registers, the aim of our paper is to present the outcome of a study to monitor the results related to health care quality in oncology. Methods, Data are presented for cases recorded at the Hospital Costa del Sol over a period of 8 years. The sources of information are fundamentally the patient's medical record and the database of the Pathology Department. Results, A high proportion of patients (mean 50%, range 45,68%) were admitted to the hospital by the Emergency Department; there was a notably long delay between the appearance of the first symptoms and the occasion of the first hospital visit (median 65 days; range 60,75 days). Particularly striking was the corresponding delay for breast cancer patients, in most cases superior to 3 months. As was the case for the percentage of admissions by the Emergency Department, most of the indicators evaluated in this study present a significant improvement compared with the initial years of the Hospital Register of Tumours. Thus, non anatomic-pathological diagnoses represented around 7% (range 3,13%), while 43% of patients (range 28,57%) were given adjuvant treatment in the form of radiation therapy or chemotherapy. In 40% of cases (range 20,50%), the tumour stage was included in the clinical record by the doctor who was treating the patient (in the remaining cases, these data were recorded by the Tumour Registry); the date of appearance of the first symptoms was included in the medical record in 65% of cases (range 54,80%). According to the stage classification, the following 5-year survival rates were recorded: (I) 98%, (II) 94%, (III) 69% and (IV) 39% for breast cancer; (I) 93%, (II) 83%, (III) 68% and (IV) 12% for cancer of the colon; and (I) 100%, (II) 94%, (III) 79% and (IV) 53% for prostate cancer. Conclusion, The high percentage of patients admitted by the Emergency Department and the long delay between the appearance of the first symptoms reflect the deficient attention paid to this problem by patients and by primary health care services. Our results suggest that the Hospital Register of Tumours could constitute an excellent tool for monitoring the quality of health care systems for oncological patients. [source]

    Outcome following removal of canine spindle cell tumours in first opinion practice: 104 cases

    D. Chase
    Objectives:To define the outcome of a cohort of canine patients with a histological diagnosis of spindle cell tumour of soft tissue managed solely by surgery in first opinion practice. Methods:Clinical details of 104 spindle cell sarcomas submitted to Finn Pathologists during the year 2000 were reviewed. Questionnaires were sent to the submitting veterinarians, requesting details about the tumour, surgery performed and ultimate outcome of the patient. Results:The method of surgical resection was described as marginal in 45 dogs (44·2 per cent). Excision margins of 3 cm or more were described in less than 10 per cent of cases. Tumours recurred locally in 29 dogs (27·9 per cent). Eighteen dogs (21·7 per cent) died of tumour-related causes. Most deaths were unrelated to sarcoma (50 dogs, 60·2 per cent) or unknown (15 dogs, 18 per cent). The median survival time was 1013 days. Tumour size, location or degree of surgical resection were not significantly related to survival or tumour recurrence. A palpable assessment of tumour invasion into underlying tissues was significantly associated with decreased disease-free interval (P<0·0001) and survival time (P = 0·0070). Clinical Significance:The results of this retrospective study indicate that many spindle cell tumours managed in first opinion practice exhibit a low-grade biological behaviour and may respond well to more conservative surgery than current recommendations advise. [source]

    Merkel cell carcinoma: a clinicopathological study of 11 cases

    E Acebo
    ABSTRACT Objective, To report our 12-year experience with Merkel cell carcinomas (MCCs) from a clinical and pathological point of view. Subjects and setting, Eleven MCCs were diagnosed at our institution between 1991 and 2002. Methods, A retrospective clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical study was performed. Age, gender, location, size, stage, treatment and follow-up data were collected. Histopathological pattern and immunohistochemical study with CAM 5.2, cytokeratin 20 (CK20), CK7, Ber EP4, neurofilaments, synaptophysin, chromogranin, S100 protein, p53 protein, CD117, leucocyte common antigen (LCA) and Ki-67 were accomplished. Results, Six females and five males with a mean age of 82 years were identified. Tumours were located on the face (n = 6), extremities (n = 3) and trunk (n = 1). At diagnosis, one patient was in stage Ia, six in stage Ib, three in stage II and one in stage III. All but one patient experienced wide surgical excision of the tumour. Additional treatment consisted of lymph node dissection in two patients, radiotherapy in four patients and systemic chemotherapy in one patient. Local recurrence developed in five patients. Three patients died because of MCC after 14 months of follow-up. Intermediate-size round cell proliferation was found in all cases. Additional small-size cell pattern and trabecular pattern were observed in seven and six cases, respectively. Eccrine and squamous cell differentiation were found in three cases. A dot-like paranuclear pattern was observed in all cases with CAM 5.2 and neurofilaments, and in 89% of cases with CK20. Seventy-five per cent of cases reacted with Ber EP4, chromogranin and synaptophysin, 70% with p53, 22% with S100 protein, 55% with CD117 and none with LCA. Ki-67 was found in 75% of tumoral cells on average. Fifty per cent of MCCs reacted with CK7 and showed eccrine differentiation areas. Conclusions, MCC is an aggressive neuroendocrine tumour of the elderly. Wide surgical excision is the recommended treatment. Lymph node dissection, adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy decrease regional recurrences but have not been demonstrated to increase survival. Immunohistochemically, MCC is an epithelial tumour with neuroendocrine features. [source]

    Long-term results of patients with malignant carcinoid syndrome receiving octreotide LAR

    Summary Background, Octreotide LAR is an established treatment for malignant carcinoid syndrome. However, studies with large number of patients and long follow-up are lacking. Aim, To present long-terms results with octreotide LAR, assessing duration of clinical and objective response and treatment tolerance, in a large, homogeneous cohort of patients with malignant carcinoid syndrome. Methods, A total of 108 patients with metastatic midgut neuroendocrine tumours were included in this 8-year study. Clinical evaluation was based on a symptom score. Radiological assessment was based on RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumours) criteria. Results, Of the 108 patients, 24% had a sustained symptomatic response. In the remaining patients, loss of symptomatic response with the initial dose was noted within 3-60 months. In 17% of them, symptoms were controlled by just an increase of octreotide LAR dose, whilst the other patients required additional treatment. Overall, in 45.3% of patients, symptoms were well controlled during the study period with only octreotide LAR, and no additional treatment was required. No significant adverse effects were noted. Conclusions, Octreotide LAR treatment provides a sustained symptomatic response in about half of the patients with malignant carcinoid syndrome and contributes to disease stabilization for a longer period than previously described. [source]

    Ustilago maydis, model system for analysis of the molecular basis of fungal pathogenicity

    Christoph W. Basse
    SUMMARY Ustilago maydis, a facultative biotrophic basidiomycete fungus, causes smut disease in maize. A hallmark of this disease is the induction of large plant tumours that are filled with masses of black-pigmented teliospores. During the last 15 years U. maydis has become an important model system to unravel molecular mechanisms of fungal phytopathogenicity. This review highlights recent insights into molecular mechanisms of complex signalling pathways that are involved in the transition from budding to filamentous growth and operate during the pathogenic growth phase. In addition, we describe recent progress in understanding the structural basis of morphogenesis and polar growth in different stages of U. maydis development. Finally, we present an overview of recently identified genes related to pathogenic development and summarize novel molecular and genomic approaches that are powerful tools to explore the genetic base of pathogenicity. Taxonomy: Ustilago maydis (DC) Corda (synonymous with Ustilago zeae Ung.)-Kingdom Eukaryota, Phylum Fungi, Order Basidiomycota, Family Ustilaginomycetes, Genus Ustilago. Host range: Infects aerial parts of corn plants (Zea mays) and its progenitor teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis). Maize smut is distributed throughout the world. Disease symptoms: U. maydis causes chlorotic lesions in infected areas, the formation of anthocyanin pigments, necrosis, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of infected organs. Infection by U. maydis can inhibit development and lead to stunting of infected plants. A few days after infection plant tumours develop in which massive fungal proliferation and the formation of the black-pigmented, diploid teliospores occurs. Under natural conditions tumours predominantly develop on sexual organs (tassels and ears), stems and nodal shoots. Tumours may vary in size from minute pustules to several centimetres in diameter and contain up to 200 billion spores. Useful web site: http://www-genome.wi.mit.edu/annotation/fungi/ustilago_maydis/ [source]

    Usefulness of smears in intra-operative diagnosis of newly described entities of CNS

    NEUROPATHOLOGY, Issue 6 2009
    Winny Varikatt
    The recent edition of World Health Organisation (WHO) Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System has incorporated a substantial number of important changes. It has recognised several new entities, many of which are rare. Intra-operative diagnosis of these tumours can be difficult with the freezing artefact that often cripples brain frozen sections. In many instances intra-operative smears are extremely useful adjuvants in neuropathological diagnosis. In this article, we describe intra-operative smear findings of three of the newly described tumours. Their characteristic cytologic features are illustrated along with differentiating features from the common mimics, together with a general approach to brain smears. The entities we discuss here are papillary glioneuronal tumour, papillary tumour of the pineal region and angiocentric glioma. All three tumours share at least focal pseudo-papillary/vasculocentric architecture. Smears from papillary glioneuronal tumour demonstrated dual population of cells in a neuropil background, whereas papillary tumour of the pineal region and angiocentric glioma comprise a single population of cells. These two tumours can further be differentiated based on their cell morphology and background. [source]

    Epigenetic regulation of the expression of the novel stem cell marker CDCP1 in cancer cells

    J-i Ikeda
    Abstract CDCP1 is a novel stem cell marker that is expressed in several types of cancer. The mechanisms by which CDCP1 expression is regulated, and the clinical implications of this marker, have not been clarified. In this report, we examine the epigenetic regulation of CDCP1 expression in cell lines and clinical samples from patients with breast cancer. Many CpG sequences were localized around the transcription initiation site of CDCP1. These CpG motifs were found to be poorly methylated in cell lines with high levels of CDCP1 expression and heavily methylated in cell lines with low levels of CDCP1 expression. The in vitro methylation of CpG sites decreased CDCP1 promoter activity, and the addition of a demethylating reagent restored activity. In 25 breast cancer samples, an inverse correlation was noted between the CDCP1 expression level and the proportion of methylated to non-methylated CpG sites. Tumours with high-level CDCP1 expression showed higher levels of proliferation, as revealed by immunohistochemical detection of the MIB-1 antigen, than tumours with low-level CDCP1 expression. These findings indicate that the expression of CDCP1 is regulated by methylation of its promoter region in tumours. CDCP1 expression may prove to be useful in the further characterization of cancers. Copyright © 2006 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A Novel In Vitro Model of Canine Malignant Hemangioendothelioma

    D. Kühn
    Introduction and Aim:, Canine malignant haemangioendothelioma is an aggressive neoplasia that affects mostly older dogs of large breeds with a strong predilection for the spleen, liver, heart and skin. The tumour originates in the vascular endothelium and consists of transformed cells forming large and leaky vessel-like structures. Prognosis is poor because surgery and chemotherapy have limited success in prolonging survival times and increasing quality of patients. A new strategy to treat this malignancy could be anti-angiogenic therapy based on the inhibition of proliferation, migration and three-dimensional organization of transformed cells. In order to reduce animal experiments, in vitro -models are required to test the safety and efficacy of anti-angiogenic drugs. So far only few models of angiogenesis are available using mostly human, rodent and bovine cells. Therefore, the aim of our study was to establish an in vitro model of canine haemangioendothelioma. Materials and Methods:, Tumours were collected from dogs during surgery or immediately after euthanasia. Isolation of cells was done from different areas of the tumours and by enzymatic digestion of the tissue. Cells were incubated in culture media with and without endothelial growth factors. Cells were characterized by lectin histochemistry using Dolichos biflorus agglutinin, Ulex europaeus agglutinin and Bandeiraea simplicifolia agglutinin I. Moreover, RT-PCR (polymerase chain reaction) was employed to investigate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its endothelium-specific receptors VEGF-R1 and -R2. Results and Conclusions:, Different populations of cells were isolated and cultured successfully from canine malignant haemangioendothelioma. Cells show characteristics of microvascular endothelial cells of an angiogenic phenotype, i.e. the formation of spheroids and tube-like structures as well as strong labelling for Bandeiraea simplicifolia agglutinin I. Thus, morphological and glycohistochemical results confirm the vascular character of the cells isolated. RT-PCR showed expression of VEGF. However, endothelium-specific VEGF receptors were not expressed. Loss of typical receptors is common in cancer and may correlate with increased tumour dedifferentiation. [source]

    Large-scale genomic instability in colon adenocarcinomas and correlation with patient outcome

    APMIS, Issue 10 2009
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between DNA content in colon adenocarcinomas using high-resolution image cytometry and patient outcome. Tumours from 219 patients operated for colon adenocarcinoma were analysed using high-resolution image cytometry. Proteins involved in cell cycle propulsion (cyclins A, D1, D3 and E) and cell proliferation (c-Myc and non-membranous ,-catenin) have previously been reported in the same cohort and were included in this study. The results were related to disease-free survival and to cancer-specific death. Patients with aneuploid tumours showed shorter relapse-free survival than patients with euploid tumours (univariate log-rank test, p = 0.004 and multivariate Cox regression model p = 0.009, HR 0.51, 95% CI 0.31,0.84). Also the risk of death from cancer was greater in patients with aneuploid tumours (log-rank test, p = 0.006 multivariate Cox regression model p = 0.014, HR 0.47, 95% CI 0.26,0.86). When analysing patients with Dukes stages A and B, nuclear expression of ,-catenin was highly significantly associated with both shorter relapse-free survival (p < 0.005, HR 5.0, 95% CI 1.6,15.5) and cancer-specific death (p = 0.036, HR 6.9, 95% CI 1.1,42.1). DNA content in colon adenocarcinomas measured by image cytometry is an independent predictor of prognosis in our patients operated for colon adenocarcinoma. [source]

    Ultrasonographic characteristics of soft tissue tumours in dogs

    ZHK Loh
    Objective To identify and describe the ultrasonographic features of soft tissue tumours in dogs. Procedure Superficial soft tissue tumours of various histological types, including mast cell tumours (MCTs) and soft tissue sarcomas (STSs), were evaluated. Ultrasound was used to visualise internal characteristics of the tumour, including vascularity. Tumours were categorised according to size, shape, margin definition, tissue plane mobility, echogenicity, echotexture, acoustic shadowing or enhancement and vessel distribution. Objective measurements of intratumoural blood flow included velocities and maximal perfused cross-sectional area (fractional area). Logistic regression models incorporating a variety of data were used in an attempt to predict the histopathological type of tumours. Results,, The logistic regression model defined by the parameters echotexture, margin definition and presence of subcapsular vessels was highly predictive of MCTs (> 73%; P = 0.024). Several other trends, including a larger size for STSs and less vascularity for both MCTs and STSs, were observed, but did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion,, This preliminary study has shown the potential diagnostic value of ultrasound in differentiating soft tissue tumours. However, at present, ultrasound cannot replace biopsy and histopathological evaluation for tumour diagnosis. [source]